|City of Nogales|
Location of Nogales in Santa Cruz County, Arizona
|• Mayor||Arturo Garino|
|• City||20.84 sq mi (53.97 km2)|
|• Land||20.82 sq mi (53.92 km2)|
|• Water||0.02 sq mi (0.05 km2)|
|Elevation||3,829 ft (1,167 m)|
|• Density||961.14/sq mi (371.10/km2)|
|• Metro||1,043,322 (US: 53rd)|
|Time zone||UTC-7 (MST (no DST))|
|Website||City of Nogales|
Nogales is a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The population was 20,837 at the 2010 census and estimated 20,407 in 2014. Nogales forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,027,683 as of the 2010 Census. The city is the county seat of Santa Cruz County.
Santa Cruz is a county in southern Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population is 47,420. The county seat is Nogales. The county was established in 1899. It borders Pima County to the north and west, Cochise County to the east, and the Mexican state of Sonora to the south.
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.
Nogales, Arizona, borders the city of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, and is Arizona's largest international border community. The southern terminus of Interstate 19 is located in Nogales at the U.S.-Mexico border; the highway continues south into Mexico as Mexico Federal Highway 15. The highways meeting in Nogales are a major road intersection in the CANAMEX Corridor, connecting Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Nogales also is the beginning of the Arizona Sun Corridor, an economically important trade region stretching from Nogales to Prescott, including the Tucson and Phoenix metropolitan areas.
Heroica Nogales, more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and the county seat of the Municipality of Nogales. It is located on the northern border of the Mexican state of Sonora. The city is abutted on its north by the city of Nogales, Arizona, across the U.S.-Mexico border.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
Nogales is home to four international ports of entry, including the Morley Pedestrian Port of Entry, Dennis Deconcini Pedestrian and Passenger Vehicle Port of Entry, Nogales International Airport, and the Mariposa Port of Entry. The Nogales-Mariposa Port of Entry has twelve passenger vehicle inspection lanes and eight commercial inspection lanes.
The Nogales Port of Entry evolved over time, rather than being planned. When an international fence divided Nogales in the early 20th century, vehicles were inspected at a gate at Grand Avenue, trains were inspected just east of there, and pedestrians were inspected further to the east at Morley Avenue. A small tile-roofed inspection station was completed in 1931 and was expanded in 1949. Substantial renovations were performed in 2011.
The Nogales Arizona Port of Entry on Grand Avenue has been in existence since the early 20th century. It connects Interstate 19 with Mexican Federal Highway 15. The port of entry is named after former Arizona Senator Dennis DeConcini. The border station was completely rebuilt in 1966 and upgrades to the pedestrian gates were made by the General Services Administration in 2012. It is one of three border crossings in Nogales; the Nogales-Mariposa Port of Entry, built in 1973, handles commercial traffic west of the Grand Avenue crossing, while the adjacent Nogales-Morley Gate Port of Entry is used for pedestrians.
Nogales International Airport is a county-owned public-use airport located 8 miles northeast of the central business district of Nogales, a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States and is also a port of entry into the United States. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2019–2023, in which it is categorized as a local general aviation facility. It is not served by any commercial airlines as of June 2014.
Due to its location on the border and its major ports of entry, Nogales funnels an estimated $30 billion worth of international trade into Arizona and the United States, per year, in fresh produce and manufactured goods from Mexico and the world through the deep sea port in Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico. This trade helps to support tens of thousands of jobs and the overall economies in Ambos Nogales and throughout the American state of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora.The seizure of a record amount of fentanyl by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection on February 2, 2019 occurred at the Port of Nogales in Arizona.
Guaymas is a city in Guaymas Municipality, in the southwest part of the state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. The city is 117 km south of the state capital of Hermosillo, and 242 miles from the U.S. border. The municipality is located on the Gulf of California and the western edge of the Sonoran Desert and has a hot, dry climate and 117 km of beaches. The municipality’s formal name is Guaymas de Zaragoza and the city’s formal name is the Heróica Ciudad de Guaymas.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than two hours. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth.
United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the largest federal law enforcement agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, and is the country's primary border control organization. It is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. regulations, including trade, customs, and immigration. CBP is one of the largest law enforcement agencies in the United States. It has a workforce of more than 45,600 sworn federal agents and officers. It has its headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Known in O'odham as Nowa:l,[ citation needed ] (which translates as "prickly pear cactus" or the Spanish nopal) the name Nogales means "black walnuts" in Spanish, and the walnut trees which once grew abundantly in the mountain pass between the cities of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, can still be found around the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.8 square miles (54 km2), all of it land.[ citation needed ]
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.
The city is at an elevation of 3,829 feet (1,167 m).
Nogales has a semi-arid steppe climate, which is less hot and more rainy than a typical arid climate classification such as Phoenix. In the winter months, Nogales averages in the mid to upper 60s, with January averaging daily highs of around 63 °F or 17.2 °C. Lows typically settle just below the freezing mark (32 °F or 0 °C) on a majority of nights, but it is not uncommon to see temperatures tumble below 25 °F or −3.9 °C on some winter nights.
On the other hand, in the summer months, highs average between 90 and 100 °F (32.2 and 37.8 °C), with the month of June being the hottest with an average daytime high of 96 °F or 35.6 °C. Nighttime lows for the summer months remain in the upper 50s and lower 60s for the duration of the season. The Arizona Monsoon generally runs through July and August, and these months typically see eight inches or more of combined rainfall, which brings the average annual precipitation for Nogales to about 16 inches or 410 millimetres. Some monsoon season storms are capable of producing several inches of rain in a short amount of time, creating flash flood hazards.
Nogales’ all-time highest recorded temperature is 112 °F or 44.4 °C, which was reached on June 26, 1990. The lowest recorded temperature was −4 °F or −20 °C on December 8, 1978.
|Climate data for Nogales, Arizona|
|Record high °F (°C)||88|
|Average high °F (°C)||63.3|
|Average low °F (°C)||28.8|
|Record low °F (°C)||6|
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.02|
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||0.6|
|Source #2: (for extremes)|
The name "Nogales" is derived from the Spanish word for "walnut" or "walnut tree." It refers to the large stands of walnut trees that once stood in the mountain pass where Nogales is located.
Nogales was at the beginning of the 1775–1776 Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition as it entered the present day U.S. from New Spain, and the town is now on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. On the second floor of the 1904 Nogales Courthouse is a small room dedicated to the 1775–1776 Anza Expedition.
In 1841, a land grant from the Mexican government to the Elías family established Los Nogales de Elías. Following the Gadsden purchase in 1853, Nogales became a part of the United States of America. In 1880, Russian immigrant Jacob Isaacson built a trading post at present-day Nogales. The U.S. Postal Service opened the Isaacson post office but renamed it as Nogales in 1883.
In 1915, according to historian David Leighton, Sonora Gov. Jose M. Maytorena ordered construction of an 11-wire fence, separating Nogales, Sonora from Nogales, Arizona, but it was taken down four months later.
On August 27, 1918, a battle between United States Army forces and Mexican militia - mostly civilian in composition - took place. Culminating as the result of a decade's worth of tensions originating from the Mexican Revolution and earlier battles in Nogales along the border in 1913 and 1915, the main consequence of the 1918 violence saw the building of the first permanent border wall between Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, along the previously unobstructed boundary line on International Street.
The economy of Nogales is heavily dependent on the cross-border trade through its Ports of Entry by produce distributors and American-based manufacturing plants in Nogales, Sonora and throughout the rest of the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. Most of Nogales' economy is based on agribusiness and produce distributors, which comes from large farms in the Mexican agri-belt. Despite its small population, Nogales actually receives much patronage from its bordering sister-city, Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. Most observers guess the population of Nogales, Sonora, at roughly 300,000.[ citation needed ] International commerce is a big part of Nogales’ economy. More than 60 percent of Nogales’ sales tax comes from the estimated 30,000 Mexican shoppers crossing the border daily. [ citation needed ] Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, are home to one of the largest maquiladora clusters.[ citation needed ] This enables American manufacturing plants on both sides of the border to take advantage of favorable wage and operating costs and excellent transportation and distribution networks.[ citation needed ]
The Consulate-General of Mexico in Nogales is located on 135 W. Cardwell St.
The United States Department of Homeland Security is a major economic driver in the Ambos Nogales region, with thousands of employees working for both the Border Patrol and Customs and Border Protection. Due to the large federal, state, and local police presence, Nogales has one of the highest police per-capita levels in the United States.
The largest employers in Nogales are:
The city of Nogales has a wide range of community facilities. These include nine parks, the Pimería Alta Historical Society Museum, an art gallery, Oasis Movie Theater, four recreation centers, four swimming pools, eight athletic fields, a library, six tennis courts and three golf courses. It has public elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools. Its financial institutions include six banks. Its governmental agencies include a staffed city and local fire department and a city police department. It is home to Nogales International Airport, which includes a 7,200 ft. runway and a terminal with a customs facility, passenger waiting areas, and a coffee shop. It has two regional health care facilities, including Carondolet Holy Cross Hospital located at 1171 W Target Range Road, and Mariposa Health Clinic located at 1852 N Mastick Way.
Area golf courses include:
The Nogales area is served by the Nogales Unified School District for K-12 education, including 5 elementary schools, two middle schools, Nogales High School, and Pierson Vocational High School. Institutions of higher learning include Cochise College, University of Arizona Santa Cruz, and University of Phoenix.
City Hall is located at 777 North Grand Avenue. The Police Department and Fire Department are both housed here, with Fire Station 2 located at 2751 N Grand Avenue. The City Recreation Center is located at 1500 N Hohokam Drive and has a basketball court and year-round swimming pool. Softball and a soccer field are found adjacent to the Recreation Center. Public Works is located at 1450 N Hohokam Drive. A waste transfer facility is located there for public use. A skate park, baseball stadium, and little league baseball field are located at 100 E Madison St.
Santa Cruz County administrative offices, courts, and jail are located at 2150 N Congress Drive in Nogales.
The county of Santa Cruz and the city of Nogales have 200 properties listed in the National Register of Historic Sites, including Tumacacori National Monument first visited by Father Eusebio Kino in 1691 and Tubac Presidio, established by the Spanish in 1752 on an Indian village site. Others include the Old Tubac Schoolhouse, Old Nogales City Hall, Santa Cruz County Courthouse, and Patagonia Railroad Depot. The Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary, 19 miles east, attracts worldwide visitors to see its diverse bird life. It is also host to ghost towns and mining camps, curio shops, first-class restaurants and night clubs.
The Santa Cruz County Historical Courthouse on Morley Street/Court Street has the statue of Lady Justice on top of the building. The Nogales version of Lady Justice is not wearing a blindfold.
The architecturally rich downtown area of Nogales near the Mexican–American border offers a unique opportunity for visitors to experience the downtown border-style shopping setting similar to those from the mid-20th century. Interesting architecture and historical homes along Crawford and Court Streets provide a glimpse of border life at its peak during that time period.A day trip to old Nogales, Sonora reveals many of the same architectural uniqueness.
Several state parks and recreation areas are located close to Nogales, including Patagonia State Park, Peña Blanca Lake, Parker Canyon Lake, and Coronado National Forest. The Wine Country of Sonoita-Elgin is also located 20 miles east of Nogales.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the censusof 2010, there were 20,878 people, 5,985 households, and 4,937 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,002.1 people per square mile (387.0/km²). There were 6,501 housing units at an average density of 312.0 per square mile (120.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.7% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 24.3% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. 95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 6,362 households out of which 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 24.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.5% were non-families. 15.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.12 and the average family size was 3.62.
In the city, the population was spread out with 34.6% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,044, and the median income for a family was $24,637. Males had a median income of $24,636 versus $18,403 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,440. About 30.8% of families and 32.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.2% of those under age 18 and 32.9% of those age 65 or over.
The City of Nogales operates under a council-manager form of government in which the mayor is elected to a 4-year term and has a single vote on the city council. The council then hires a city manager to run the day-to-day operations of the city. The 6 city council members are elected at-large to 4-year terms.
Nogales is located at the south end of Interstate 19. Arizona State Route 189 connects Interstate 19 with the Nogales-Mariposa Port of Entry and Mexican Federal Highway 15. Arizona State Route 82 connects Nogales with Patagonia and Sonoita. Interstate 11 is proposed to replace I-19, terminating in Nogales.
Santa Cruz County operates the Nogales International Airport, a general use airport.
Nogales does not currently have any public transportation.Private bus companies Greyhound and TUFESA, as well as several shuttle companies, connect Nogales with Tucson and points north.
Nogales, Arizona, was the filming location for the motion picture musical, Oklahoma! . Nogales was chosen because it looked more like turn-of-the-century Oklahoma (when the musical is set) than anywhere in Oklahoma did in 1955, when the film was made. It was made an "honorary" part of the state of Oklahoma for the duration of the film shoot by order of the governor of Arizona.[ citation needed ]
Many dozens of motion pictures have been filmed around the Nogales area.
The 1951 biblical motion picture David and Bathsheba was filmed there.[ citation needed ]
A small part of William Gibson's short story, "The Gernsback Continuum" refers to the city of Nogales. It is also mentioned as a border crossing point in Carlos Castaneda's Don Juan series, and a gateway into the Mexican Yaqui communities of Sonora.
Nogales is a locale for filming some of the TV reality documentary, Border Wars , in particular in the second episode of that show's first season. The Animal Planet reality show Law on the Border was filmed in Nogales, highlighting the K-9 units of the Nogales Police Department.[ episode needed ]
The Hangover Part III was partially filmed in Nogales during late 2012. Parts of town were decorated to appear to be Tijuana, Mexico.
Nogales is discussed at length in the popular political economics book Why Nations Fail , comparing the relative success of Nogales, AZ to the poverty of Nogales, Mexico.
Oscar winner Benicio Del Toro dedicated his award to Ambos Nogales during his acceptance speech at the 73rd Annual Academy Awards in 2001.
Interstate 19 (I-19) is a north–south Interstate Highway located entirely within the U.S. state of Arizona. I-19 travels from Nogales, roughly 300 feet (91 m) from the Mexican border, to Tucson, at I-10. The highway also travels through the cities of Rio Rico, Green Valley, and Sahuarita.
Sonoita is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 818 at the 2010 census.
Tubac is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 1,191 at the 2010 census. The place name "Tubac" is an English borrowing from a Hispanicized form of the O'odham name, which translates into English as "rotten". The original O'odham name is written Cuwak. The first syllable is accented. When first taken into Spanish speech, it was spelled Tubaca. Finally over time the last "a" was dropped. Tubac is situated on the Santa Cruz River.
The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail is a 1,210-mile (1,950 km) National Park Service unit in the United States National Historic Trail and National Millennium Trail programs. The trail route extends from Nogales on the U.S.-Mexico border in Arizona, through the California desert and coastal areas in Southern California and the Central Coast region to San Francisco.
The Santa Cruz River is a river in Southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. It is approximately 184 miles (296 km) long.
Sonoita Creek is a stream in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. It originates near and takes its name from the abandoned Pima mission in the high valley near Sonoita. It flows steadily for the first 15 miles (24 km) of its westward course past Patagonia, its bird sanctuary and Patagonia Lake, but sinks beneath the sand seven to eight miles (13 km) before joining the Santa Cruz River a few miles north of Nogales. This confluence provides water for Tumacácori and Tubac and collects in the marsh lands around San Xavier del Bac downstream, to the north. The Santa Rita Mountains lie to the north and the Canelo Hills, Red Mountain and the Patagonia Mountains lie to the south. Harshaw Creek is a southern tributary which joins the Sonoita near Patagonia. Harshaw Creek drains the area between the Patagonia Mountains to the west and the high San Rafael Valley grasslands to the east. The ghost town of Harshaw lies within its watershed. Sonoita Creek contains black bullhead, red shiner, mosquitofish, crayfish, American bullfrogs, largemouth bass, Gila topminnows, speckled dace, longfin dace, Sonora suckers, and desert suckers.
North American area code 520 is a state of Arizona telephone area code serving Tucson and most of the southeastern part of the state.
Tubac Presidio State Historic Park, located in Tubac, Arizona, USA, preserves the ruins of the Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac and various other buildings, thereby presenting a timeline of human settlement in this Southern Arizona town. The park contains a museum, a number of historic sites, an underground archeology exhibit displaying the excavated foundations of the Tubac Presidio, and a picnic area. Various cultural events are held on-site throughout the year, including Anza Days (October), Los Tubaqueños living history presentations, archeological tours, and nature walks. Until recently, the park was administered by Arizona State Parks and was the first park in the Arizona state park system. As a result of budget cutbacks, the Tubac Presidio was scheduled to be closed in 2010, but was rescued by local residents and the Tubac Historical Society. It is now operated by The Friends of the Presidio and staffed with dedicated volunteers.
State Route 189 is a highway in Santa Cruz County, Arizona that runs from its junction with Interstate 19 to the US-Mexico Border. It is a north–south route for its entirety.
Rio Rico is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 18,962 at the 2010 census.
Patagonia Lake is a man-made reservoir in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States, located southwest of the town of Patagonia, Arizona and northeast of Nogales. The lake was created by damming Sonoita Creek, and is a popular area for boating and sport fishing. Facilities are maintained by Arizona State Parks as part of Patagonia Lake State Park.
The Battle of Ambos Nogales, or as it is known in Mexico La batalla del 27 de agosto, was an engagement fought on 27 August 1918 between Mexican military and civilian militia forces and elements of U.S. Army troops of the 35th Infantry Regiment, who were reinforced by the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry Regiment, and commanded by Lt. Col. Frederick J. Herman. The American soldiers and militia forces were stationed in Nogales, Arizona, and the Mexican soldiers and armed Mexican militia were in Nogales, Sonora. This battle was notable for being a significant confrontation between U.S. and Mexican forces during the Border War, which took place in the context of the Mexican Revolution and the First World War.
Sáric Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. Its northern boundary is the U.S. state of Arizona. The population of the municipality was 2,703 in 2010 living in an area of 1,676.23 square kilometers. The elevation is around 800 meters. At the municipal seat it is 780 meters.
The Patagonia Mountains are a 15-mile-long (24 km) mountain range within the Coronado National Forest, and in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.
The Pajarito Mountains are a small mountain range of western Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The range is adjacent the Atascosa Mountains at its north, with both ranges in the center of a north-south sequence of ranges called the Tumacacori Highlands. The Highlands have the Tumacacori Mountains at the north, and south of the U.S.-Mexico border, the Sierra La Esmeralda range,. The Tumacacori Highlands are part of a regional conservancy study of 'travel corridors' for cats, called Cuatro Gatos, Four Cats, for mountain lions, ocelot, bobcat, and jaguar.
Beyerville is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 177 at the 2010 census.
Kino Springs is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 136 at the 2010 census.