Nikolai Lobachevsky

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Nikolai Lobachevsky
Никола́й Лобаче́вский
Lobachevsky 03 crop.jpg
Portrait by Lev Kryukov (c. 1839)
Born1 December 1792 [1] [2]
Died24 February 1856 (1856-02-25) (aged 63)
Kazan, Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire
(now Tatarstan, Russia)
Nationality Russian
Education Kazan University (MSc, 1811)
Known for Lobachevskian geometry
Scientific career
Fields Geometry
Academic advisors J. C. M. Bartels [5] [6]
Notable students Nikolai Brashman [5]
Signature
Nikolay Lobachevsky signature.jpg

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (Russian:Никола́й Ива́нович Лобаче́вский,IPA:  [nʲikɐˈlaj ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ləbɐˈtɕɛfskʲɪj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); 1 December [ O.S. 20 November] 179224 February [ O.S. 12 February] 1856) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry, and also for his fundamental study on Dirichlet integrals, known as the Lobachevsky integral formula.

Contents

William Kingdon Clifford called Lobachevsky the "Copernicus of Geometry" due to the revolutionary character of his work. [7] [8]

Life

Nikolai Lobachevsky was born either in or near the city of Nizhny Novgorod in the Russian Empire (now in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia) in 1792 to parents of Russian and Polish origin – Ivan Maksimovich Lobachevsky and Praskovia Alexandrovna Lobachevskaya. [9] [10] [11] He was one of three children. When he was seven, his father, a clerk in a land surveying office, died, and Nikolai moved with his mother to Kazan. Lobachevsky attended Kazan Gymnasium from 1802, graduating in 1807 and then received a scholarship to Kazan University, [9] [10] which was founded just three years earlier in 1804.

At Kazan University, Lobachevsky was influenced by professor Johann Christian Martin Bartels, a former teacher and friend of German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. [9] Lobachevsky received a Master of Science in physics and mathematics in 1811. In 1814, he became a lecturer at Kazan University, in 1816 he was promoted to associate professor. In 1822, at the age of 30, he became a full professor, [9] [10] teaching mathematics, physics, and astronomy. [10] He served in many administrative positions and became the rector of Kazan University [9] in 1827. In 1832, he married Varvara Alexeyevna Moiseyeva. They had a large number of children (eighteen according to his son's memoirs, while only seven apparently survived into adulthood). He was dismissed from the university in 1846, ostensibly due to his deteriorating health: by the early 1850s, he was nearly blind and unable to walk. He died in poverty in 1856 and was buried in Arskoe Cemetery, Kazan.

On his religious views, he was said to be an atheist. [12] [13]

Career

Lobachevsky's main achievement is the development (independently from János Bolyai) of a non-Euclidean geometry, [10] also referred to as Lobachevskian geometry. Before him, mathematicians were trying to deduce Euclid's fifth postulate from other axioms. Euclid's fifth is a rule in Euclidean geometry which states (in John Playfair's reformulation) that for any given line and point not on the line, there is only one line through the point not intersecting the given line. Lobachevsky would instead develop a geometry in which the fifth postulate was not true. This idea was first reported on February 23 (Feb. 11, O.S.), 1826 to the session of the department of physics and mathematics, and this research was printed as On the Origin of Geometry (О началах геометрии) in 1829–1830 (Kazan University Course Notes). In 1829 Lobachevsky wrote a paper about his ideas called "A Concise Outline of the Foundations of Geometry" that was published by the Kazan Messenger but was rejected when it was submitted to the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences for publication.

The non-Euclidean geometry that Lobachevsky developed is referred to as hyperbolic geometry. Lobachevsky replaced Playfair's axiom with the statement that for any given point there exists more than one line that can be extended through that point and run parallel to another line of which that point is not part. He developed the angle of parallelism which depends on the distance the point is off the given line. In hyperbolic geometry the sum of angles in a hyperbolic triangle must be less than 180 degrees. Non-Euclidean geometry stimulated the development of differential geometry which has many applications. Hyperbolic geometry is frequently referred to as "Lobachevskian geometry" or "Bolyai–Lobachevskian geometry".

Some mathematicians and historians have wrongly claimed that Lobachevsky in his studies in non-Euclidean geometry was influenced by Gauss, which is untrue. Gauss himself appreciated Lobachevsky's published works very highly, but they never had personal correspondence between them prior to the publication. Although three people—Gauss, Lobachevsky and Bolyai—can be credited with discovery of hyperbolic geometry, Gauss never published his ideas, and Lobachevsky was the first to present his views to the world mathematical community. [14]

Lobachevsky's magnum opus Geometriya was completed in 1823, but was not published in its exact original form until 1909, long after he had died. Lobachevsky was also the author of New Foundations of Geometry (1835–1838). He also wrote Geometrical Investigations on the Theory of Parallels (1840) [15] and Pangeometry (1855). [16] [17]

Another of Lobachevsky's achievements was developing a method for the approximation of the roots of algebraic equations. This method is now known as the Dandelin–Gräffe method, named after two other mathematicians who discovered it independently. In Russia, it is called the Lobachevsky method. Lobachevsky gave the definition of a function as a correspondence between two sets of real numbers (Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet gave the same definition independently soon after Lobachevsky).

Impact

E. T. Bell wrote about Lobachevsky's influence on the following development of mathematics in his 1937 book Men of Mathematics : [18]

The boldness of his challenge and its successful outcome have inspired mathematicians and scientists in general to challenge other "axioms" or accepted "truths", for example the "law" of causality which, for centuries, have seemed as necessary to straight thinking as Euclid's postulate appeared until Lobachevsky discarded it. The full impact of the Lobachevskian method of challenging axioms has probably yet to be felt. It is no exaggeration to call Lobachevsky the Copernicus of Geometry, for geometry is only a part of the vaster domain which he renovated; it might even be just to designate him as a Copernicus of all thought.

Honors

Annual celebration of Lobachevsky's birthday by participants of Volga's student Mathematical Olympiad Celebrating the birthday of Lobachevsky.JPG
Annual celebration of Lobachevsky's birthday by participants of Volga's student Mathematical Olympiad

Works

English translations
Also in: Seth Braver Lobachevski illuminated, MAA 2011.

See also

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References

  1. This is the date given by V. F. Kagan's 1957 book N. Lobachevsky and His Contribution to Science (first published in Russian in 1943), p. 26, and A. A. Andronov's 1956 article "Где и когда родился Н.И.Лобачевский" ("Where and when was Lobachevsky born?") (the latter gives 1 December [ O.S. 20 November] 1792).
  2. Older sources in Russian—e.g., A. F. Popov, "Воспоминания о службе и трудах проф. Казанского университета Н. И. Лобачевского" ("Memoirs of the Service and Work of N. I. Lobachevsky"), 1857—give 1793 rather than 1972, while the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970) gives December 2, 1792. Further information on Lobachevsky's birthdate can be found in: Athanase Papadopoulos (ed.), Nikolai I. Lobachevsky. Pangeometry, European Mathematical Society. 2010, pp. 206–7.
  3. See "К 150-летию со дня смерти Н.И.Лобачевского" ("On the 150th anniversary of the death of N. Lobachevsky") by G. M. Polotovsky, PDF page 3: "Н.И.Лобачевский родился в Макарьевском уезде Нижегородской губернии в 1793 году" (quoting A. F. Popov (1857)); page 4: "[В.Ф.Каган (1943)] местом рождения называет Макарьев".
  4. Other sources in Russian—e.g., A. A. Andronov (1956)—give the city of Nizhny Novgorod rather than the Governorate as his birthplace; see also Lobachevsky's biography at the website of the Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University Museum and Andrey Kalinin's article "Чье имя носит университет" ("After whose name the University has been named").
  5. 1 2 Nikolai Lobachevsky at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  6. Athanase Papadopoulos (ed.), Nikolai I. Lobachevsky. Pangeometry, European Mathematical Society. 2010, p. 208.
  7. Bell, E. T. (1986). Men of Mathematics. Touchstone Books. p. 294. ISBN   978-0-671-62818-5. Author attributes this quote to another mathematician, William Kingdon Clifford.
  8. This is a quote from G. B. Halsted's translator's preface to his 1914 translation of The Theory of Parallels: "What Vesalius was to Galen, what Copernicus was to Ptolemy that was Lobachevsky to Euclid." — W. K. Clifford
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Victor J. Katz. A history of mathematics: Introduction. Addison-Wesley. 2009. p. 842.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Stephen Hawking. God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs that Changed History . Running Press. 2007. pp. 697–703.
  11. Ivan Maksimovich Lobachevsky (Jan Łobaczewski in Polish) came from a Polish noble family of Jastrzębiec and Łada coats of arms, and was classified as a Pole in Russian official documents; Jan Ciechanowicz. Mikołaj Łobaczewski - twórca pangeometrii. Rocznik Wschodni. Issue 7–9. 2002. p. 163.
  12. Bardi, Jason (2008). The Fifth Postulate: How Unraveling a Two Thousand Year Old Mystery Unraveled the Universe. John Wiley & Sons. p. 186. ISBN   978-0-470-46736-7. His stubbornness, reported atheism, and genius supported his rise as a champion of the proletariat. To the Soviets, Lobachevsky represented not just the greatness of the common man, emerging from a humble background as he did, he also was a revolutionary of sorts.
  13. "The History of Science". Soviet Science. Taylor & Francis. p. 329. Though Lobachevsky appears to have invented non-Euclidean geometry without the help of the Almighty, he built a church on the instructions of the University council. It is said that he was an atheist.
  14. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Nikolai Lobachevsky", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive , University of St Andrews
  15. The 1914 English translation by George Bruce Halsted is available at "Quod.lib.umich.edu". The University of Michigan Historical Mathematics Collection. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  16. The 1902 German translation by Heinrich Liebmann is available at "Quod.lib.umich.edu". The University of Michigan Historical Mathematics Collection. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  17. Lobachevsky dictated two versions of that work, a first one in Russian, and a second one in French (Papadopoulos 2010, p. v).
  18. Bell, E. T. (1986). Men of Mathematics. Touchstone Books. p. 336. ISBN   978-0-671-62818-5.
  19. Liner notes, "The Tom Lehrer Collection", Shout! Factory, 2010