Nikolai Amosov

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Nikolai Mikhailovich Amosov
Nikolai Amosov - Soviet Life, October 1984.jpg
Nikolai Amosov, circa 1984
Born(1913-12-06)December 6, 1913
Olkhovo, Novgorod Governorate, Russian Empire
Died December 12, 2002(2002-12-12) (aged 89)
Kiev, Ukraine
Nationality Soviet, Ukrainian, Russian
Other names Mykola Amosov
Occupation Doctor

Nikolai Mikhailovich Amosov, Doctor of Science, Professor (December 6, 1913, Olkhovo, Novgorod Governorate, Russian Empire – December 12, 2002, Kiev, Ukraine [1] ) was a Soviet and Ukrainian doctor of Russian origin, heart surgeon, inventor, best-selling author, and exercise enthusiast, known for his inventions of several surgical procedures for treating heart defects.

Doctor of Science, usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the title used for the standard doctorate in the sciences; elsewhere the Sc.D. is a "higher doctorate" awarded in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to scientific knowledge beyond that required for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). It may also be awarded as an honorary degree.

Professor academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries

Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank.

Cherepovetsky District District in Vologda Oblast, Russia

Cherepovetsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Belozersky District in the north, Kirillovsky District in the northwest, Sheksninsky District in the east, Poshekhonsky District of Yaroslavl Oblast in the southeast, Breytovsky District of Yaroslavl Oblast in the south, Vesyegonsky District of Tver Oblast in the southwest, Ustyuzhensky District in the west, and with Kaduysky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 7,640 square kilometers (2,950 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Cherepovets. Population: 41,025 (2010 Census); 40,871 ; 48,336 (1989 Census).

Contents

Born to Russian peasants, Nikolai fought in World War II. After the war he moved to Kiev and in 1965 wrote The Thoughts and the Heart , selling millions of copies. He was the recipient of multiple awards.

Russians are a nation and an East Slavic ethnic group native to European Russia in Eastern Europe. Outside Russia, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Brazil, and Canada.

Eastern Front (World War II) theatre of World War II - war between Germany and USSR 1941-1945

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.

Kiev City with special status in Kiev City Municipality, Ukraine

Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.

In 2008 Amosov was placed second in their ranking of "our greatest compatriots" by the viewers of the TV show The Greatest Ukrainians. [2]

Biography

Amosov was born December 6, 1913. in the village Olkhovo (near Cherepovets) of Vologda Governorate, Russia to Russian peasants. [1] In 1932 he graduated from Cherepovets Mechanical College, followed by 3 years of work as a shift mechanic at the Arkhangelsk electric power station. In 1939 he graduated from the Arkhangelsk Medical Institute, [1] and in 1940 - with distinction from the All-Union Correspondence Industrial Institute. During World War II he was at the front as the leading surgeon of a field mobile hospital PPG-2266. [1] From 1947 to 1952 he worked as chief surgeon of the Bryansk region and at that time he began to be widely engaged in thoracic surgery, he conducted extensive scientific work and in 1953 he presented his doctoral dissertation.

Vologda Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire and the Russian SFSR, which existed from 1796 until 1929. Its administrative center was in the city of Vologda. The governorate was located in the north of Russian Empire.

In 1952, Amosov, as a prominent specialist in thoracic surgery, was invited to the Kiev Institute of Tuberculosis, to guide specially created clinic of thoracic surgery. [1]

Here particularly fully revealed his many-sided talent of the surgeon and researcher, physiologist, and engineer, has been particularly fruitful scientific, organizational, practical, educational and social activities.

Amosov was one of the initiators of the widespread introduction into our country surgery for diseases of the lungs, has made a lot of new developments in this problem. His research contributed to improving the treatment of diseases of the lungs. In 1961, Amosov was awarded Lenin Prize for the work of lung surgery.

Lenin Prize Soviet award

The Lenin Prize was one of the most prestigious awards of the Soviet Union for accomplishments relating to science, literature, arts, architecture, and technology. It was originally created on June 23, 1925 and awarded until 1934. During the period from 1935 to 1956, the Lenin Prize was not awarded, being replaced largely by the Stalin Prize. On August 15, 1956, it was reestablished, and continued to be awarded on every even-numbered year until 1990. The award ceremony was April 22, Vladimir Lenin's birthday.

In the future, the main focus of Amosov's work was the heart surgery. In 1955 he was the first in Ukraine began treatment for heart diseases surgically, in 1958, one was one of the first in the Soviet Union to introduce into the practice the method of artificial blood circulation (in 1963), Amosov was first in the Soviet Union to perform the mistral valve replacement, and in 1965 for the first time in the world he created and introduced into practice the anti-thrombotic heart valves prosthesis. Amosov elaborated a number of new methods of surgical treatment of heart lesions, the original model of heart-lung machine. His work on the surgical treatment of heart diseases won a State Prize of Ukraine (1988) gold medals (1967, 1982) and Silver Medal (1978) of the Exhibition of Economic Achievements of the USSR.

The clinic established by Amosov, produced about 7000 lung resections, more than 95000 operations for heart diseases, including about 36,000 operations with extra-corporeal blood circulation.

In 1983 Amosov's cardiac surgery clinic was reorganized in Kiev Research Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery and in the Ukrainian Republican cardiovascular surgical center. Each year, the institute fulfilled about 3000 heart operations, including over 1500 - with extra-corporeal blood circulation. Amosov was the first director of the Institute, and since 1988 - Honorary Director of the Institute.

In 1955, Amosov created and headed the first in the USSR Chair of Thoracic Surgery for the postgraduate studies and later the Chair of Anesthesiology. These Chairs have prepared more than 700 specialists for Ukraine and other republics.

Along with surgery Amosov paid much attention to contemporary problems of biological, medical and psychological cybernetics. From 1959 to 1990 he headed the Department of Biological Cybernetics in the Institute of Cybernetics. Under the leadership of Amosov fundamental studies of the self-regulation of the heart systems were conducted and the issues of machine diagnosis of heart disease were studied, elaboration and creation of physiological models of "internal environment", computer modeling of basic mental functions, and some socio-psychological mechanisms of human behavior were done. Innovative approach, the original views of Amosov were widely recognized in our country and abroad. For his research in the field of Bio-cybernetics in 1978 and 1997 he was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine.

In the 1989 Soviet Union legislative election he was elected into the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union as an independent candidate in Kiev (he had declared his support for People's Movement of Ukraine). [3] [4] Amosov believed that the Western society should serve as an ideal for the USSR. [4]

Amosov is the author of more than 400 scientific publications including 19 monographs. Some monographs reprinted in the U.S., Japan, Germany and Bulgaria.

40 doctoral degrees and over 150 PhD's of sciences were presented in his Institute, many of them are chiefs of major scientific centers in Ukrainian SSR and other republics of the Soviet Union. It is noteworthy that under the leadership of Amosov, one of his disciples Victor Skumin discovered a previously unknown disease. Now it is called Skumin syndrome [5] (a disorder of the central nervous system of some patients after a prosthetic heart valve). [6]

N. Amosov was a member of the Presidium of the Board of the Ukrainian Society of surgeons and cardiologists, the International Association of surgeons and cardiologists, the International Association of Surgeons and the International Society of Cardiovascular Surgeons, International Society for Medical Cybernetics, Scientific Council on Cybernetics of Ukraine, member of the editorial boards of a number of domestic and foreign journals.

His scientific work Amosov combined with a great social activity, was a member of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union five times.

Amosov is widely known as a writer. His novels and essays "The Thoughts and the Heart", "Notes from the Future", "PPG-2266. Field Surgeon Notes", "The Book of Happiness and Miseries", "Voices of the Times", "Artificial Intelligence", "My Health System" have been repeatedly published in Ukraine and abroad.

Legacy

Stamp of Ukraine, 2013 Stamps of Ukraine, 2013-62.jpg
Stamp of Ukraine, 2013

By the order of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine № 128-p of 12 March 2003 the Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine was named after Amosov.

In 2003 a streets in Kiev was named after Amosov and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine established the Mykola Amosov Prize which is awarded for the significant scientific works in the field of the cardio-vascular surgery and transplantology. [1]

Honours and awards

Amosov was the recipient of multiple orders including Hero of Socialist Labour title, two Orders of Lenin, the Order of the Patriotic War, two Orders of the Red Star, and Lenin Prize. In 2008 he was recognized as second after Yaroslav I the Wise among the Great Ukrainians by a public poll conducted for the TV show The Greatest Ukrainians. [2]

Related Research Articles

<i>Experiments in the Revival of Organisms</i> 1940 film by D.I. Yashin

Experiments in the Revival of Organisms is a 1940 motion picture which documents Soviet research into the resuscitation of clinically dead organisms. It is available from the Prelinger Archives, and it is in the public domain. The operations are credited to Doctor Sergei Brukhonenko and Boris Levinskovsky, who were demonstrating a special heart-lung apparatus called the autojektor, also referred to as the heart-lung machine, to the Second Congress of Russian Pathologists in Moscow. It was filmed at the Institute of Experimental Physiology and Therapy, which is also in Moscow. The heart-lung machine was designed and constructed by Brukhonenko, whose work in the film is said to have led to the first operations on heart valves. The autojektor device demonstrated in the film is similar to modern ECMO machines, as well as the systems commonly used for renal dialysis in modern nephrology.

Cardiothoracic surgery medical specialty involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax

Cardiothoracic surgery is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax —generally treatment of conditions of the heart and lungs. In most countries, cardiac surgery and general thoracic surgery are separate surgical specialties; the exceptions are the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and some EU countries, such as the United Kingdom and Portugal.

Cardiac surgery surgery on the heart or great vessels

Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease ; to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation.

Mitral valve repair

Mitral valve repair is a cardiac surgery procedure performed by cardiac surgeons to treat stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leakage) of the mitral valve. The mitral valve is the "inflow valve" for the left side of the heart. Blood flows from the lungs, where it picks up oxygen, through the pulmonary veins, to the left atrium of the heart. After the left atrium fills with blood, the mitral valve allows blood to flow from the left atrium into the heart's main pumping chamber called the left ventricle. It then closes to keep blood from leaking back into the left atrium or lungs when the ventricle contracts (squeezes) to push blood out to the body. It has two flaps, or leaflets, known as cusps.

Walter Randolph "Ranny" Chitwood, Jr. is known for his work as a cardiothoracic surgeon at the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University located in Greenville, North Carolina.

Vladimir Petrovich Demikhov was a Soviet scientist and organ transplantation pioneer, who performed several transplants in the 1940s and 1950s, including the transplantation of a heart into an animal and a heart–lung replacement in an animal. He is also well known for his dog head transplants, which he conducted during the 1950s, resulting in two-headed dogs. This ultimately led to the head transplants in monkeys by Dr. Robert White, who was inspired by Demikhov's work.

Mitral valve replacement

Mitral valve replacement is a cardiac surgical procedure in which a patient’s diseased mitral valve is replaced by either a mechanical or bioprosthetic valve. Mitral valve replacement is performed when the valve becomes too tight for blood to flow into the left ventricle, or too loose in which case blood can leak back into the left atrium and thereby back into the lung. Mitral valve disease can occur from infection, calcification, inherited collagen disease, or other causes. Since a mitral valve replacement is an open heart surgical procedure, it requires placing the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass.

Alexander Bakulev Soviet surgeon

Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bakulev was a Soviet surgeon, one of the founders of cardiovascular surgery in the USSR.

John W. Kirklin American surgeon

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David H. Adams is an American cardiac surgeon and the Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis Professor and Chairman of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Dr. Adams is a recognized leader in the field of heart valve surgery and mitral valve reconstruction. As director of Mount Sinai Mitral Valve Repair Center, he has set national benchmarks with >99% degenerative mitral valve repair rates, while running one of the largest valve repair programs in the United States. Dr. Adams is the co-inventor of 2 mitral valve annuloplasty repair rings (the Carpentier-McCarthy-Adams IMR ETlogix Ring and the Carpentier-Edwards Physio II Annuloplasty Ring, and is a senior consultant with royalty agreements with Edwards Lifesciences. He is also the inventor of the Tri-Ad Adams Tricuspid Annuloplasty ring with a royalty agreement with Medtronic. He is a co-author with Professor Alain Carpentier of the benchmark textbook in mitral valve surgery Carpentier's Reconstructive Valve Surgery. He is also the National Co-Principal Investigator of the upcoming FDA pivotal trial of the Medtronic-CoreValve transcatheter aortic valve replacement device.

Gerald Murray Lawrie, M.D. is an American heart surgeon and pioneer in the surgical treatment of valvular heart disease of Australian descent.

Norman Edward Shumway was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University. He was the 67th president of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery and the second to perform a Heart transplantation in the United States.

B. P. Loughridge American surgeon

Billy Paul Loughridge is a cardiovascular surgeon, author, and health care consultant in Tulsa, Oklahoma. He practiced cardiovascular surgery in Tulsa, Oklahoma from 1967 until 1998. During this period he performed more than 10,000 surgeries. He also taught in medical schools, supervised surgery at two hospitals, wrote three books, and served as an expert witness in numerous legal cases involving medical issues. In the 1970s he worked for four years with engineers at a company which makes oil pumping equipment in an unsuccessful attempt to create an artificial heart. Beyond his medical practice, Loughridge was involved in numerous charitable, scientific, and cultural institutions, as a donor, board member, trustee, and officer.

William F. Bernhard was an American cardiovascular surgeon, Emeritus Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, and cardiovascular surgical pioneer.

Dr R Ravi Kumar graduated from Stanley Medical College and obtained the FRCS from Edinburgh. He worked at the Harefield Hospital, UK, under Sir Magdi Yacoub involving himself with adult cardiac surgery including heart and lung transplant and aortic homografts. Dr Ravi Kumar then underwent surgical residency in Boston, MA, United States. Following this he worked with Dr Albert Starr in Portland, Oregon. He pursued his cardiothoracic residency at the University of Texas, South Western Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. He continued at the same institution as an advanced fellow in Heart & Lung Transplant and is UNOS, certifiable for Heart & Lung Transplant.

Victor Skumin Russian scientist, writer, philosopher

Victor Andreevich Skumin is a Russian and Soviet scientist, psychiatrist, psychotherapist and psychologist.

Nina Starr Braunwald American thoracic surgeon and medical researcher

Nina Starr Braunwald (1928–1992) was an American thoracic surgeon and medical researcher who was among the first women to perform open-heart surgery. She was also the first woman to be certified by the American Board of Thoracic Surgery, and the first to be elected to the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. In 1960, at the age of 32, she led the operative team at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) that implanted the first successful artificial mitral human heart valve replacement, which she had designed and fabricated. She died in August 1992 in Weston, Massachusetts, after a career that included prominent appointments at the NIH, University of California, San Diego, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Hans-Joachim Schäfers German university teacher

Hans-Joachim Schäfers is a German surgeon, as well as cardiac, thoracic, and vascular surgeon and university professor. He is director of the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery at the Saarland University Medical Center in Homburg/Saar, Germany. He is known for his activities in aortic valve repair, aortic surgery, and pulmonary endarterectomy.

Rosalyn P. Scott is an African-American thoracic surgeon known for her work in education and for being the first African-American woman to become a thoracic surgeon.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Celebrating 20th anniversary of independence, Den (18 August 2011)
  2. 1 2 Yaroslav the Wise - the Greatest Ukrainian of all times, Inter TV (19 May 2008)
  3. The Ukrainian Resurgence by Bohdan Nahaylo, University of Toronto Press, 1999, ISBN   0802079776 (page 184)
  4. 1 2 Soviet Intellectuals and Political Power: The Post-Stalin Era by Vladimir Shlapentokh, Princeton University Press, 1990, ISBN   0691094594 (page 262)
  5. Andrea Ruzza. Nonpsychotic mental disorder after open heart surgery. Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals October 16, 2013
  6. Ukrainian doctors which changed the world.