Nicholas Grimald

Last updated

Nicholas Grimald (or Grimoald) (1519–1562) was an English poet and dramatist.

Contents

Life

Marshalsea
Marshalsea.jpg

Nicholas Grimald was born to a modest yeoman family of farmers in 1519–20. His parents are unknown, despite the popular belief that his father was Giovanni Baptista Grimaldi. The poem A funeral song, upon the death of Annes his moother, accounts for his mother's death. Grimald's mother has been speculated to be Agnes Gyrmbold, who dies in 1555. The poem mentions his hardworking father, but focuses upon the fondness that he had for his mother. Grimald saw his parents love and devotion for each other and expressed that in the poem. He was the only boy out of many girls.

Maps found of Huntingdonshire in the 16th century do not show a place that could be Brownshold. What was found was an estate named Leighton Bromswold. This is the closest match to how Grimald describes his home in the poem A funeral song, upon the death of Annes his moother.

Leighton Bromswold a village located in Leighton, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom

Leighton Bromswold is a small village and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England. Leighton lies approximately 10 miles (16 km) west of Huntingdon. Leighton is situated within Huntingdonshire which is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England. The civil parish of which it is part is called Leighton and in 2001 had a population of 224, falling to 210 at the 2011 Census. The parish covers an area of 3,128 acres (1,266 ha).

The Grimald family was seen to be living in Leighton Bromswold for close to four hundred years. Their last name had gone through variations as shown by legal documents kept by the town. Variations include: Grymbaud, Grymbold, Grymbolde, Grimbold, Grimald, Grimbald, and Grymbalde. [1]

There has been no evidence of Grimald ever being married or having children. Some of his contributed verses in Tottle's Songes and Sonnettes refer to two women Grimald my have admired, Carie Day and Mistress Damascene Awdley. These verses show a debate on if marriage has the desired result that is wanted. [2]

Grimald's connection to Nicholas Ridley, bishop of London, brought him under suspicion, and he was imprisoned in the Marshalsea. It is said that he escaped the penalties of heresy by recanting his errors, and was despised accordingly by his Protestant contemporaries. [3]

Marshalsea Former prison in Southwark, London

The Marshalsea (1373–1842) was a notorious prison in Southwark, just south of the River Thames. Although it housed a variety of prisoners, including men accused of crimes at sea and political figures charged with sedition, it became known, in particular, for its incarceration of the poorest of London's debtors. Over half the population of England's prisons in the 18th century were in jail because of debt.

Heresy belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs

Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of such claims or beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things.

The exact date, cause, and location of his death are unknown. Barnabe Googe, in his Eglogs, Epythaphes, and Sonettes(1563), included An Epytaphes on the Death of Nicholas Grimaold, which was written before Googe's departure abroad in 1562. [2] [4]

Barnabe Googe or Goche was a poet and translator, one of the earliest English pastoral poets.

Education and early career

When Nicholas Grimald was fifteen years old, he started showing signs of poetic talent. His mother, who placed an emphasis on education, sent him to continue his education at Cambridge. This separation was hard for Grimald's mother, as he was the only boy in the family.

In 1539–40, Grimald graduated from Christ's College with a B.A.. Grimald travelled to Oxford a year later, when the prebendary of Leighton Bromswold Gilbert Smith, a family friend, was impressed by his work. In his first few years in Oxford, Grimald attended Brasenose College. When Grimald was unable to continue his school work because he lacked his books, his first drama was written. Grimald received encouragement from the Matthew Smith, the president of the school, along with other teachers and students who were eager to participate in the arts. The play was the Latin resurrection play Christus Redivivus. Grimald dedicated his work to Smith. It was written in 1541, but was published two years later in Germany in 1543.

Christs College, Cambridge college of the University of Cambridge

Christ's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college includes the Master, the Fellows of the College, and about 450 undergraduate and 170 graduate students. The college was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God's House. In 1505, the college was granted a new royal charter, was given a substantial endowment by Lady Margaret Beaufort, and changed its name to Christ's College, becoming the twelfth of the Cambridge colleges to be founded in its current form. The college is renowned for educating some of Cambridge's most famous alumni, including Charles Darwin and John Milton.

Oxford City and non-metropolitan district in England

Oxford is a university city in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 155,000. It is 51 miles (82 km) northwest of London, 57 miles (92 km) from Birmingham and 30 miles (48 km) from Reading.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

At twenty-three years old in 1542, Grimald was able to acquire his B.A. at Oxford. This degree allowed his admission into Merton College, where he received his M.A. in 1544. In that same year, Grimald travelled back to Cambridge to get his M.A. at Christ's College. [1] Grimald chose to stay in Oxford after his degrees in 1544. His next work was another Latin tragedy based on the life and death of John the Baptist called Archipropheta in 1548. Grimald was licensed as a lecturer in 1552 by Richard Sampson, this allowed him to preach at Eccles. The next year he was appointed chaplain to Nicholas Ridley, bishop of London. Ridely's high opinion of Grimald was shown when the bishop chose him to deliver a Latin address in April 1553, Oratio ad pontifices. [2]

Involvement with Nicholas Ridley

Nicholas Grimald was appointed chaplain to Nicholas Ridley, bishop of London, in 1552. Previously, in a letter written to Sir John Gates and Sir William Cecil, Ridley praised Grimald for his preferment and commended him for his 'eloquence in both English and Latin' (Matthew; Harrison 13). Ridley's high opinion was later confirmed when the Bishop appointed Grimald to deliver the Latin address in April 1553, at an assembled bishops' meeting on absentee clergy.

The possible apostasy under Mary I put considerable strife on their relationship, and ultimately lead to its demise. Following Ridley's successful recommendation for Grimald to be appointed chantership of St.Paul's Cathedral, Queen Mary acquired the throne. Queen Mary's brutal prosecution of Protestants led to Ridley's imprisonment. While in prison, Ridley wrote to Grimald and potentially sent him Laurentius Valla's De falso credia et ementita Constantini Donatione declmatio, a text denouncing the pope's claim to dominion (13). The correspondence caught the attention of the Catholic authority and consequently led to Grimald's imprisonment at Marshalsea in 1555.(Stephen;Lee 1917).

Grimald's imprisonment was brief, and many speculated the poet's apostate to Catholicism. Originally, Grimald quelled the accusations. In response to rumours of Grimald's collusion with the Catholic Church, Ridley said, 'it will not sink into my head to think that Grimbol would ever play me such a Judas's part' (Matthew;Harrison 13). Ridley later confirmed Grimald's betrayal, and said, in response Grimald's imprisonment and apostate to Catholicism, that 'he (Grimald) escaped not without some becking and bowing (alas) of is knee uno Baal' (13). It is unclear whether or not there was reconciliation prior to Ridley's execution. [2] [5]

Works

Upon arriving at Oxford, Grimald began his first major work; the Latin resurrection and tragicomedy Christus Redivus or The Resurrection of Christ. His motivation for starting the play was to redeem not being able to perform his studies because his books had come late. When proposing the idea of writing a play, Grimald received support from his peers, teachers, and even the schools president. The story of the play consisted of the resurrection of Christ and is thought to have been made for an Easter time performance. It is believed Grimald wrote a companion play later in his life called "Christus nascens", a nativity play made to be performed for Christmas. Christus Redivus was dedicated to the Archdeacon of Peterborough; Gilbert Smith and eventually published in 1543 at Cologne. [2] [1]

It cannot be determined whether Grimald was familiar with George Buchanan's Baptistes (1543), or with Jakob Schöpper's Johannes decollatus vel Ectrachelistes (1546). Grimald provides a purely romantic motive for the catastrophe in the passionate attachment of Herodias to Herod Antipas, and constantly resorts to lyrical methods. As a poet Grimald is memorable as the earliest follower of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey in the production of blank verse. He writes sometimes simply enough, as in the lines on his own childhood addressed to his mother, but in general his style is more artificial, and his metaphors more studied than is the case with the other contributors to the Miscellany. His classical reading shows itself in the comparative terseness and smartness of his verses. [3]

Archipropheta or The Archprophet published in 1548, was a Latin drama that depicted the life of John the Bapist. Grimald submitted the play with his application for a fellowship with the new Dean of Christ Church, Dr. Richard Cox. The application got him a job at the school as "a senior or theologist" where he would do lectures on rhetoric. Archipropheta is one of the first tragedies to be penned by an Englishman. [1]

Grimald's name is attributed to the work Vox Populi, or The People's Complaint, published in 1549. The piece of writing criticised Church officials for failing to carry out their jobs correctly [5] According to Merrill, the work revolves around "those rectors, vicars, archdeacons, deans, prebendaries, etc., who spend their lives far from their flocks, or do not perform their sacred duties." [1]

He translated Cicero's De Officiis as Marcus Tullius Ciceroes thre bokes of duties (1556); a Latin paraphrase of Virgil's Georgics (printed 1591) is attributed to him, but most of the works assigned to him by John Bale are lost. Two Latin tragedies are extant; Archipropheta sive Johannes Baptista, printed at Cologne in 1548, probably performed at Oxford the year before, and Christus redivivus (Cologne, 1543), edited by JM Hart (for the Modern Language Association of America, 1886, separately issued 1899). [3]

Grimald contributed forty poems to the original edition (June 1557) of Songes and Sonettes (commonly known as Tottel's Miscellany). Two of Grimald's poems printed in Miscellany, The Death of Zoroas and Marcus Tullius Ciceroes Death, are regarded as some of the first examples of English blank verse ever published. It is also possible that Grimald was an editor of the first edition of Miscellany. It is speculated that most of Grimald's work was removed from the second edition due to his recantation of Protestantism. Tottel feared that Grimald's recantation would cause book sales to decline, and thus decided to omit many of Grimald's original works from the updated version. All of Grimald's more personal works were left out of the second edition, and only his initials were used to signify his authorship of the nine remaining poems. [2]

Bibliography

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Grimald & Merrill 1925 [ page needed ].
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Brennan 2004.
  3. 1 2 3 Chisholm 1911, p. 598.
  4. Merrill 1926, pp. 483–485.
  5. 1 2 Lee 1886, pp. 249–250.

Related Research Articles

Thomas Wyatt (poet) English poet and diplomat (1503-1542)

Sir Thomas Wyatt was a 16th-century English politician, ambassador, and lyric poet credited with introducing the sonnet to English literature. He was born at Allington Castle near Maidstone in Kent, though the family was originally from Yorkshire. His family adopted the Lancastrian side in the Wars of Roses. His mother was Anne Skinner, and his father Henry had been a Privy Councillor of Henry VII and remained a trusted adviser when Henry VIII ascended the throne in 1509. Thomas followed his father to court after his education at St John's College, Cambridge. Entering the King's service, he was entrusted with many important diplomatic missions. In public life his principal patron was Thomas Cromwell, after whose death he was recalled from abroad and imprisoned (1541). Though subsequently acquitted and released, shortly thereafter he died. His poems were circulated at court and may have been published anonymously in the anthology The Court of Venus during his lifetime, but were not published under his name until after his death; the first major book to feature and attribute his verse was Tottel's Miscellany (1557), printed 15 years after his death.

Hugh Latimer British bishop

Hugh Latimer was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Bishop of Worcester before the Reformation, and later Church of England chaplain to King Edward VI. In 1555 under the Catholic Queen Mary he was burned at the stake, becoming one of the three Oxford Martyrs of Anglicanism.

Nicholas Ridley (martyr) Bishop of London; Anglican Saint

Nicholas Ridley was an English Bishop of London. Ridley was burned at the stake as one of the Oxford Martyrs during the Marian Persecutions for his teachings and his support of Lady Jane Grey. He is remembered with a commemoration in the calendar of saints in some parts of the Anglican Communion on 16 October.

Thomas Churchyard, English author, was born at Shrewsbury, the son of a farmer.

Margaret Lee (lady-in-waiting) English lady in waiting

Lady Margaret Lee was a sister of the poet Thomas Wyatt and a friend of Queen Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII of England. Historians have speculated that she was present during Boleyn's execution.

Songes and Sonettes, usually called Tottel's Miscellany, was the first printed anthology of English poetry. First published by Richard Tottel in 1557 in London, it ran to many editions in the sixteenth century.

Pascha Nostrum is a hymn sometimes used by Christians during Easter season. The title is Latin for "Our Passover," and the text consists of the words of several verses of Scripture: 1 Corinthians 5:7–8, Romans 6:9–11, and 1 Corinthians 15:20–22.

Thomas Vaux, 2nd Baron Vaux of Harrowden English poet and Baron

Thomas Vaux, 2nd Baron Vaux of Harrowden KB, English poet, was the eldest son of Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux and his second wife, Anne Green, daughter of Sir Thomas Green, Lord of Nortons Green, and Joan Fogge. He was educated at Cambridge University. His mother was the maternal aunt of queen consort Catherine Parr, while his wife, Elizabeth Cheney, was a first cousin of the sixth and final wife of King Henry VIII.

Richard Tottel was an English publisher and influential member of the legal community. He ran his business from a shop located at Temple Bar on Fleet Street in London. The majority of his printing was centered on legal documents, but he is most known for a collection he edited and published in 1557 called Songes and Sonnettes.

<i>Christus Victor</i>

Christus Victor is a book by Gustaf Aulén published in 1931, presenting a study of theories of atonement in Christianity. Aulén reinterpreted the classic ransom theory of atonement, which says that Christ's death is a ransom to the powers of evil, which had held humankind in their dominion. It is a model of the atonement that is dated to the Church Fathers, and it was the dominant theory of atonement for a thousand years, until Anselm of Canterbury supplanted it in the West with his satisfaction theory of atonement.

Messiah (1712) is a poem by Alexander Pope which Samuel Johnson translated into Latin in December 1728. This was the first poem of Johnson's to be published, and consists of 119 lines written in Latin verse. The whole translation was completed in two days and was submitted to Pope for appraisal.

William Strode (poet) English poet

William Strode was an English poet, Doctor of Divinity and Public Orator of Oxford University, one of the Worthies of Devon of John Prince (d.1723).

Marcantonio Flaminio Marcantonio Flaminio

Marcantonio Flaminio, also known as Marcus Antonius Flaminius, was an Italian humanist poet, known for his Neo-Latin works. During his life, he toured the courts and literary centers of Italy. His editing of the popular devotional work, the "Beneficio di Cristo" illustrated a hope that the Catholic church would move closer to some of the thinking of the protestant reformers.

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.

William Chedsey (1510?-1574?) was an English Roman Catholic and academic, archdeacon of Middlesex in 1556 and President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford in 1558.

GlocesterRidley (1702–1774) was an English miscellaneous writer.

James Calfhill (1530?–1570) was an Anglican clergyman, academic and controversialist, who died as Archdeacon of Colchester and Bishop-designate of Worcester.

Miscellany publishing term; collection of various pieces of writing by different authors

A miscellany is a collection of various pieces of writing by different authors. Meaning a mixture, medley, or assortment, a miscellany can include pieces on many subjects and in a variety of different forms. In contrast to anthologies, whose aim is to give a selective and canonical view of literature, miscellanies were produced for the entertainment of a contemporary audience and so instead emphasise collectiveness and popularity. Laura Mandell and Rita Raley state:

This last distinction is quite often visible in the basic categorical differences between anthologies on the one hand, and all other types of collections on the other, for it is in the one that we read poems of excellence, the "best of English poetry," and it is in the other that we read poems of interest. Out of the differences between a principle of selection and a principle of collection, then, comes a difference in aesthetic value, which is precisely what is at issue in the debates over the "proper" material for inclusion into the canon.

References

Attribution