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The Nidec Copal Corporation (日本電産コパル株式会社, Nihon Densan Koparu Kabushiki-gaisha), or Copal, is a Japanese manufacturer of optical, electronic and mechanical equipment, primarily for the photographic industry. It has been a subsidiary of Nidec Corporation since 1998, and was formerly known as the Copal Corporation. The company began operation in 1946, with small-scale production of photographic shutters; these are still one of the company's best-known products.
In the 1960s the company began producing the well-known Copal Square vertically travelling metal blade focal plane shutter, which was very successful and was used in cameras by many prominent manufacturers.
The Copal Square-S, for example used in the Konica T3s (1973-1978)and the Nikkormat FT, is very reliable. It works over a wide temperature range. The electronically controlled Copal Square E (1968) was used in the Yashica TL Electro X, the Canon EF, the Nikkormat EL. For Minolta XE and the Leica R3 the Copal-Leitz Shutter CLS was developed in 1972. For the professional Nikon F4 built 1988 until 1996 the Copal Square was developed and reached 1/8000 s and 1/250 s with flash.
In 2020 Nidec Copal has round about 6,450 employeesand manufactures devices, that are used in automobiles, optical products and Tablets beside shutters for digital cameras.
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured. With twin lens reflex and rangefinder cameras, the viewed image could be significantly different from the final image. When the shutter button is pressed on most SLRs, the mirror flips out of the light path, allowing light to pass through to the light receptor and the image to be captured.
In camera design, a focal-plane shutter (FPS) is a type of photographic shutter that is positioned immediately in front of the focal plane of the camera, that is, right in front of the photographic film or image sensor.
Minolta Co., Ltd. was a Japanese manufacturer of cameras, camera accessories, photocopiers, fax machines, and laser printers. Minolta Co., Ltd., which is also known simply as Minolta, was founded in Osaka, Japan, in 1928 as Nichi-Doku Shashinki Shōten. It made the first integrated autofocus 35 mm SLR camera system. In 1931, the company adopted its final name, an acronym for "Mechanism, Instruments, Optics, and Lenses by Tashima". In 1933, the brand name first appeared on a camera, a copy of the Plaubel Makina simply called "Minolta".
Konica was a Japanese manufacturer of, among other products, film, film cameras, camera accessories, photographic and photo-processing equipment, photocopiers, fax machines and laser printers. The company merged with Japanese peer Minolta in 2003, with the new company named Konica Minolta.
Mamiya Digital Imaging Co., Ltd. is a Japanese company that manufactures high-end cameras and other related photographic and optical equipment. With headquarters in Tokyo, it has two manufacturing plants and a workforce of over 200 people. The company was founded in May 1940 by camera designer Seiichi Mamiya and financial backer Tsunejiro Sugawara.
The Nikon FM is a mechanically operated, interchangeable lens, 35 mm film, single-lens reflex (SLR) camera. It was manufactured in Japan between 1977 and 1982 by Nippon Kogaku K. K..
Cosina Co., Ltd. is a manufacturer of high-end optical glass, optical precision equipment, cameras, video and electronic related equipment, based in Nakano, Nagano Prefecture, Japan.
A digital single-lens reflex camera is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor.
Bronica also Zenza Bronica was a Japanese manufacturer of classic medium-format roll film cameras and photographic equipment based in Tokyo, Japan. Their single-lens reflex (SLR) system-cameras competed with Pentax, Hasselblad, Mamiya and others in the medium-format camera market.
Nikkormat was a brand of cameras produced by the Japanese optics company Nippon Kogaku K. K., as a consumer version of the professional Nikon brand. Nikkormat cameras, produced from 1965 until 1978, were simpler and more affordable than Nikon-branded cameras, but accepted the same lenses as the Nikon F series cameras.
The Konica FT-1 was the last SLR to be built both under the Konica name and by Konica themselves. The FT-1 was introduced in 1983 as an improvement on the earlier FS-1.
Yashica was a Japanese manufacturer of cameras, originally active from 1949 until 2005 when its then-owner, Kyocera, ceased production.
The Nikkorex nameplate was used for a series of 35 mm film, single-lens reflex cameras sold by Japanese optical manufacturer Nippon Kogaku K.K., as well as a series movie cameras and movie projectors. The models, made by other companies, were designed and marketed as low-cost, feature-reduced equipment for the consumer market.
The Konica F was the first 35 mm SLR camera produced by Konishiroku, released in February 1960.
The Konica Hexar RF is a 35 mm rangefinder camera which was sold by Konica. It was introduced to the market on 13 October 1999. and subsequently discontinued some time before the end of 2003. The camera used the "Bayonet Konica KM-mount", a copy of the Leica M-mount, thus sharing interchangeable lenses with those designed for Leica cameras and others compatible with them. The Hexar RF has a combined rangefinder/viewfinder modeled on that of Leica cameras, a similar body shape and size - and so is similar to Leica M-mount cameras in many aspects of operation.
The Auto-Reflex and Autoreflex is a series of 35mm SLR cameras made by Konica from 1965 to 1988. All these models have the Konica AR bayonet.
The Konica AR camera lens mount was introduced in 1965 with the Konica Autoreflex, together with a range of lenses. It features a comparably short flange focal distance of 40.50 mm for a 35 mm film SLR camera. Its diameter is 47 mm. The focus of the Konica Hexanon lenses were from 21 mm to 1000 mm; at the start one zoom 47-100mm f3.5 Hexanon AR-H was offered. Konica produced cameras for Konica AR bayonet until 1988.
A lens board or lensboard is a photographic part used for securing a lens to the front standard of a large format view camera. The lens board itself is usually flat, square, and made of metal, wood, or plastic. The lens board will have a hole of various diameters drilled dead center on the board. A lens board typically varies between 1 and 4 millimeters in thickness. The overall size and shape of the lens board depends on the brand of camera and film format used. Some cameras will use 2 to 4 screws to secure the lens board to the front standard of the view camera, most commonly however, the lens board will be secured by one or more locking levers or tabs to allow tool-less removal of the lens board. The rear surface of a lens board is usually painted matte black to keep light entering the camera through the lens during exposure from reflecting off the surface and interfering with the projected image.
The Konica FP-1, introduced in 1981 and discontinued in 1983, was a 35mm SLR camera with TTL metering and a large range of exchangeable optics.
The Konica FC-1 was introduced in 1980 by Konica, one year after the FS-1, but does not have the integrated winder. It was manufactured until 1983. Both models were only available in a black finish. With top covers made from black plastic cast Konica had good experiences since the Autoreflex TC in the mid of the 70s.