Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

Last updated
Nizhny Novgorod Region
Нижегородская область
Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: [1]
Map of Russia - Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.svg
Coordinates: 56°29′N44°32′E / 56.483°N 44.533°E / 56.483; 44.533 Coordinates: 56°29′N44°32′E / 56.483°N 44.533°E / 56.483; 44.533
CountryRussia
Federal district Volga [2]
Economic region Volga-Vyatka [3]
EstablishedJanuary 14, 1929 (first), [4]
December 5, 1936 (second) [4]
Administrative center Nizhny Novgorod [5]
Government
  Body Legislative Assembly [6]
   Governor [6] Gleb Nikitin [7] [8]
Area
[9]
  Total76,900 km2 (29,700 sq mi)
Area rank 40th
Population
 (2010 Census) [10]
  Total3,310,597
  Estimate 
(2018) [11]
3,234,752 (−2.3%)
  Rank 10th
  Density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
   Urban
78.9%
   Rural
21.1%
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [12] )
ISO 3166 code RU-NIZ
License plates 52, 152
OKTMO ID22000000
Official languagesRussian [13]
Website http://www.government-nnov.ru/

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Russian: Нижегородская область, Nizhegorodskaya oblast), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod. It has a population of 3,310,597 as of the 2010 Census. [10] From 1932 to 1990 it was known as Gorky Oblast.

Contents

The oblast is crossed by the Volga River. Apart from Nizhny Novgorod's metropolitan area (including Dzerzhinsk, Bor and Kstovo) the biggest city is Arzamas. Near the town of Sarov there is the Serafimo-Diveyevsky Monastery, one of the largest convents in Russia, established by Saint Seraphim of Sarov. The Makaryev Monastery opposite of the town of Lyskovo used to be the location of the largest fair in Eastern Europe.[ citation needed ] Other historic towns include Gorodets and Balakhna, located on the Volga to the north from Nizhny Novgorod.

Geography

The oblast covers an area of 76,900 square kilometers (29,700 sq mi), which is approximately equal to the entire area of the Benelux countries or Czech Republic. Agricultural land occupies 41% of this area; forests, 48%, lakes and rivers, 2%; and other lands, 9%. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast borders Kostroma Oblast (N), Kirov Oblast (NE), the Mari El Republic (E), the Chuvash Republic (E), the Republic of Mordovia (S), Ryazan Oblast (SW), Vladimir Oblast (W), and Ivanovo Oblast (NW).

Natural resources

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is not rich in natural resources, which are limited to commercial deposits of sand (including titanium-zirconium sands), clay, gypsum, peat, mineral salt, and timber.

Politics

Nizhny Novgorod House of Legislative Assembly in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, 2013 Byvshie Prisutstvennye Mesta - panoramio.jpg
Nizhny Novgorod House of Legislative Assembly in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, 2013

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: the first secretary of the Nizhny Novgorod (then Gorki) CPSU Committee (who in reality had the greatest authority); the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power); and the chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). After 1991, the CPSU lost all its power. The head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor, was appointed/elected alongside the elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Sights

Map of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Oblast map.png
Map of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

The unique architectural construction—the 128-meter (420 ft) steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1929—is located near the town of Dzerzhinsk on the left bank of the Oka River.

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Population: 3,310,597(2010 Census); [10] 3,524,028(2002 Census); [14] 3,714,322(1989 Census). [15]

According to the 2010 Census, [10] ethnic Russians at 3,109,661 made up 95.1% of the oblast's population. Other ethnic groups included Tatars (44,103, or 1.4%), Mordva (19,138, or 0.6%), Ukrainians (17,657, or 0.5%), and various smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total. Additionally, 42,349 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. [16]

Deaths decreased by 8.5% in 2011 compared to 2010. [17]

Vital statistics for 2012

2009 – 1.43 | 2010 – 1.42 | 2011 – 1.44 | 2012 – 1.55 | 2013 – 1.56 | 2014 – 1.59 | 2015 – 1.67 | 2016 – 1.65(e)

According to the Federal Migration Service, 20,450 foreign citizens were registered in the oblast in 2006. The actual number of foreigners residing in the oblast as of June 1, 2006 was estimated to be over 22,000. [20]

Religion

Savior's Church in Balakhna E7141-Balakhna-Saviour-Church.jpg
Savior's Church in Balakhna
Religion in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [21] [22]
Russian Orthodoxy
69.2%
Other Orthodox
1.6%
Other Christians
2.1%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
0.7%
Spiritual but not religious
15.2%
Atheism and irreligion
10%
Other and undeclared
1.2%

According to a 2012 survey [23] 69.2% of the population of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, and 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery). In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 10% is atheist, and 0.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. [23]

Economy

An IKEA shopping center in Fedyakovo. C0258-Fedyakovo-Mega.jpg
An IKEA shopping center in Fedyakovo.

The oblast ranks seventh in Russia in industrial output. Processing industries predominate in the local economy. More than 650 industrial companies employ nearly 700,000 people, or 62% of the workforce involved in material production. Industry generates 83% of the regional GDP and accounts for 89% of all material expenditures. The leading sectors are engineering and metalworking, followed by chemical and petrochemical industries and forestry, woodworking, and paper industries. The first three sectors account for about 75% of all industrial production.

The oblast has traditionally been attractive to investors. In 2002, Moody's rating agency confirmed a Caa1rating based on the region's long-term foreign currency liabilities. [24]

Peat Briquette Factory Peat Briquette Factory.jpg
Peat Briquette Factory

The region maintains trade relations with many countries and has an export surplus. The largest volume of exports goes to Ukraine, Belarus, Switzerland, Kazakhstan, Belgium, and France. Imports come mainly from Ukraine, Germany, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Austria, Netherlands, China, and the United States.

The stock market infrastructure is quite well developed in Nizhny Novgorod, and the exchange business is expanding. Companies and organizations registered in the region include 1153 joint-stock companies, 63 investment institutions, 34 commercial banks, 35 insurance companies, 1 voucher investment fund, 1 investment fund, 17 nongovernmental pension funds, 2 associations of professional stock market dealers, and 3 exchanges (stock, currency, and agricultural). The oblast is noted for having relatively highly developed market relations. Today, the region needs serious partners interested in equitable, long-term, mutually beneficial partnerships.

There are 650+ industrial companies in the region, [25] most of them engaged in the following sectors:

These key industries are supplemented by other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, trade, services, communications and transport.

Transportation

Narrow gauge railways in the region:

Related Research Articles

Kstovsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Kstovsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Kstovsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,225 square kilometers (473 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kstovo. Population: 112,823 ; 46,759 (2002 Census); 47,917 (1989 Census). The population of Kstovo accounts for 59.1% of the district's total population.

Navashino Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Navashino is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on a branch of the Oka River, 10 km east of Murom and 158 kilometers (98 mi) southwest of Nizhny Novgorod. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 16,416.

Ardatovsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

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Arzamassky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Arzamassky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Arzamassky Municipal District. It is located in the southern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 2,016.9 square kilometers (778.7 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Arzamas. Population: 43,723 ; 46,086 (2002 Census); 54,491 (1989 Census).

Balakhninsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Balakhninsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Balakhninsky Municipal District. It is located in the west of the oblast. The area of the district is 958.2 square kilometers (370.0 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Balakhna. Population: 77,598 ; 26,345 (2002 Census); 60,487 (1989 Census). The population of Balakhna accounts for 66.4% of the district's total population.

Bolshemurashkinsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Bolshemurashkinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Bolshemurashkinsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 658.6 square kilometers (254.3 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Bolshoye Murashkino. Population: 10,508 ; 12,585 (2002 Census); 13,867 (1989 Census). The population of Bolshoye Murashkino accounts for 52.9% of the district's total population.

Buturlinsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Buturlinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Buturlinsky Municipal District. It is located in the southeastern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,105.2 square kilometers (426.7 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Buturlino. Population: 14,471 ; 16,723 (2002 Census); 16,792 (1989 Census). The population of Buturlino accounts for 44.3% of the district's total population.

Dalnekonstantinovsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

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Koverninsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

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Krasnobakovsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

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Kulebaksky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Kulebaksky District was an administrative and municipal district (raion) in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. It was located in the southwest of the oblast. The area of the district was 938.9 square kilometers (362.5 sq mi). Its administrative center was the town of Kulebaki. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 52,377, with the population of Kulebaki accounting for 68.3% of that number.

Lukoyanovsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

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Shatkovsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Shatkovsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Shatkovsky Municipal District. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,440.7 square kilometers (556.3 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Shatki. Population: 27,018 ; 28,841 (2002 Census); 30,364 (1989 Census). The population of Shatki accounts for 35.7% of the district's total population.

Tonkinsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Tonkinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Tonkinsky Municipal District. It is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,018.5 square kilometers (393.2 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Tonkino. Population: 9,007 ; 11,097 (2002 Census); 12,551 (1989 Census). The population of Tonkino accounts for 56.7% of the district's total population.

Tonshayevsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Tonshayevsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Tonshayevsky Municipal District. It is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 2,353.1 square kilometers (908.5 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Tonshayevo. Population: 20,219 ; 20,038 (2002 Census); 19,588 (1989 Census). The population of Tonshayevo accounts for 22.6% of the district's total population.

Urensky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Urensky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Urensky Municipal District. It is located in the north of the oblast. The area of the district is 2,102.7 square kilometers (811.9 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Uren. Population: 30,106 ; 32,045 (2002 Census); 36,847 (1989 Census). The population of Uren accounts for 40.9% of the district's total population.

Vadsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Vadsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Vadsky Municipal District. It is located in the southern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 742.7 square kilometers (286.8 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Vad. Population: 15,626 ; 16,442 (2002 Census); 15,365 (1989 Census). The population of Vad accounts for 42.9% of the district's total population.

Voznesensky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Voznesensky Municipal District. It is located in the southwest of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,302.9 square kilometers (503.1 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Voznesenskoye. Population: 17,352 ; 19,790 (2002 Census); 22,538 (1989 Census). The population of Voznesenskoye accounts for 39.1% of the district's total population.

Kulebaki Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Kulebaki is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located 188 kilometers (117 mi) southwest of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 35,759.

Arya (urban-type settlement) Work settlement in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Arya is an urban locality in Urensky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Population: 5,015 (2010 Census); 5,016 (2002 Census); 5,481 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. Article 1.3 of the Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast states that the oblast may have its own anthem; however, as of 2014 no anthem has been adopted.
  2. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. 1 2 "Нижегородская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 января 1992 г.". ГИПП "Нижполиграф", Нижний Новгород, 1993, стр. 5
  5. Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 5.5
  6. 1 2 Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 21
  7. Official website of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Valery Pavlinovich Shantsev, Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Archived October 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  8. "Путин отправил в отставку губернатора Нижегородской области". РБК. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  9. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  10. 1 2 3 4 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  11. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  12. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  13. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  14. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. December 19, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  17. "Росстат. Демография". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  18. "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". www.gks.ru. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  19. "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". www.gks.ru. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  20. Дарья ВЛАДИМИРОВА, "Стройки под особым контролем", Rakurs, 30 June 2006
  21. "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  22. 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  23. 1 2 Arena – Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  24. "Nizhegorodskaya oblast, Russia guide". russiatrek.org. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  25. "Nizhny Novgorod News Network – NN.NN.RU". Government.nnov.ru. Retrieved August 13, 2012.

Sources

Shukhov towers built in Nizhny Novgorod suburbs near Dzerzhinsk in 1927-1929 Shukhov Oka Towers 1988 photo by Igor Kazus.jpg
Shukhov towers built in Nizhny Novgorod suburbs near Dzerzhinsk in 1927–1929