Niigata (city)

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Niigata

新潟市
Niigata City
NiigataCity.jpg
Niigata Prefectural Government Memorial Hall1.JPG
160716 Old Niigata Customs Government Building Niigata Japan01n.jpg
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Bandaibashi-Bridge 20130929.JPG
Furumachi.jpg
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NiigataCity Skylines from Toki Messe
Niigata Prefectural Government Memorial HallOld Niigata Customs Government Building Niigata
MINATOPIA Bandai Bridge
DownTown of Furumachi Bandai City

Niigata (city)
Flag of Niigata, Niigata.svg
Flag
Emblem of Niigata, Niigata.svg
Seal
Niigata (city)
Niigata in Niigata Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Niigata in Niigata Prefecture
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Red pog.svg
Niigata
 
Coordinates: 37°54′58″N139°2′11″E / 37.91611°N 139.03639°E / 37.91611; 139.03639 Coordinates: 37°54′58″N139°2′11″E / 37.91611°N 139.03639°E / 37.91611; 139.03639
CountryJapan
Region Chūbu (Kōshin'etsu) (Hokuriku)
Prefecture Niigata
City StatusApril 1, 1889[ citation needed ]
Government
  - Mayor Yaichi Nakahara (from November, 2018)
Area
   Designated city 726.45 km2 (280.48 sq mi)
Population
 (July 1, 2019)
   Designated city 797,591
  Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
   Metro
[1] (2015)
1,060,013 (17th)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
• Tree Willow
• Flower Tulip
• Bird Swan
Phone number025-243-4894
Address1-602-1 Gakkōchō-dōri, Chūō-ku, Niigata-shi, Niigata-ken 951-8550
Website http://www.city.niigata.lg.jp/
Niigata
Niigata (Chinese characters).svg
"Niigata" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji 新潟

Niigata (新潟市, Niigata-shi, [niːɡata] ) is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture located in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the largest city on the west coast of Honshu, and the second largest city in Chūbu region after Nagoya. It faces the Sea of Japan and Sado Island.

Contents

As of 1 July 2019, the city had an estimated population of 797,591, and a population density of 1,098 persons per km2. The total area is 726.45 square kilometres (280.48 sq mi). Greater Niigata, the Niigata Metropolitan Employment Area, has a GDP of US$43.3 billion as of 2010. [2] [3]

With a long history as a port town, Niigata became a free port following the Meiji Restoration. Niigata's city government was established in 1889. Mergers with nearby municipalities in 2005 allowed the city's population to jump to 810,000. The annexation of the surrounding area has also given the city the greatest rice paddy field acreage in Japan. On April 1, 2007, it became the first government-designated city on the Japan Sea coast of Honshu.

Toponymy

The place name "Niigata" was first recorded in 1520 (Eisho 17). [4] Its name in kanji can be translated as "new", "lagoon", "city".

However, as there is no record about the origin of the name, this had led to several theories. First "Niigata" was a large lagoon at the mouth of the Shinano river. Second it was an inland bay at the river's entrance. Third it was the name of a village that stood on an island within the estuary. Fourth it referred to another island settlement that relocated to the Furumachi district and that in turn gave its name to a nearby lagoon. [5]

History

Prehistoric and ancient

People have inhabited the Niigata area since the Jōmon period, though much of the current land was still beneath the sea at the time. According to the Nihon Shoki, a fortress was built in the area in AD 647.

Feudal period

In the 16th century, a port called Niigata was established at the mouth of the Shinano River, while a port town with the name Nuttari developed at the mouth of the Agano River. The area prospered beneath the rule of Uesugi Kenshin during the Sengoku Period.

Early modern period

A system of canals was constructed on the main island of Niigata in the 17th century. During this period, the courses of the Shinano and Agano rivers gradually changed until they poured into the Sea of Japan at the same location. As a result, Niigata prospered as a port town, serving as a port of call for Japanese trade ships traversing the Sea of Japan.

The Matsugasaki Canal was constructed in 1730 to drain the Agano River area, but in 1731, flooding destroyed the canal and caused it to become the main current of the Agano River. As a result, the volume of water flowing into the port of Niigata decreased, which in turn allowed land reclamation efforts and the development of new rice fields to proceed.

Modern period

In 1858, Niigata was designated as one of the five ports to be opened for international trade in the Japan–U.S. Treaty of Amity and Commerce. However, the shallow water level in the port delayed the actual opening to foreign ships until 1869. The port also served as a valuable base for fishermen who roamed as far north as the Kamchatka Peninsula to catch salmon and other fish.

In 1886, the first Bandai Bridge was built across the Shinano River to connect the settlements of Niigata on the east and Nuttari on the west. Niigata annexed Nuttari in 1914.

During World War II, Niigata's strategic location between the capital of Tokyo and the Sea of Japan made it a key point for the transfer of settlers and military personnel to the Asian continent, including Manchukuo.

Contemporary period

In 1945, near the end of the war, Niigata was one of four cities, together with Hiroshima, Kokura, and Nagasaki, picked as targets for the atomic bomb if Japan did not surrender. The governor of Niigata Prefecture ordered the people to evacuate as rumors of an impending bombing spread, and the city was completely deserted for days. Poor weather conditions and its distance from B-29 bases in the Mariana Islands meant that it was removed from the list of targets during deliberations; Nagasaki was bombed instead.

In 1950, construction of Niigata Station was completed, extending the downtown area from Bandai Bridge. A devastating fire in 1955 destroyed much of the downtown area, but eventually the city recovered. The Niigata Thermal Power Station Unit 1 started operation in July 1963. At that time, it was Japan's first power plant capable of using a mixture of natural gas and heavy oil.

In 1964, the old canals that flowed throughout the city were filled in to make way for more roads.

On June 16, 1964, at 13:23 Japan Standard Time an earthquake of 7.5 Richter scale struck the city, killing 29 people and causing large-scale property damage, with 1,960 totally destroyed buildings, 6,640 partially destroyed buildings, and 15,298 severely inundated by liquefaction.

In 1965, the Agano River running through Niigata was polluted with methylmercury from the chemical plant of the Showa Electrical Company. Over 690 people exhibited symptoms of Minamata disease and the outbreak became known as Niigata Minamata disease.

In 1982, Shinkansen service on the Jōetsu Shinkansen line began between Niigata and Omiya, with service to Ueno added in 1985. The line was extended to Tokyo in 1991.

Big Swan Stadium in Niigata City hosted three games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup.

The 2004 Chūetsu earthquake did not cause any significant damage in Niigata City itself, allowing the city to work as a relief base.

The size and the population of Niigata city increased over the four-year period between 2001 and 2005, due to a series of municipal mergers. On April 1, 2007, Niigata City became first city on the west coast of Honshu to become a government-designated city.

In July 2007, the Chūetsu offshore earthquake, measuring 6.9 on Richter scale, rocked Niigata Prefecture. Though the earthquake was felt in the city, there was little damage, which allowed Niigata City to provide aid to the devastated areas.

In May 2008, the city hosted the 2008 G8 Labor Ministers Meeting.

On March 12, 2011, several hours after the massive 9.0 Tohoku earthquake struck off the east coast of Honshu, Niigata and Nagano Prefectures experienced an estimated magnitude 6.6 earthquake.

Mergers

Mergers of Niigata Amalgamation Niigata-en.jpg
Mergers of Niigata

Geography

Aerial photo of Niigata Aerial photo of Niigata 24-May-2019.jpg
Aerial photo of Niigata
View of Echigo Plain from Mount Kakuda [ja] Echigo-plain.jpg
View of Echigo Plain from Mount Kakuda  [ ja ]

Niigata is situated on a fertile coastal plain on the Sea of Japan coast, facing Sado Island. The Shinano River and Agano River flow through the city.

Numerous wetlands, such as the Fukushimagata wetlands, can be found within the city limits. The Sakata lagoon is registered as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.

Niigata City's low elevation and abundant water have made flood control and land reclamation important issues for the area throughout its history.

The city is sometimes called the "City of Water" (水の都, Mizu-no-miyako) because of the two rivers that flow through it, its position next to the Japan Sea, its many wetlands, and the canals that used to run through the city. It is also sometimes referred to as the "City of Willows" (柳の都, Yanagi-no-miyako) or Ryuto (柳都) because of the willow trees that lined the old canals. In recent years, the city has been promoting itself as a "Designated City of Food and Flowers" (食と花の政令市, Shoku to hana no seireishi), highlighting its agricultural areas outside of the city center.

Climate

Niigata City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), but receives more yearly snowfall than cities such as Moscow, Montreal or Oslo. The climate in Niigata City is characterized by its high humidity and strong winds from the Sea of Japan. While many other parts of Niigata Prefecture tend to have heavy snow, Niigata City itself usually receives less due to its low-lying elevation and the shielding effect of Sado Island.

However, Niigata City does receive much precipitation, mostly in the form of rainfall. On average, Niigata City has 269 days of precipitation each year, about 170 days of which see rain or snowfall measuring over 1 mm. [6] The rainy season in July brings large amounts of rain, while the winter months, especially November and December, also have much precipitation. [7]

In summer, the south wind makes the weather rather hot.[ citation needed ] Typhoons usually bring strong foehn winds to this area, generally causing somewhat higher temperatures than in other parts of Japan.[ citation needed ] The weather on the west coast of Honshu tends to be better during the summer months than on the Pacific coast.[ citation needed ]

Climate data for Niigata (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1881−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.3
(59.5)
21.3
(70.3)
25.1
(77.2)
30.7
(87.3)
32.9
(91.2)
35.0
(95.0)
38.5
(101.3)
39.9
(103.8)
38.8
(101.8)
33.3
(91.9)
27.2
(81.0)
23.6
(74.5)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F)5.3
(41.5)
6.4
(43.5)
10.3
(50.5)
16.1
(61.0)
21.3
(70.3)
24.8
(76.6)
28.7
(83.7)
30.8
(87.4)
26.4
(79.5)
20.7
(69.3)
14.3
(57.7)
8.7
(47.7)
17.8
(64.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.5
(36.5)
3.1
(37.6)
6.2
(43.2)
11.3
(52.3)
16.7
(62.1)
20.9
(69.6)
24.9
(76.8)
26.5
(79.7)
22.5
(72.5)
16.7
(62.1)
10.5
(50.9)
5.3
(41.5)
13.9
(57.0)
Average low °C (°F)0.1
(32.2)
−0.1
(31.8)
2.4
(36.3)
7.0
(44.6)
12.7
(54.9)
17.7
(63.9)
21.8
(71.2)
23.3
(73.9)
19.0
(66.2)
12.8
(55.0)
6.9
(44.4)
2.4
(36.3)
10.5
(50.9)
Record low °C (°F)−11.7
(10.9)
−13.0
(8.6)
−6.4
(20.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
2.0
(35.6)
6.7
(44.1)
11.4
(52.5)
14.5
(58.1)
7.9
(46.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
−9.5
(14.9)
−13.0
(8.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)180.9
(7.12)
115.8
(4.56)
112.0
(4.41)
97.2
(3.83)
94.4
(3.72)
121.1
(4.77)
222.3
(8.75)
163.4
(6.43)
151.9
(5.98)
157.7
(6.21)
203.5
(8.01)
225.9
(8.89)
1,845.9
(72.67)
Average snowfall cm (inches)63
(25)
48
(19)
8
(3.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
19
(7.5)
139
(55)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)23.319.017.413.311.310.613.610.913.515.219.224.1191.4
Average relative humidity (%)72746866697479757372747472
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.474.3136.8177.7202.8179.2162.1205.2156.2138.291.562.91,639.6
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [8]

Wards

View of Chuo Ward For Bandai City Area - panoramio.jpg
View of Chuo Ward

Niigata has a system of wards (ku) since April 1, 2007: [9] Each ward has its own "image color".

Wards of Niigata
Place NameMap of Niigata
Rōmaji Kanji Color
1 Akiha Ward 秋葉区 Floral green
A map of Niigata's Wards Niigata-ku en.jpg
A map of Niigata's Wards
2 Chuo Ward (administrative center)中央区 Waterfront blue
3 Higashi Ward 東区 Aqua blue
4 Kita Ward 北区 Nature green
5 Konan Ward 江南区 Spring green
6 Minami Ward 南区 Breeze blue
7 Nishi Ward 西区 Sunset orange
8 Nishikan Ward 西蒲区 Harvest yellow

Adjoining communities

From the north, following Niigata's border clockwise:

  • In addition Sado Island is connected by sea and air routes.

Cityscape

Central-city-area-in-Niigata Panoramic-photo 2013-06-05.jpg
The central city area of Niigata City, viewed from the upper sidewalk of the Ryuto Ohashi Bridge. The right side is Furumachi. The left side is Bandai .

Transportation

Willow-lined streets of Niigata Willow-lined Streets of Niigata.jpg
Willow-lined streets of Niigata

Airport

Niigata Airport is located about 6 km north of central Niigata. It handles some international destinations as well as many domestic ones. As of October 2016, the domestic destinations available are Osaka (10 times a day), Sapporo (five or six times a day), Fukuoka (three times a day), Okinawa (once or twice a day), Nagoya (three times a day), Narita (once a day) and Sado Island (three times a day).

Niigata Airport's international destinations are Harbin (twice a week), Seoul (five times a week), Shanghai (twice a week) and Vladivostok. [10]

Railway

The largest station in Niigata City is Niigata Station. It is centrally located in the Bandai area, one of the two main shopping districts in downtown Niigata. Approximately 37,000 passengers use the station daily. The Jōetsu Shinkansen, which terminates at Niigata Station, provides daily service to Tokyo. The Shin'etsu Main Line, Hakushin Line, Echigo Line, Uetsu Main Line, and Ban'etsu West Line also terminate at Niigata Station. These lines serve Myoko, Itoigawa, Akita, Sakata, and Aizuwakamatsu.

Niigata Kotsu Dentetsu Line and Kambara Dentetsu trains used to run through the city until the late 1990s; however, they no longer exist.

Transit bus

BRT "Bandai-bashi Line" runs through business/shopping districts in the central Niigata (Niigata Station—Bandai BridgeFurumachi—City hall—Hakusan Station—Aoyama).

Sea port

Niigata was formerly the terminus of the Mangyongbong-92 ferry, one of the direct connections between Japan and North Korea.

Education

Niigata University Niigata-u edu.jpg
Niigata University

Colleges and universities

Local attractions

Culture

Niigata geishas Niigata geisha dancing.jpg
Niigata geishas
Aerial video of Kurosaki Festival Fireworks

Events

Sports

Foods

Notable people from Niigata

Artists and writers

Actors and voice actors

Musicians

Others

List of mayors of Niigata City (1889 to present)

Sister cities

Niigata maintains sister city ties with six cities:

In addition, special exchange agreements have been set up with the following:[ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

Niigata Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Niigata Prefecture is a prefecture in the Chūbu region of Honshu of Japan. Niigata Prefecture has a population of 2,227,496 and is the fifth-largest prefecture of Japan by geographic area at 12,584.18 km2 (4,858.78 sq mi). Niigata Prefecture borders Toyama Prefecture and Nagano Prefecture to the southwest, Gunma Prefecture to the south, Fukushima Prefecture to the east, and Yamagata Prefecture to the northeast.

Niitsu, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Niitsu was a city located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. The city itself was founded on January 1, 1951, but the area had already been opened to railway traffic as early as November 20, 1897. As of 2003, the city had an estimated population of 66,058 and the density of 843.87 persons per km2. The total area was 78.28 km2. The city is notable for its Peace Pagoda, built by Nipponzan Myohoji in 1967.

Tsubame, Niigata City in Chūbu, Japan

Tsubame is a city located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 July 2019, the city had an estimated population of 77,382 in 29,406 households, and a population density of 697 persons per km². The total area of the city was 110.96 square kilometres (42.84 sq mi).

Gosen, Niigata City in Chūbu, Japan

Gosen is a city located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 July 2019, the city had an estimated population of 48,458 in 188703 households, and a population density of 138 persons per km². The total area of the city is 351.91 square kilometres (135.87 sq mi).

Toyosaka, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Toyosaka was a city located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. On March 21, 2005, Toyosaka, along with the towns of Kameda, Kosudo and Yokogoshi, the town of Nishikawa, and the villages of Ajikata, Iwamuro, Katahigashi, Nakanokuchi and Tsukigata, was merged into the expanded city of Niigata. As of April 1, 2007, the area is part of Kita-ku ward.

Echigo Province Former province of Japan

Echigo Province was an old province in north-central Japan, on the shores of the Sea of Japan. It bordered on Uzen, Iwashiro, Kōzuke, Shinano, and Etchū Provinces. It corresponds today to Niigata Prefecture, minus the island of Sado.

Kosudo, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Kosudo was a town located in Nakakanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Yokogoshi, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Yokogoshi was a town located in Nakakanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Nakakanbara was a district located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Iwamuro, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Iwamuro was a village located in Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. The area is famous for onsen near Yahiko mountain. Farming remains the predominant industry in the area. It is served by National Route 116 and Niigata Route 55.

Nishikawa, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Nishikawa was a town located in Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Ajikata, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Ajikata was a village located in Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Katahigashi, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Katahigashi was a village located in Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Tsukigata, Niigata Former municipality in Hokuriku, Japan

Tsukigata was a village located in Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Niigata Station Railway station in Niigata, Japan

Niigata Station is a major railway station in Chūō-ku, Niigata, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. The station is at the centre of Niigata city, the largest city on the Sea of Japan coast in Honshu. It forms the central station for the railway infrastructure along the Sea of Japan coast, and is also the terminus of the Jōetsu Shinkansen high-speed line from Tokyo.

Kita-ku, Niigata Ward in Japan

Kita-ku is one of the eight wards of Niigata City, Niigata Prefecture, in the Hokuriku region of Japan. As of 1 September 2018, the ward had an estimated population of 74,559 in households and a population density of 690 persons per km². The total area of the ward was 107.72 square kilometres (41.59 sq mi).

Higashi-ku, Niigata Ward in Japan

Higashi-ku is one of the eight wards of Niigata City, Niigata Prefecture, in the Hokuriku region of Japan. As of 1 September 2016, the ward had an estimated population of 136,224 in 60,830 households and a population density of 3500 persons per km². The total area of the ward was 38.62 square kilometres (14.91 sq mi). After Chūō-ku, Higashi-ku is the second smallest ward in Niigata City, making up about 5% of the total land area. It ranks third for largest population, with about 17% of Niigata's residents living in the Higashi-ku.

Chūō-ku, Niigata Ward of Niigata in Japan

Chūō-ku is one of the eight wards of Niigata City, Niigata Prefecture, in the Hokuriku region of Japan. It comprises much of the city centre. As of 1 September 2018, the ward had an estimated population of 183,231 in 87,162 households and a population density of 4,900 persons per km². The total area of the ward was 37.75 square kilometres (14.58 sq mi).

Akiha-ku, Niigata Ward in Japan

Akiha-ku is one of the eight wards of Niigata City, Niigata Prefecture, in the Hokuriku region of Japan. As of 1 September 2018, the ward had an estimated population of 76,086 in 29,843 households and a population density of 800 persons per km². The total area of the ward was 95.38 square kilometres (36.83 sq mi).

References

  1. "UEA Code Tables". Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  2. Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo. Archived from the original on 2018-06-15. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  3. Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data
  4. 知っておきたい新潟県の歴史編集委員会 (2010). 知っておきたい新潟県の歴史. 新潟日報事業社. ISBN   978-4861323720.
  5. 角川日本地名大辞典 編纂委員会 (1989). 角川日本地名大辞典 15 新潟県. (株)角川書店. ISBN   4-04-001150-3.
  6. 平年値(年・月ごとの値)
  7. Niigata City 2007 Statistical Data, published 2007
  8. 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  9. Map Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  10. Flight Schedule - NIIGATA AIRPORT
  11. "Nature Aquarium Gallery official website". Archived from the original on 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2012-09-18.
  12. "Yutakayama Rikishi Information". Sumo Reference. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  13. "North Korea abductee: Japan parents meet grand-daughter - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-04-08.

"Niigata"  . New International Encyclopedia . 1905.