Nicolaus von Tüngen (Polish Mikołaj Tungen; German : Nikolaus von Tüngen; died 14 February 1489 in Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warmiński)) was bishop of Warmia from 1467 until 1489.
Nicolaus von Tüngen came from a Teutonic Prussian burgher family in Tüngen (Bogatyńskie) near Wormditt (Orneta) in Ermland (Warmia). He worked in the Roman Curia for many years as a secretary, and accumulated many church offices, including in 1459 becoming Canon of Breslau (Wrocław) and Canon of Warmia. After the death of Warmia's Bishop Paul von Legendorf, Tüngen was chosen as his successor by the Warmia diocese chapter on 10 August 1467. Tüngen received the pope's agreement for his nomination on 4 November 1468 and obtained the bishop's insignia in Rome.
The king of Poland, Casimir IV, did not accept the choice of Tüngen as bishop. He instead nominated Wincenty Kiełbasa, the bishop of Chełmno (Kulm) and administrator of the Poznań diocese, as the new bishop of Warmia. The Warmia chapter accepted the king's will, entrusting Kiełbasa with temporary administration of the Warmia diocese at Malbork (Marienburg) Sejmik) on 1 December 1467. Tüngen did not withdraw his candidacy, however, and soon the papal provision strengthened Tüngen's position. In September 1469, Kiełbasa withdrew his claim to the Warmia bishopric. One year later, Tüngen unofficially arrived in Warmia.
Kiełbasa's resignation did not mean the resignation of the Polish king from his aim of putting his own candidate in office. Casimir IV intervened with the pope, Paul II, who ordered Tüngen to resign the Warmia bishopric (his successor, Pope Sixtus IV, nominated Tüngen bishop of Kammin). The new candidate nominated for the post in 1471 was Andrzej Oporowski, archdeacon of Gniezno and a royal secretary.
Oporowski's nomination did not change the situation in Warmia. The nominee was not allowed to assume his office because of protests from the clergy and people of Warmia and the Prussian Estates. At the same time, Nicolaus of Tüngen began to strive to obtain his desired bishopric. Supported by the Teutonic Knights, Tüngen gained control of most of Warmia's castles and towns. He also gained the support of the king of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus, then in conflict with Poland, entrusting him with protecting the bishopric.
In 1478, Polish forces intervened militarily in Warmia and regained control of most of it. This armed conflict is known as the War of the Priests.
In 1479, an agreement reached between Casimir II and Matthias Corvinus further weakened Tüngen's position. Peace negotiations to end the conflict took place in Piotrków Trybunalski. The agreement reached on 15 July 1479 affirmed that Warmia was under the Polish king's sovereignty and required the bishops of Warmia to swear an oath of fealty to him. The Warmia chapter was also required to elect as bishop a person to the liking of the king. As part of the agreement, Tüngen was allowed to remain Bishop of Warmia, after he paid homage to the king, entitling him to be a senator of Poland, like other Polish bishops.
After 1479, bishop Tüngen made efforts to rebuild the diocese after the devastations caused by the war. Tüngen funded the altar in St. George's church in Königsberg, and in his will he gave large sums to the monasteries and churches of the diocese.
Tüngen made efforts in Rome to nominate Lucas Watzenrode as coadjutor bishop. These efforts were interrupted by his death, yet his will was respected when the diocese chapter selected Watzenrode as the next bishop, taking advantage of the fact that the 1479 agreement did not specify which candidate was to be chosen.
Warmia is a historical region in northern Poland.
Year 1489 (MCDLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
The Peace of Thorn of 1466 was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
Braniewo, is a town in northern Poland, in Warmia, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004). It is the capital of Braniewo County.
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship or Warmia-Masuria Province or Warmia-Mazury Province is a voivodeship (province) in northeastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Olsztyn. The voivodeship has an area of 24,192 km2 (9,341 sq mi) and a population of 1,427,091.
Lucas Watzenrode was the maternal grandfather of Nicolaus Copernicus.
Lucas Watzenrode the Younger was Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermeland) and patron to his nephew, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
The War of the Priests was a conflict in the Polish province of Warmia between the King of Poland Casimir IV and Nicolaus von Tüngen, the new bishop of Warmia chosen – without the king's approval – by the Warmian chapter. The latter was supported by the Teutonic Knights, by this point vassals of Poland, who were seeking a revision of the recently signed Second Peace of Toruń.
Bogatyńskie is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Orneta, within Lidzbark County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. It lies approximately 4 kilometres (2 mi) south-west of Orneta, 33 km (21 mi) west of Lidzbark Warmiński, and 45 km (28 mi) north-west of the regional capital Olsztyn.
Mauritius Ferber was a member of the patrician Ferber family. As Roman Catholic Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland), he prevented most towns in his diocese from converting to Protestantism while the surrounding hitherto Catholic State of the Teutonic Order was transformed into the Duchy of Prussia and became the first state to adopt Lutheranism.
Johann von Tiefen was the 35th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1489 to 1497.
Martin Truchseß von Wetzhausen zu Dachsbach was the 34th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1477 to 1489.
Heinrich Reffle von Richtenberg was the 33rd Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1470 to 1477.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Warmia is a Metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Poland.
The Thirteen Years' War, also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–1466 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
Cardinal Frederick Jagiellon was a Polish prince, Archbishop of Gniezno, Bishop of Kraków, and Primate of Poland. He was the sixth son and ninth child of Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his wife Elizabeth of Austria, known as 'Matka Jagiellonow'.
Anselm of Meissen was a priest of the Teutonic Order and the first actual Bishop of Warmia.
The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia was a semi-independent ecclesiastical state, ruled by the incumbent ordinary of the Ermland/Warmia see and comprising one third of the then diocesan area. The other two thirds of the diocese were under the secular rule of Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. The Ermland/Warmia see was a Prussian diocese under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Riga that was a protectorate of Teutonic Prussia (1243–1466) and a protectorate by treaty of Poland—later part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Peace of Thorn (1466–1772).
Jerzy Sikorski is a Polish historian, Copernicologist, medievalist, museologist, author, publisher, journalist, and encyclopedist, who writes and publishes primarily in Polish. He is a resident of Olsztyn, Poland.
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|Catholic Church titles|
Paul von Legendorf
| Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland) |
Ludwig Graf von Eberstein-Naugard
| Prince-Bishop of Cammin (Kamień) |