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Nicolas Bobadilla (1511 – 23 September 1590) was one of the first Jesuits.
He was born in Palencia, Spain, and was educated in his own country and in France. He fell under the influence of Ignatius of Loyola while studying at the University of Paris,and became one of the first Jesuits.
Bobadilla was an effective preacher, for a time attached to the armies of the Emperor Charles V. He spent most of his long career in Germany and Italy, using his formidable intellectual and rhetorical powers against the spread of Protestantism. He sometimes displeased Ignatius, as when he too strenuously opposed the efforts of Charles V to make peace with the Protestants and was for this reason forced to leave Germany.
He died at Loreto, Italy, in 1590.
Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta; Latin Franciscus Xaverius; Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: Francisco Javier; Portuguese: Francisco Xavier;, venerated as Saint Francis Xavier, was a Navarrese Catholic missionary and saint who was the co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
The Society of Jesus is a religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six companions with the approval of Pope Paul III in 1540. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue.
Pope Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato or Sfondrati, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591.
Pope Gregory XV, born Alessandro Ludovisi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623.
1590 (MDXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. As of the start of 1590, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It began with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and largely ended with the conclusion of the European wars of religion in 1648. Initiated to address the effects of the Protestant Reformation, the Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of apologetic and polemical documents and ecclesiastical configuration as decreed by the Council of Trent. The last of these included the efforts of Imperial Diets of the Holy Roman Empire, exiling/forcibly converting Protestant populations, heresy trials and the Inquisition, anti-corruption efforts, spiritual movements, and the founding of new religious orders. Such policies had long-lasting effects in European history with exiles of Protestants continuing until the 1781 Patent of Toleration, although smaller expulsions took place in the 19th century.
Saint Peter Faber was the first Jesuit priest and theologian, who was also a co-founder of the Society of Jesus, along with Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier. Pope Francis announced his canonization on 17 December 2013.
Alfonso (Alphonsus) Salmerón was a Spanish biblical scholar, a Catholic priest, and one of the first Jesuits.
Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo, was a Portuguese Jesuit priest and one of the co-founders of the Society of Jesus.
Several spellings of his names are in use and some of them can be found in other Wikipedia articles
Juan de Vega y Enríquez, 1st Count of Grajal, 6th Lord of Grajal, Viceroy of Navarre (1542), Viceroy and Captain General of Sicily (1547–1557), presidente del Consejo de Castilla, was an ambassador of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. He first served as ambassador of Charles V at Rome, where he met Ignatius of Loyola. Esteeming him and Ignatius’ religious order, the Jesuits, when Vega was appointed Viceroy of Sicily he brought Jesuits with him. A Jesuit college was opened at Messina; success was marked, and its rules and methods were afterwards copied in other colleges.
Pedro de Ribadeneira S.J. was a Spanish hagiographer, Jesuit priest, companion of Ignatius of Loyola, and a Spanish Golden Age ascetic writer.
Aloysius Bellecius was a Jesuit ascetic author.
Theodorich Canisius was a Jesuit academic.
Karl Josef Rudolph Cornely, was a German Jesuit biblical scholar.
Achille Gagliardi (1537–1607) was a Jesuit ascetic writer and spiritual director in the Ignatian tradition.
In 16th-century Christianity, Protestantism came to the forefront and marked a significant change in the Christian world.
Ignatius of Loyola, venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Basque Catholic priest and theologian, who co-founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General at Paris in 1541. The Jesuit order served the Pope as missionaries, and they were bound by a fourth vow of special obedience to the sovereign pontiff in regard to the missions. They therefore emerged as an important force during the time of the Counter-Reformation.
The Vita Christi, also known as the Speculum vitae Christi is the principal work of Ludolph of Saxony, completed in 1374.