|Nizam of Hyderabad|
Coat of Arms of Hyderabad State
|Style||His Exalted Highness|
|First monarch||Qamar-ud-din Khan|
|Last monarch||Osman Ali Khan|
|Formation||31 July 1724|
|Abolition||17 September 1948|
The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty.
Hyderabad State, also known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
Telangana is a state in India situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south. The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly of hills, mountain ranges, and thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km. As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts.
Hyderabad–Karnataka is the name given to north-east Karnataka, India. It is the Kannada-speaking part of the Hyderabad State, that was ruled by the Nizams of Hyderabad until 1948. After merging with the Indian union, the region was part of Hyderabad State until 1956. The Hyderabad-Karnataka/Northeast Karnataka region comprises Bidar, Yadgir, Raichur, Koppal and Gulbarga of Hyderabad state and, Bellary of Madras that are in the present state of Karnataka. The Northeast-Karnataka region is the second largest arid region in India.
The Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, and Asaf Jah became virtually independent of them; Hyderabad would then become a tributary of the Maratha Empire, losing a series of battles for independence through the 18th century.
The Asaf Jahi was a Turkic dynasty from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan. The family came to India in the late 17th century, and became employees of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughals, of Turco-Mongol origin, were great patrons of Persian culture, language, literature, the family found a ready patronage.
A viceroy is an official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjective form is viceregal, less often viceroyal. The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in western and southern India. It rises to 100 metres (330 ft) in the north, and to more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) in the south, forming a raised triangle within the South-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline.
When the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union.The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a period of 13 unstable years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were never officially recognised as rulers. The seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.
His Exalted Highness Nawab Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah VII, was the last Nizam (ruler) of the princely state of Hyderabad, the largest princely state in British India. He ruled Hyderabad State between 1911 and 1948, until it was annexed by India. He was styled as His Exalted Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad. He was one of the wealthiest people of all time. In 1937, he was featured on the cover of Time magazine, labelled as the 5th richest man in history and the richest Indian ever.
By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogeneous territory and had a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census), of which a majority (85%) was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government, police and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, and 121 others were Christians, Parsis and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions. The Nizam and his nobles, who were mostly Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. Almost all kotwals, police commissioners, were Muslims.
Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway (NGSR) was a Railway Company in India between 1879 and 1950, and was owned by the Nizams of Kingdom of Hyderabad. The full style of the system was His Exalted Highness, The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam, much to the dismay of the British authorities. It was owned and worked by a company under a guarantee from the Hyderabad State, capital for which was raised by the issue of redeemable mortgage debentures. In 1951 the NGSR was nationalised and merged into Indian Railways.
The Hyderabadi Rupee was the currency of the Hyderabad State from 1918 to 1959. It coexisted with the Indian rupee from 1950. Like the Indian rupee, it was divided into 16 annas, each of 12 pai. Coins were issued in copper for denominations of 1 and 2 pai and ½ anna, in cupro-nickel for 1 anna and in silver for 2, 4 and 8 annas and 1 rupee.
Deccan Radio is a first radio station of Hyderabad State went live on air on 3 February 1935, initially it was launched as a private broadcasting station with transmitting power of 200 Watts. The programs were broadcast in Urdu. It was located at chirag ali lane, Abids, Hyderabad State.
The name Nizam also spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu (نظام) /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement".Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire. The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (11 April 1018 – 14 October 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk (Arabic: نظام الملک, "Order of the Realm").
Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. It is a registered regional language of Nepal.
According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—(1893), the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed.The family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi (1154–91) of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb, then Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman. His son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Sir Roper Lethbridge was a British academic and civil servant in India and a Conservative Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1892.
Abdallah bin Abi Quhafah, popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686.He also played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam. .
After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession, Qamaruddin and his father remained neutral thus escaping the risk of being on the losing side; they remained marginal players in the Mughal court during the reigns of Bahadur Shah I (1707–12) and Jahandar Shah (1712–13). Their successor Farrukhsiyar (1713–19) appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years later and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah (1719–48), Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721. The next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan who had been a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir (prime minister). According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him. In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler.
In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan , and started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad.Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals; he still flew the Mughal flag, and was never crowned. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, and this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948. The death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned from 1762 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty of Machilipatnam, surrendering the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.
Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of Deccan saw the rise of the Maratha Empire. The titullar Nizams themselves fought during the Mughal-Maratha Wars since the 1720s, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax ( Chauth ) to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed, Bhopal, Rakshasbhuvan, and Kharda, in all of which the Nizam lost.Following the conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and the imposition of chauth by him, the Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all intent and purposes.
In 1805, after the British victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, Nizam of Hyderabad came under the protection of the British East India Company.
In 1903 the Berar region of the state was separated and merged into the Central Provinces of British India, to form the Central Provinces and Berar.
The last Nizam of Hyderabad state, Mir Osman Ali Khan crowned in 1911, had been the richest man in the world in his time.The Nizams developed the railway, introduced electricity, and developed roads, airways, irrigation and reservoirs; in fact, all major public buildings in Hyderabad City were built during his reign under the British Raj. He pushed education, science, and establishment of Osmania University.
In 1947, at the time of the partition of India, Britain offered the 565 princely states in the sub-continent the options of acceding to either India or Pakistan, or remaining independent.
After the Independence of India in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad initially chose to join neither India nor Pakistan. He later declared Hyderabad an independent state, but the Government of India refused to accept this. After attempts by India to persuade the Nizam to accede to India failed, the Indian government finally launched a military operation named Operation Polo to annex Hyderabad. When the Indian Army invaded on 13 September 1948, his untrained forces were unable to withstand the Indian army and were defeated. The Nizam capitulated on 17 September 1948; that same afternoon he broadcast the news over the State radio network. The Nizam was forced to accept accession to the new Republic of India. His abdication on 17 September 1948 marked the end of the dynasty's ambitions.
Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last Nizam, died on Friday 24 February 1967. All the Nizams are buried in royal graves at the Makkah Masjid near Charminar in Hyderabad excepting the last, Mir Osman Ali Khan, who wished to be buried beside his mother, in the graveyard of Judi Mosque facing King Kothi Palace.
During the period of the Nizams' rule, Hyderabad became extremely wealthy. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and his family including Salar Jung I were taught by Nawab Sarwar Ul Mulk and Agha Mirza Baig Bahadur, who was his political advisor, 223,000 km2 (86,000 sq mi) in the Deccan, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The Nizams were conferred with the title of His Exalted Highness, and "Faithful Ally of the British Government" by the imperial-colonial British government for their collaborating role in the wars against Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the First War of Indian Independence of 1857–1858, becoming the only Indian prince to be given both these titles.and the senior-most salute state among the Indian princely states. It was spread over
One example of the wealth of the Nizams are the Jewels of the Nizams, an international tourist attraction once displayed in Salar Jung Museum, but now locked in an RBI vault in Delhi.In 1948 Hyderabad state had an estimated population of 17 million (1.7 crore), and it generated an estimated annual revenue of £90,029,000.
The state had its own currency known as the Hyderabadi rupee, until 1951. ₹660 crores (roughly US$2 billion by the then exchange rates). According to the Forbes All-Time Wealthiest List of 2008, Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan is the fifth richest man in recorded history per the figures, with an estimated worth of US$210.8 billion adjusted by Forbes as per the growth of the US GDP since that period and the present exchange rate of the US dollar against the Indian rupee.The pace at which the last Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan amassed wealth made him one of the world's richest men in 1937, also known for his miserliness. He was estimated to be worth
The Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of the dynasty including hospitals, schools, colleges, and universities that imparted education in Urdu.Inspired by the Indian Civil Service, the Nizams established their own local Hyderabad Civil Service.
The Nizams commissioned engineering projects such as large reservoirs like Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar. Survey work on the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was also initiated during this time, although the actual work was actually completed under the aegis of the Government of India in 1969.
Other landmarks include the Telangana High Court, City College, Public Gardens, (formerly Bagh-e-Aaam) Jubilee Hall, Asafia Library, The Assembly building, Niloufer Hospital, the Osmania Arts College and the Osmania Medical College.
The Asaf Jahis were prolific builders. Their palaces are listed below:
|Image||Titular Name||Personal Name||Date of birth||Nizam From||Nizam Until||Date of death|
|Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I|
نظامالملک آصف جاہ
|Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan||20 August 1671||31 July 1724||1 June 1748|
|Mir Ahmed Ali Khan||26 February 1712||1 June 1748||16 December 1750|
|Mir Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa'adullah Khan||?||16 December 1750||13 February 1751|
|Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan||24 November 1718||13 February 1751||8 July 1762|
|16 September 1763|
|Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II|
نظامالملک آصف جاہ دوم
|Mir Nizam Ali Khan||7 March 1734||8 July 1762||6 August 1803|
|Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III|
سکندر جاہ ،آصف جاہ تریہم
|Mir Akbar Ali Khan||11 November 1768||6 August 1803||21 May 1829|
|Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV|
ناصر الدولہ ،آصف جاہ چارہم
|Mir Farqunda Ali Khan||25 April 1794||21 May 1829||16 May 1857|
|Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V|
افضال الدولہ ،آصف جاہ پنجم
|Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan||11 October 1827||16 May 1857||26 February 1869|
|Asaf Jah VI|
آصف جاہ شیشم
|Mir Mahbub Ali Khan||17 August 1866||26 February 1869||29 August 1911|
|Asaf Jah VII|
آصف جاہ ہفتم
|Mir Osman Ali Khan||6 April 1886||29 August 1911||17 September 1948|
|24 February 1967|
The Nizam was reported to have fathered many children; as few as 34, and as many as 149 or more, including more than 100 illegitimate children.
The Asaf Jahi dynasty followed the Order of Precedence of male primogeniture regardless of the mother's marital status or rank. His eldest son was Azam Jah (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970), Prince of Berar.
Moazzam Jah, his second son, married Princess Niloufer, a princess of the Ottoman empire.
The Nizams' daughters had been married traditionally to young men of the Paigah family. This family belonged to the Sunni sect.
italics – Considered pretenders by most historians; refrained from exercising traditional authority during their reigns.
Places and things named after the Nizam include Nizamabad, a city and district in the state of Telangana; Jamia Nizamia, a university; the Nizam College; the Nizam's Museum; the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway; the Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences; the Jewels of the Nizams; the Nizam Diamond; the Nizam Sagar, HMAS Nizam, Nizamia observatory; the Nizam Club; the Nizam of Hyderabad necklace; the Nizam's Contingent; the Nizam Gate; the Nizam Palace; Government Nizamia General Hospital; and H.E.H. the Nizam's Charitable Trust.
Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi was a nobleman of Indian and Turkic descent and the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. He established the Hyderabad state, and ruled it from 1724 to 1748. He is also known by his titles Chin Qilich Khan, Nizam-ul-Mulk and Asaf Jah.
Asaf Jah VI Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi was the 6th Nizam of Hyderabad. He ruled Hyderabad state, one of the Princely states in India between 1869 and 1911.
Paigah is a family in the senior aristocracy of Hyderabad State and each maintained his own court, individual palaces, and a standing army of three or four thousand soldiers.
Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II was the Nizam of Hyderabad State in South India between 1762 and 1803. He was born on 7 March 1734 as fourth son to Asaf Jah I and Umda Begum. His official name is Asaf Jah II, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Nizam 'Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur, Fath Jang, Sipah Salar, Nawab Subedar of the Deccan.
Nawab Mir Akbar Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur, Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III, was the 3rd Nizam/Ruler of Hyderabad, India from 1803 to 1829.
Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah VMir Tahniyath Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi was the ruling Nizam of Hyderabad, India, from 1857 to 1869.
Mir Ahmed Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi, Nasir Jung, was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk by his wife Saeed-un-nisa Begum. He was born 26 February 1712. He succeeded his father as the Nizam of Hyderabad State in 1748. He had taken up a very pompous title of Humayun Jah, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Ahmad Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur, Nasir Jung, Nawab Subadar of the Deccan. However, he is most famously known as Nasir Jung.
Mir Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah Asaf Jah VIII (Telugu: మీర్ బర్కాత్ ఆలీ ఖాన్ ముకరం జా ఆసాఫ్ జా),(born 6 October 1934), less formally known as Mukarram Jah, became the titular Nizam of Hyderabad upon the death of his grandfather in 1967.
Alivardi Khan was the Nawab of Bengal during 1740–1756. He toppled the Nasiri Dynasty of the Nawabs and took powers of the Nawab. He is also one of the few Mughal-era leaders known for his victory during the Battle of Burdwan against the Maratha Empire.
Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, or Muhammed Ali, Wallajah, was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah was born to Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan, by his second wife, Fakhr un-nisa Begum Sahiba, a niece of Sayyid Ali Khan Safavi ul-Mosawi of Persia, sometime Naib suba of Trichonopoly, on 7 July 1717 at Delhi. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah the Nawab of Arcot often referred to himself as the Subedar of the Carnatic in his letters and correspondence with the then Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
Anwaruddin Khan, also known as Muhammad Anwaruddin, was the 1st Nawab of Arcot of the second Dynasty. He was a major figure during the first two Carnatic Wars. He was also Subedar of Thatta from 1721-1733.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Mazharuddin Khan Bahadur, commonly known as Sir Asman Jah or Nawab Sir Asman Jah Bahadur, was an Indian noble who served as Prime Minister of Hyderabad from 1887 to 1894. A member of the powerful Paigah family, Asman Jah built the Asman Garh Palace, Basheer Bagh Palace, and Mahboob Chowk Clock Tower. He represented Nizam Mahbub Ali Khan at the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria.
Nawab Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung III, Feroze Jung III, or Imad-ul-Mulk, was a mid-18th-century kingmaker during the Mughal Empire. He was the son of Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung II. His original name was Shahabuddin Muhammad Feroz Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi. After the death of his father in 1752, he was recommended by Nawab Safdar Jung to be appointed as Mir Bakhshi and received the titles of Amir ul-Umara and Imad ul-Mulk by the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur of Delhi. He was also The Subehdar of Assam until 1782.
Mir Shahâb ud-Din Siddiqi titled Farzand-i-Arjumand, Nawab Ghazi ud-din Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur, Feroze Jung I, Sipah Salar was the son of Kilich Khan Khwaja Abid Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi the Sadr us Sudur of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and was raised to the rank of an Amir with the initial titles of Ghazi ud-Din Bahadur Khan and later Feroze Jung after his father's death. He was commander and chief at the Siege of Golkonda Fort in 1686 when Emperor Aurangzeb personally conquered Golkonda Sultanate taking the last Sultan Abul Hasan Qutb Shah prisoner.
Intizam-ud-Daula, Ghazi Ud-Din Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Feroze Jung II was the eldest son of Asaf Jah I Mir Qamaruddin Khan Siddiqi. He was born on 13 March 1709, his mother is Saidunisa Begum. He died in Aurnagabad on 16 October 1752.
The line of succession to the former throne of Hyderabad was by male primogeniture, regardless of legitimacy. As per Mughal Turkic custom, however, the ruling Nizam could exercise the option of designating any eligible male member of the dynasty as his successor.
Mir Gowhar Ali Khan, commonly known as Mubarez-ud-Daulah was a member of the Asaf Jahi dynasty of Hyderabad State. A son of Nizam Sikandar Jah, he was influenced by the Wahhabi movement and wanted to overthrow the British and defeat his elder brother and Nizam Nasir-ud-Daulah. However, his plans were intercepted by Resident James Stuart Fraser and he was arrested by the Nizam.
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