The neutrality of this article is disputed .(July 2021)
|Born||January 28, 1915|
|Died||November 2, 2009 94) (aged|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Notable works||Life and Death in Shanghai|
Nien Cheng or Zheng Nian (January 28, 1915 – November 2, 2009) is the pen name of Yao Nien-Yuan  (Chinese :姚念媛; pinyin :Yáo Niànyuán). She was a Chinese author who recounted her harrowing experiences during the Cultural Revolution in her memoir Life and Death in Shanghai .   
Cheng was born into a rich landowning family in Beijing.  She studied at Yenching University and later went to London to obtain a master's degree at the London School of Economics. She returned to China after graduation.
During her time in London, Cheng also met her husband Kang-chi Cheng and converted to Christianity. Upon their return to China, Kang-chi Cheng joined the Foreign Affairs ministry of the Nationalist government. The couple lived in Australia briefly, setting up an embassy there,  and eventually moved to Shanghai. After the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949, Kang-chi Cheng served at Shell's office in Shanghai until his death from cancer in 1957. Nien Cheng then joined the company as an adviser.  The couple had one daughter named Meiping,  but she died under uncertain circumstances when her mother was in prison. 
In 1966, Cheng was targeted by Red Guards and accused of being a British spy, as she was both Western-educated and the widow of the former manager of a foreign firm in Shanghai. 
Cheng's book documents her account of her subsequent confinement, which lasted for more than six years. According to her book, Cheng managed to endure the tortures and abuses inflicted by the interrogators and never made any false confessions or perjuries. Cheng used Chinese Communist Party founder Chairman Mao Zedong's teachings successfully against her interrogators, frequently turning the tide of the struggle sessions against them. Although the living conditions at the detention house were inhumanly squalid, Cheng still tried to maintain her dignity and keep her appearance decent as much as possible. In 1973, when offered parole on the basis that her attitude had shown improvement, Cheng resisted leaving the detention house without first receiving official acknowledgment from her captors that she had been unjustly detained.
Upon her release, Cheng was relocated from her spacious home to two bedrooms on the second floor of a two-story building. Cheng continued her life under constant surveillance, including spying by the family on the first floor. When released from jail, Cheng was told that her daughter Meiping Cheng (Chinese :郑梅萍; pinyin :Zhèng Méipíng) had committed suicide. After Cheng conducted a discreet investigation, she found that this scenario was impossible, and she came to believe that Meiping had been murdered by Maoists after she refused to denounce her mother. The alleged killer of Meiping, a rebel worker named Hu Yongnian, was arrested and given a suspended death sentence by Shanghai authorities in 1980, but he was eventually paroled in 1995. 
Cheng lived in China until 1980. Using funds that her husband had placed in overseas bank accounts, she first emigrated to Canada and later to Washington, D.C., where she wrote the autobiography. Cheng never returned to China. She stated that the main reason she remained in her self-imposed exile was that she could not bear the constant reminder of her dead daughter at the sight of other young Chinese women. Meanwhile, Cheng also suspected that she was still a constant target of surveillance by the Chinese government.  In an interview conducted in 1998,  Cheng said she would never return to China until the portrait of Chairman Mao was removed from the gate of Tiananmen Square.
Cheng was a longtime friend of U.S. Ambassador to China Nelson T. Johnson and his wife Jane Augusta Washington Thornton Beck Johnson. After moving to Washington, D.C., Cheng traveled extensively and was a frequent speaker on the lecture circuit. She was also a close friend of Baroness Van Aerssen (Suzanne Hiltermann-Souloumiac), wife of the Dutch Consul General in Hong Kong. Nien and Suzanne exchanged several letters on Life and Death in Shanghai. Canadian singer Corey Hart recorded an instrumental song based on her memoir in his 1990 album Bang!
Cheng died of renal failure in Washington, D.C. on November 2, 2009. 
Life and Death in Shanghai is an autobiography published in November 1987 by Yao Nien-Yuan under the pen name Nien Cheng. Written in exile in the United States, it tells the story of Cheng's arrest during the first days of the Cultural Revolution, her more than six years' confinement, release, persecution, efforts to leave China, and early life in exile.
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Events in the year 1915 in China.
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