Nizhny Bestyakh

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Nizhny Bestyakh

Нижний Бестях
Other transcription(s)
  YakutАллараа Бэстээх
Posiolok Nizhnii Bestiakh, Iakutiia.JPG
In Nizhny Bestyakh
Location of Nizhny Bestyakh
Nizhny Bestyakh
Russia edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Nizhny Bestyakh
Location of Nizhny Bestyakh
Yakutia notext.svg
Red pog.svg
Nizhny Bestyakh
Nizhny Bestyakh (Sakha Republic)
Coordinates: 61°58′N129°55′E / 61.967°N 129.917°E / 61.967; 129.917 Coordinates: 61°58′N129°55′E / 61.967°N 129.917°E / 61.967; 129.917
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic [2]
Administrative district Megino-Kangalassky District [2]
SettlementSettlement of Nizhny Bestyakh [2]
Founded1920 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Urban-type settlement status since1971 [2]
Elevation
138 m (453 ft)
Population
  Total3,518
  Estimate 
(2018) [4]
4,152 (+18%)
   Capital ofSettlement of Nizhny Bestyakh [2]
   Municipal district Megino-Kangalassky Municipal District [5]
  Urban settlementNizhny Bestyakh Urban Settlement [5]
   Capital ofNizhny Bestyakh Urban Settlement [5]
Time zone UTC+9 (MSK+6   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [6] )
Postal code(s) [7]
678080
OKTMO ID98629155051
Nizhny Bestyakh population
2010 Census 3,518 [3]
2002 Census 3,327 [8]
1989 Census 3,997 [9]
1979 Census 3,363 [10]

Nizhny Bestyakh (Russian : Ни́жний Бестя́х; Yakut : Аллараа Бэстээх) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Megino-Kangalassky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the east bank of the Lena River, opposite the republic's capital city of Yakutsk, 34 kilometers (21 mi) from Mayya, the administrative center of the district. [2] As of the 2010 Census, its population was 3,518. [3]

Contents

History

The predecessor of Nizhny Bestyakh was called Yarmanka (sometimes spelled Yarmonka or Yarmonga). Here, at the mouth of the Suola River, from about 1750 to 1850, pack horses were loaded for the long journey down to the Okhotsk Coast. A ferry service was founded in 1772 and operated by exiles for five months a year. It was a gathering place for merchants and cargoes bound eastward. There was ample grass for the herds of cattle and pack horses. [11]

Urban-type settlement status was granted to Nizhny Bestyakh in 1971. [2]

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, the urban-type settlement of Nizhny Bestyakh [1] is incorporated within Megino-Kangalassky District as the Settlement of Nizhny Bestyakh. [2] As a municipal division, the Settlement of Nizhny Bestyakh is incorporated within Megino-Kangalassky Municipal District as Nizhny Bestyakh Urban Settlement. [5]

Transportation

Nizhny Bestyakh is the terminus of the only road connection to Yakutsk, the Lena Highway, and is the starting point of the Kolyma Highway, leading to Magadan and the Pacific Ocean coast further east. A ferry allows for transport across the Lena River in summer; in winter, traffic drives directly across the ice on the frozen river. In spring and fall, the crossing is not possible due to the movement of ice.

Nizhny Bestyakh was planned to be the terminus of the Amur–Yakutsk Mainline; however, plans now call for a road and a rail bridge to be built further upstream, allowing a year-round land transport connection with Yakutsk. [12] In future, Nizhny Bestyakh may find itself on the route for planned extensions of the railway towards Magadan. There are plans to make it a transportation hub for northeastern Siberia and to eventually grant it town status. [13] The railhead for construction of the railway reached Nizhny Bestyakh in late 2011. In October 2019, the European Rail Timetable compilers report that a passenger train is now running on alternate days on the Amur-Yakutsk main line, terminating at Nizhny Bestyakh. [14]

A three kilometre car bridge over the Lena River might be ready by 2025 after Vladimir Putin’s decisive ‘the situation matured to implementation’ resolution on the draft project, reported Kommersant newspaper in November 2019. [15]

Geography

Climate

Nizhny-Bestyakh has a strong subarctic climate (Köppen Dfd). However summer can be quite warm, sometimes exceeding 30 °C (86 °F).

Climate data for Yakutsk, a city next to NB, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1891–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)−11.5
(11.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
8.3
(46.9)
21.1
(70.0)
31.1
(88.0)
35.1
(95.2)
38.4
(101.1)
35.4
(95.7)
27.0
(80.6)
18.6
(65.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F)−35.7
(−32.3)
−28.7
(−19.7)
−12.3
(9.9)
1.7
(35.1)
13.2
(55.8)
22.4
(72.3)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
11.5
(52.7)
−3.6
(25.5)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−34.6
(−30.3)
−3.5
(25.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−38.6
(−37.5)
−33.8
(−28.8)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−4.8
(23.4)
7.5
(45.5)
16.4
(61.5)
19.5
(67.1)
15.2
(59.4)
6.1
(43.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−37.6
(−35.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
Average low °C (°F)−41.5
(−42.7)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−11.8
(10.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.3
(48.7)
12.7
(54.9)
8.9
(48.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−12.2
(10.0)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−14.1
(6.6)
Record low °C (°F)−63.0
(−81.4)
−64.4
(−83.9)
−54.9
(−66.8)
−41.0
(−41.8)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−4.5
(23.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−54.5
(−66.1)
−59.8
(−75.6)
−64.4
(−83.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)9
(0.4)
8
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
8
(0.3)
20
(0.8)
36
(1.4)
39
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
31
(1.2)
18
(0.7)
16
(0.6)
10
(0.4)
237
(9.3)
Average rainy days000.13141615151640.1083
Average snowy days2828171050.30.0304252827172
Average relative humidity (%)76767060545762677278787669
Mean monthly sunshine hours 199723427430333334727317410659122,231
Source 1: Погода и Климат [16]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [17]


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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 According to Article 7 of the Law #77-I, lower-level administrative divisions with the status of a settlement have their administrative centers in an inhabited locality with the status of an urban-type settlement. According to the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic, Nizhny Bestyakh is the administrative center of the Settlement of Nizhny Bestyakh.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  3. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Law #173-Z 353-III
  6. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  10. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России" [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia](XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  11. James R. Gibson. Feeding the Russian Fur Trade, 1969
  12. http://www.sakha-info.ru/index_eng.php?news=2157%5B%5D
  13. RIA Novosti. В Якутии появится новый город (in Russian)
  14. Simon Calder (October 3, 2019). "NEW RAIL LINK TO WORLD'S COLDEST CITY OPENS". The Independent .
  15. "Vladimir Putin approves Russia's next mega infrastructure project, a $1.3bn bridge across river Lena". The Siberian Times. November 18, 2019.
  16. "Climate Jakutsk". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  17. "JAKUTSK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved May 16, 2019.

Sources