Niepokalanów

Last updated
Basilica of St Mary Immaculate (Shrine of St Maximilian Kolbe) in Niepokalanow Niepokalanow basilica fc04.jpg
Basilica of St Mary Immaculate (Shrine of St Maximilian Kolbe) in Niepokalanów

Niepokalanów monastery (so called City of the Immaculate Mother of God) is a Roman Catholic religious community in Teresin (42 km to the west from Warsaw), Poland founded in 1927 by Friar Minor Conventual Friar Maximilian Kolbe, who was later canonized as a saint-martyr of the Catholic Church. [1]

Contents

Beginnings of the monastery

Radio Niepokalanow house Radio Niepokalanow fc01.jpg
Radio Niepokalanów house
Interior of Museum of St Maximilian Maxymil muzeum fc19.jpg
Interior of Museum of St Maximilian

In 1927 Prince Jan Drucki-Lubecki offered Fr. Maximilian Kolbe a convenient ground near Warsaw for building a new monastery, later called Niepokalanów. In autumn of the same year the first wooden barracks were built and a consecration of the new monastery took place on 7 December 1927.

The facility served as a home for the Conventual brothers, a minor seminary and a volunteer fire department. It was also a centre for charitable ministry and evangelization through the radio programmes and the distribution of printed materials. In 1930 Father Kolbe founded a similar community in Nagasaki (Japan), called Mugenzai no Sono (無原罪の園:Garden of the Immaculate).

Quick growth of the Niepokalanów required more and more space, so the area of the monastery reached 28 ha. Before the Second World War broke out, it was the largest monastery in the world, housing as many as 760 men. One of the magazines, The Knight of the Immaculate, countered religious apathy and had a press run of 750,000 copies a month. The whole publishing house used about 1600 tonnes of paper annually for about 60 million copies of papers. [2]

The time of war

During the Second World War, the monastery provided shelter for many soldiers, injured in the September Campaign and also for refugees, regardless of their nationality or religion (e. g. to approximately 1,500 Jewish refugees from western Poland). [3] Father Maximilian Kolbe, together with four other Franciscans, was arrested by Gestapo and he died in Auschwitz concentration camp in 1941. In the end of the war (January 1945) during heavy bombardment of Niepokalanów, six friars were killed, some others injured and many of the buildings of the monastery were destroyed.

That time the media evangelisation was forbidden (with the only one exception - December 1940 issue of "Rycerz Niepokalanej", which aroused the hope of surviving dark time of war). So the Franciscans tried to keep up common prayers and help for the prisoners and numerous refugees.

The monastery lake Niepokalanow basilica fc44.jpg
The monastery lake
Parish house in Niepokalanow Niepokalanow dom parafialny fc00.jpg
Parish house in Niepokalanów

There was a sawmill, carpentry and dairy, a repair shop for farm machinery, bicycles, watches and many other items. The friars grew their own food, they had livestock, bee hives and chickens. The courses of secret teaching were also held and PCK (Polish Red Cross) circle functioned.

Nowadays. The pilgrimages

After the war the printing house in Niepokalanów was reopened and The Knight of the Immaculate was issued again. In 1948-1954 there was built a new church, since April 1980 called basilica minor. [4] In June 1950, according to the decree of Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, a new parish in Niepokalanów was established (6500 faithful circa). The church and the monastery were visited by Pope John Paul II during his second Pastoral Visit in Poland, on 18 of June 1983.

The visit of the Pope made Niepokalanów famous not only in Poland, but also abroad. The Pope called the monastery a heroic place where saint Maximilian lived and the environment of the Immaculate. Many pilgrims want to visit the place, sacred by activity of St Maximilian, and pray in the local basilica.

They also can see the Museum of St Maximilian (called There was a Man), established in 1998, and a wooden old chapel, one of the first buildings here, constructed in 1927 for the friars and rebuilt two years later so the local faithful could attend the celebrations and services. The monastery became also a place where many religious meeting are held. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

Franciscans group of religious orders within the Catholic Church

The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis. They adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.

Maximilian Kolbe 20th-century Polish Catholic friar, martyr, and saint

Maximilian Kolbe was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II. He had been active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, founding and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, operating an amateur-radio station (SP3RM), and founding or running several other organizations and publications.

Victoria, Gozo City and Local council in Gozo Region, Malta

Victoria, also known among the native Maltese as Rabat or by its title Città Victoria, is the capital city of Gozo, the second largest island of Malta. The city has a total population of 6,901, and by population, is the largest locality in Gozo.

Militia Immaculatae

The Militia Immaculatae, called in English the Knights of the Immaculata, is a worldwide Catholic evangelization movement founded by St. Maximilian Kolbe in 1917.

Order of Friars Minor Conventual organization

The Order of Friars Minor Conventual, commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, or Minorites, is a branch of the Catholic Order of Friars Minor, founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209.

Conceptionists

The Order of the Immaculate Conception, also known as the Conceptionists, are a contemplative religious order of nuns. For some years, they followed the Poor Clares Rule, but in 1511 were recognized as a separate Catholic religious order, taking a new Rule and the name of Order of Immaculate Conception.

Sacro Convento Franciscan friary in Assisi, Umbria, Italy, part of the Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi

The Sacro Convento is a Franciscan friary in Assisi, Umbria, Italy. The friary is connected as part of three buildings to the upper and lower church of the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi, where the friars custody with great reverence the body of Saint Francis. St. Francis wanted to be buried at this location outside of Assisi's city walls, called Hill of Hell, because his master Jesus of Nazareth also was killed like a criminal outside of the city of Jerusalem.

108 Martyrs of World War II

The 108 Martyrs of World War II, known also as the 108 Blessed Polish Martyrs, were Roman Catholics from Poland killed during World War II by Nazi Germany.

Basilica of San Francesco, Bologna Church in Bologna, Italy

The Basilica of Saint Francis is a historic church in the city of Bologna in northern Italy. Founded in the 13th century, it has been the property of the Conventual Franciscan friars since then. The church has been raised to the rank of a basilica by the Holy See.

Franciszek Gajowniczek Polish Army officer

Franciszek Gajowniczek was a Polish army sergeant whose life was saved at Auschwitz by priest Maximilian Kolbe, who volunteered to die in his place. Gajowniczek had been sent to Auschwitz concentration camp from a Gestapo prison in Tarnów. He was captured while crossing the border into Slovakia after the defeat of the Modlin Fortress during the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany. Gajowniczek and Kolbe met as inmates of Auschwitz in May 1941.

Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate organization

The Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate is a Roman Catholic institute of consecrated life with Pontifical Right established by Pope John Paul II on 1 January 1998. The F.F.I. was founded by two Franciscan Conventual priests on 2 August 1970 and is a reformed Franciscan Conventual religious institute living the Regula Bullata of Saint Francis of Assisi according to the Traccia Mariana.

Basilica of the Omni-mediatress of All Glories

The church in Niepokalanów, devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary the Immaculate, the Omni-mediatress of All Glories, was designed by the architect from Cracow - Zygmunt Gawlik. It was built between 1948-1954, in difficult times for Poland. In June 1950 it became a parish church for a new parish in Niepokalanów.

Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure

The Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure or Pontifical Theological Faculty of Saint Bonaventure, commonly called the Seraphicum, is the international study center of the Friars Minor Conventual in Rome. As a Pontifical faculty, the Seraphicum is governed by the Holy See according to the Apostolic Constitution Sapientia christiana.

Rycerz Niepokalanej is a Polish Roman-Catholic monthly magazine. It was first published in January 1922, and in Communist Poland its publication was banned from 1952 until 1981. Its founder and first editor-in-chief was Father Maximilian Kolbe, who remained in this post until March 1939.

Peter Fehlner, also known as Peter Damian Mary Fehlner, was a Catholic priest. He was a member of the Roman Catholic Order of Friars Minor Conventual. After his Franciscan and theological formation and several decades of ministry in this Order, he joined the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate in 1996, but in 2016 he professed again the Rule and the Constitutions of ancient Franciscan Conventual Order. Fehlner was a theologian and mariologist. From 2008-2014, he served as rector of the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe in La Crosse, Wisconsin. He was also a professor of theology in the Franciscans' Institute of Ecclesiastical Studies, the Immaculatum (STIM) in Frigento, Italy. A scholar in the Franciscan tradition of theology, he focused primarily on the philosophical and theological traditions of St. Bonaventure, Bl. John Duns Scotus and St. Maximilian Kolbe.

Museum of St. Maximilian Kolbe "There was a Man"

Museum of St. Maximilian Kolbe "There was a Man" - is a museum, located in Niepokalanów monastery in Poland. Dedicated to the life and work of Father Maximilian Kolbe, evangelization activity of Niepokalanów, and the Franciscan missions throughout the world.

The Blessed Three Martyrs of Chimbote were a group of two Polish Franciscan priests and one Italian missionary priest murdered in Peru in 1991 by the Shining Path communist guerillas. Michał Tomaszek and Zbigniew Adam Strzałkowski, and Alessandro Dordi were murdered on 9 August and 25 August 1991 respectively.

San Francesco dAssisi, Palermo church building in Palermo, Italy

The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi is an important church of Palermo. It is located near the main street of the city, the ancient Cassaro, in the quarter of the Kalsa, within the historic centre of Palermo. The building represents the main Conventual Franciscan church of Sicily. It has the title of Minor basilica.

Order of Friars Minor male order in the Catholic Church

The Order of Friars Minor is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. The order adheres to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. The Order of Friars Minor is the largest of the contemporary First Orders within the Franciscan movement.

Nicolò Cortese Italian presbyter (1907-1944)

Nicolò Cortese - in religious Placido - was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and professed member from the Order of Friars Minor Conventual. He served as both a parish priest and as the director for the "Il Messaggero di Sant'Antonio" magazine in Padua before and during World War II. It was in that conflict that he set up an elaborate network designed to protect Jewish people as well as British prisoners of war and Yugoslavs. But the Nazis soon discovered his plans and organized his arrest in October 1944 before killing him some weeks later after brutal tortures in their interrogations.

References

  1. The Franciscan Tradition by Regis J. Armstrong, Ingrid J. Peterson, Phyllis Zagano, 2010, page 51. ISBN   0-8146-3030-8
  2. History of Niepokalanów - the beginnings of the monastery (official site of Niepokalanów, English version)
  3. Mary's Knight. The Mission and Martyrdom of Saint Maksymilian Maria Kolbe, by Claude R. Foster. West Chester University Press, West Chester - Pennsylvania 2002, page 586, 587, 592. ISBN   1-887732-15-2
  4. Ioannis Paulus PP II Letterae Apostolicae Amor Noster (subtitle: In loco Niepokalanów, qui est in Polonia, templum B.V.M. Immaculatae, Mediatricis omnium gratiarum, ad dignitatem basilicae minoris evehitur) - the Apostolic Letter of John Paul II, April 1980
  5. Niepokalanów. Pilgrimage and tourist guide, by Fr. Roman Soczewka OFMConv. Wydawnictwo ZET, Wrocław 2004, page 4, 6, 21, 42. ISBN   83-7364-185-8

Coordinates: 52°12′N20°26′E / 52.200°N 20.433°E / 52.200; 20.433