**Nicoteles of Cyrene** (Greek : Νικοτέλης ὁ Κυρηναῖος) (c. 250 BCE) was a Greek mathematician from Cyrene.

He is mentioned in the preface to Book IV of the *Conics* of Apollonius, as criticising Conon concerning the maximum number of points with which a conic section can meet another conic section. Apollonius states that Nicoteles claimed that the case in which a conic section meets opposite sections could be solved, but had not demonstrated how.

It is possible that Nicoteles could be a misspelling of Nicomedes.

In classical mathematics, **analytic geometry**, also known as **coordinate geometry** or **Cartesian geometry**, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system. This contrasts with synthetic geometry.

**Euclid**, sometimes called **Euclid of Alexandria** to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I. His *Elements* is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the *Elements*, Euclid deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory, and mathematical rigour.

In Greek mythology, **Euphemus** was counted among the Calydonian hunters and the Argonauts, and was connected with the legend of the foundation of Cyrene.

In Greek mythology, **Cyrene** or **Kyrene**, was a Thessalian princess, and later, the queen and ruler of the North African city of Cyrene.

**Conon of Samos** was a Greek astronomer and mathematician. He is primarily remembered for naming the constellation Coma Berenices.

**Apollonius of Perga** was an Ancient Greek geometer and astronomer known for his work on conic sections. Beginning from the contributions of Euclid and Archimedes on the topic, he brought them to the state prior to the invention of analytic geometry. His definitions of the terms ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola are the ones in use today.

**Pure mathematics** is the study of mathematical concepts independently of any application outside mathematics. These concepts may originate in real-world concerns, and the results obtained may later turn out to be useful for practical applications, but pure mathematicians are not primarily motivated by such applications. Instead, the appeal is attributed to the intellectual challenge and aesthetic beauty of working out the logical consequences of basic principles.

In geometry, the **Dandelin spheres** are one or two spheres that are tangent both to a plane and to a cone that intersects the plane. The intersection of the cone and the plane is a conic section, and the point at which either sphere touches the plane is a focus of the conic section, so the Dandelin spheres are also sometimes called **focal spheres**.

**Greek mathematics** refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Archaic through the Hellenistic and Roman periods, mostly extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy to North Africa but were united by Greek culture and the Greek language. The word "mathematics" itself derives from the Ancient Greek: μάθημα, romanized: *máthēma*Attic Greek: [má.tʰɛː.ma]Koine Greek: [ˈma.θi.ma], meaning "subject of instruction". The study of mathematics for its own sake and the use of generalized mathematical theories and proofs is an important difference between Greek mathematics and those of preceding civilizations.

**Diocles** was a Greek mathematician and geometer.

**Menaechmus** was an ancient Greek mathematician, geometer and philosopher born in Alopeconnesus or Prokonnesos in the Thracian Chersonese, who was known for his friendship with the renowned philosopher Plato and for his apparent discovery of conic sections and his solution to the then-long-standing problem of doubling the cube using the parabola and hyperbola.

**Lake Tritonis**, was a large body of fresh water in northern Africa that was described in many ancient texts. Classical-era Greek writers placed the lake in what today is southern Tunisia. In details of the late myths and personal observations related by these historians, the lake was said to be named after Triton. According to Herodotus it contained two islands, Phla, which the Lacedaemonians were to have colonized, according to an oracle, and Mene.

The * Argonautica* is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the

**Perseus** was an ancient Greek geometer, who invented the concept of spiric sections, in analogy to the conic sections studied by Apollonius of Perga.

**Eutocius of Ascalon** was a Greek mathematician who wrote commentaries on several Archimedean treatises and on the Apollonian *Conics*.

**Serenus of Antinoöpolis** was a Greek mathematician from the Late Antique Thebaid in Roman Egypt.

**Attalus of Rhodes** was an ancient Greek grammarian, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Rhodes in the 2nd century BC, and was a contemporary of Hipparchus. He wrote a commentary on the *Phaenomena* of Aratus. Although this work is lost, Hipparchus cites him in his *Commentary on the Phaenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus*. Attalus sought to defend both Aratus and Eudoxus against criticisms from contemporary astronomers and mathematicians.

In mathematics, a **conic section** is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane. The three types of conic section are the hyperbola, the parabola, and the ellipse; the circle is a special case of the ellipse, though historically it was sometimes called a fourth type. The ancient Greek mathematicians studied conic sections, culminating around 200 BC with Apollonius of Perga's systematic work on their properties.

**Philonides** of Laodicea in Syria, was an Epicurean philosopher and mathematician who lived in the Seleucid court during the reigns of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Demetrius I Soter.

**Robert Catesby Taliaferro** (1907–1989) was an American mathematician, science historian, classical philologist, philosopher, and translator of ancient Greek and Latin works into English. An Episcopalian from an old Virginia family, he taught in the mathematics department of the University of Notre Dame. He is cited as R. Catesby Taliaferro or R. C. Taliaferro.

- Fried, M., Unguru, S.,
*Apollonius of Perga's Conica: Text, Context, Subtext*, Pages 120, 416–417. BRILL. (2001). ISBN 90-04-11977-9 - Heath, T.,
*The Works of Archimedes*, Pages 189–190. (1897). ISBN 0-486-42084-1 - Fuentes González, P. P., Nicotélès de Cyrène, in R. Goulet (ed.),
*Dictionnaire des Philosophes Antiques,*vol. IV, Paris, CNRS, 2005, p. 702-703. ISBN 2-271-06386-8

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