|Born|| 18 April 1614|
|Died||25 March 1685 (aged 70)|
|Known for||Painter of Miniatures to Louis XIV|
Nicolas Robert (18 April 1614 – 25 March 1685) was a French miniaturist and engraver. He was born in Langres and died in Paris.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. In the strictest definition, the term refers only to manuscripts decorated with either gold or silver; but in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term refers to any decorated or illustrated manuscript from Western traditions. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted. Islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works.
Langres is a commune in northeastern France. It is a subprefecture of the department of Haute-Marne, in the region of Grand Est.
In 1664 he was appointed as "peintre ordinaire de Sa Majesté pur la miniature" (Painter of Miniatures) to Louis XIV.
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power.
Blunt highlights Robert's main works as follows:
The Guirlande de Julie is a unique French manuscript of sixty-one madrigaux, illustrated with painted flowers, and composed by several poets habitués of the Hôtel de Rambouillet for Julie d'Angennes and given to her on her name day in May 1641. The 1641 manuscript was bought by the Bibliothèque nationale de France in 1989 and is now kept in the Département des Manuscrits of the BnF.
Charles de Sainte-Maure, duc de Montausier was a French military man and, from 1668 to 1680, the governor of the dauphin, the eldest son and heir of Louis XIV, King of France.
Gaston, Duke of Orléans, was the third son of King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de' Medici. As a son of the king, he was born a Fils de France. He later acquired the title Duke of Orléans, by which he was generally known during his adulthood. As the eldest surviving brother of King Louis XIII, he was known at court by the traditional honorific Monsieur.
Other works include:
Robert worked with the following people:
Robert Morison was a Scottish botanist and taxonomist. A forerunner of John Ray, he elucidated and developed the first systematic classification of plants.
Denis Dodart was a French physician, naturalist and botanist, who was born in 1634 in Paris and died on 5 November 1707 in the same city.
Abraham Bosse was a French artist, mainly as a printmaker in etching, but also in watercolour.
Pierre-Joseph Redouté, was a painter and botanist from Belgium, known for his watercolours of roses, lilies and other flowers at Malmaison, many of which were published as large, color stipple engravings. He was nicknamed "the Raphael of flowers" and has been called the greatest botanical illustrator of all time.
Philippe, Duke of Orléans was the younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria. His older brother was the famous "Sun King", Louis XIV. Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston in 1660. In 1661, Philippe also received the dukedoms of Valois and Chartres. Following Philippe's victory in battle in 1671, Louis XIV added the dukedom of Nemours, the marquisates of Coucy and Folembray, and the countships of Dourdan and Romorantin. During the reign of his brother he was known simply as Monsieur, the traditional style at the court of France for the younger brother of the king.
Duke of Nemours was a title in the Peerage of France. The name refers to Nemours in the Île-de-France region of north-central France.
Pierre-Antoine Poiteau was a French botanist, gardener and botanical artist.
Codex canadensis is a handwritten and hand-drawn document from c. 1700 that depicts the wildlife and native peoples of Canada. It contains 180 drawings of First Nations' people, plants, mammals, birds and fish of the New World. Although the manuscript was neither signed nor dated, scholars believe its most likely author was Louis Nicolas, a French Jesuit. It is currently kept at the Gilcrease Museum, in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Claude Aubriet was a French illustrator and botanical artist.
Priscilla Susan Bury, born Falkner, was an English botanist and illustrator.
Pancrace Bessa was a French natural history artist, best known for his botanical illustrations. Bessa was a student of the great engraver Gerard van Spaendonck and worked alongside Pierre-Joseph Redouté, some of whose influence shows in Bessa's detailed and delicate treatment of his subjects. He was a regular exhibitor at the Paris Salons between 1806 and 1831.
Étienne Pierre Ventenat was a French botanist born in Limoges. He was the brother of naturalist Louis Ventenat (1765–1794).
The French landscape garden is a style of garden inspired by idealized romantic landscapes and the paintings of Hubert Robert, Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin, European ideas about Chinese gardens, and the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The style originated in England, as the "English landscape garden", in the early 18th century and spread to France, where, in the late 18th and early 19th century, it gradually replaced the symmetrical French formal garden.
Louis Antoine de Pardaillan, marquis of Antin, Gondrin and Montespan (1701), then 1st Duke of Antin (1711) was a French nobleman. He was painted by Rigaud.
Eulophila pulchra, commonly known as the gonzo orchid, is a plant in the orchid family and is native to areas from Tanzania and Mozambique to the Western Pacific Ocean. It is a terrestrial orchid with crowded, above-ground pseudobulbs, two or three leaves and pale yellowish green flowers with dull purple or red markings. It grows in plant litter in rainforests.
Jean Gaston d'Orléans, petit-fils de France, Duke of Valois was a French Prince and Grandson of France. He was a member of the House of Orléans.
Anne Julie de Melun was a French noblewoman and mother of Charles de Rohan, the famous general of Louis XV as well as Madame de Marsan. She died of smallpox in her twenties.
Charlotte de Lorraine-Armagnac was a Princess of Lorraine by birth and daughter of Louis, Count of Armagnac. She was known as Mademoiselle d'Armagnac and died unmarried.
Daniel Rabel was a Renaissance French painter, engraver, miniaturist, botanist and natural history illustrator. He was the son of Jean Rabel (1545–1603) who was official artist at the court of Henri III. Rabel was first employed as a portrait painter by Marie de Medicis, the second wife of Henry IV of France. He served as Engineer in Ordinary for the King for the provinces of Brie and Champagne.
Marie-Anne-Hyacinthe Horthemels was a French engraver, wife of the King's engraver Nicolas-Henri Tardieu.
The Parc floral de Paris is a public park and botanical garden located within the Bois de Vincennes in the 12th arrondissement of Paris. Created in 1969, the park remains the legacy of the international horticultural exposition, which was organised under the auspices of the International Association of Horticultural Producers (AIPH) and recognised by the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE). It is one of four botanical gardens in Paris, and is the site of major annual flower shows. The nearest metro station to the park is Chateau-de-Vincennes.