A nome ( // , from Ancient Greek : νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
Each nome was ruled by a nomarch (Ancient Egyptian: heri-tep a'a).The number of nomes changed through the various periods of the history of ancient Egypt.
A nomarch was a provincial governor in Ancient Egypt; the country was divided into 42 provinces, called nomes. A nomarch was the government official responsible for a nome.
The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, in 332 BC.
Through French nome, the word comes from Ancient Greek νομός, nomós, meaning "district"; the Ancient Egyptian term was sepat or spAt.
The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian stage. Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.
Today's use of the Ancient Greek rather than the Ancient Egyptian term came about during the Ptolemaic period, when the use of Greek was widespread in Egypt. The availability of Greek records on Egypt influenced the adoption of Greek terms by later historians.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom based in ancient Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
The division of ancient Egypt into nomes can be traced back to prehistoric Egypt (before 3100 BC). These nomes originally existed as autonomous city-states[ citation needed ], but later began to unify. According to ancient tradition, the ruler Menes completed the final unification.
The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from the earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some Egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, with the name Menes also possibly used for one of these kings. This Predynastic era is traditionally equivalent to the final part of the Neolithic period beginning c. 6000 BC and ends in the Naqada III period c. 3000 BC.
The 32nd century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3200 BC to 3101 BC.
Not only did the division into nomes remain in place for more than three millennia, the areas of the individual nomes and their ordering remained remarkably stable. Some, like Xois in the Nile Delta or Khent in Upper Egypt, were first mentioned on the Palermo Stone, which was inscribed in the Fifth Dynasty. The names of a few, like the nome of Bubastis, appeared no earlier than the New Kingdom. Under the system that prevailed for most of pharaonic Egypt's history, the country was divided into 42 nomes.
Xois was a town of great antiquity and considerable size. It was located nearly in the center of the Nile Delta in Egypt, and is identified as the ancient Egyptian city of Khasut.
The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Lower Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.
Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Lower Egypt (Egyptian "Ā-meḥty"), from the Old Kingdom capital Memphis to the Mediterranean Sea, comprised 20 nomes. The first was based around Memphis, Saqqara, and Giza, in the area occupied by modern-day Cairo. The nomes were numbered in a more or less orderly fashion south to north through the Nile Delta, first covering the territory on the west before continuing with the higher numbers to the east. Thus, Alexandria was in the Third Nome; Bubastis was in the Eighteenth.
Upper Egypt was divided into 22 nomes. The first of these was centered on Elephantine close to Egypt's border with Nubia at the First Cataract – the area of modern-day Aswan. From there the numbering progressed downriver in an orderly fashion along the narrow fertile strip of land that was the Nile valley. Waset (ancient Thebes or contemporary Luxor) was in the Fourth Nome, Amarna in the Fourteenth, and Meidum in the Twenty-first.
Some nomes were added or renamed during the Graeco-Roman occupation of Egypt.For example, the Ptolemies renamed the Crocodilopolitan nome to Arsinoe. Hadrian created a new nome, Antinoopolites, for which Antinopolis was the capital.
The nomes survived into Roman times. Under Roman rule, individual nomes minted their own coinage, the so-called "nome coins," which still reflect individual local associations and traditions. The nomes of Egypt retained their primary importance as administrative units until the fundamental rearrangement of the bureaucracy during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine the Great.
From AD 307/8, their place was taken by smaller units called pagi . Eventually powerful local officials arose who were called pagarchs, through whom all patronage flowed. The pagarch's essential role was as an organizer of tax-collection. Later the pagarch assumed some military functions as well. The pagarchs were often wealthy landowners who reigned over the pagi from which they originated.
For most of the history, each nome was headed by a nomarch. The position of the nomarch was at times hereditary, while at others they were appointed by the pharaoh. Generally, when the national government was stronger, nomarchs were the king's appointed governors. When the central government was weaker, however—such as during foreign invasions or civil wars—individual nomes would assert themselves and establish hereditary lines of succession. Conflicts among these different hereditary nomarchies were common, most notably during the First Intermediate Period, a time that saw a breakdown in central authority lasting from the 7th–11th Dynasties which ended when one of the local rulers became strong enough to again assert control over the entire country as pharaoh.
The nomes (Ancient Egyptian: sepat) are listed in separate tables for "Isti" - "the two Egypts" (Upper and Lower Egypt).
|Number||Nome Standard (Symbol on top of head of man or woman)||Ancient Egyptian |
|Capital||Modern name of capital site||Translation|
|1||Inebu-hedj||𓈠 Inebu-hedj||Ineb-Ḥedjet [ 𓏠𓈖𓄤𓆑𓂋𓉴𓊖 Men-nefer/ Menfe] (Memphis)||Mit Rahina||White Walls|
|2||Khepesh||𓈡 (Khensu)||𓐍𓋉𓅓𓊖 Khem [Sekhem/ Iry] (Letopolis)||Ausim||Cow's thigh|
|3||Imentet/ Amentet||𓈢 Iment (Ament)||I-am/ Imu (Apis)||Kom El Hisn||West|
|4||Nit Resu||𓈣 (Sapi-Res)||Ptkheka||Tanta||Southern shield|
|5||Nit Meḥtet, Nit Meḥetet||𓈤/𓈥 (Sap-Meh)||𓊃𓅭𓄿𓅱𓊖 Sau/ Zau (Sais)||Sa El Hagar||Northern shield|
|6||Khasu'u/ Khasu'wu||𓈦 (Khaset)||𓆼𓋴𓅱𓅱𓏏𓊖 Khasu (Xois)||Sakha||Mountain bull|
|7||Ḥui-ges Imenti/ Ḥui-ges Amenti||𓈧 (A-ment)||𓂧𓏇𓇌𓊖𓏌𓅃𓏤 (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis)||Damanhur||West harpoon|
|8||Ḥui-ges Iabti/ Ḥui-ges Aabti||𓈨 Nefer-Iabti (A-bt)||Thek/ Tjeku / Iset-Tem [= 𓉐𓏤𓏏𓍃𓅓𓏏𓊖 Per-Atum]/ Ān (Heroonpolis, Pithom)||Tell al-Maskhuta||East harpoon|
|9||‘Andjeti/ ‘Anedjti||𓈩 (Ati)||𓉐𓏤𓊨𓁹𓎟𓊽𓂧𓅱𓊖 Djed/ Djedu [Iti] (Busiris)||Abu Sir Bara||Andjeti|
|10||Kem-Ur/ Kem-Wer||𓈪 Ka-Ka'm (Ka-khem)||𓉗𓏏𓉐𓇾𓁷𓄣𓊖 Hut-hery-ib (Athribis)||Banha (Tell Atrib)||Black bull|
|11||Ḥesbu/ Ḥesebu||𓈫 (Ka-heseb)||Taremu/ Ikhenu (Leontopolis)||Tell El Urydam||Heseb bull|
|12||Tjeb-Netjer||𓈬 (Theb-ka)||𓊹𓍿𓃀𓊖 Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos)||Samanud||Calf and Cow|
|13||Ḥeka-Redj||𓈭 (Heq-At)||In (Iunu)/ In-meḥ/ Iset-Tem/ Igert, Igertet, Iqert, Iugertet (Heliopolis)||Materiya (suburb of Cairo)||Prospering Sceptre|
|14||Khenti-Iabti/ Khenti-Aabti||𓈮 (Khent-abt)||Tjaru/ Dj‘anet (Sile, Tanis)||Tell Abu Sefa||Eastmost/ Foremost of the East|
|15||Djeḥuti||𓈯 (Tehut)||Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva)||Baqliya||Djehuti (Thoth)/ Ibis|
|16||Ḥat Meḥit||𓈰 (Kha)||Djedet/ Ā'atjaba (Mendes)||Tell El Rubˁ||Fish/ Foremost of the Fish|
|17||Beḥdet/ Beḥedet||𓈱/𓈲 Sma-Beḥut (Sema-Beḥut)||Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior)||Tel El Balamun||The Throne/ Throne of Horus of Behdet|
|18||Imty Khenti/ Amty Khenti||𓈳 Im-Khent (Am-Khent)||Per-Bastet (Bubastis)||Tell Bastah (near Zagazig)||Prince of the South|
|19||Imty Peḥu/ Amty Peḥu||𓈴 Im-Peḥ (Am-Peḥu)||Dja'net (Leontopolis Tanis)||Tell Nebesha or San El Hagar||Prince of the North|
|20||Sepdju/ Sepedju||𓈵 Sep-d (Sopdu)||Per-Sopdu||Saft El Hinna||Plumed Falcon/ Sepdju|
|Number||Egyptian Name||Capital||Modern Capital||Translation|
|1||𓈶𓈶(Ta-Seti)||𓍋𓃀𓃰𓅱𓎶𓈊 Abu / Yeb [Yb] (Elephantine)||Sunnu/ Irp-Ḥesp (Aswan)||Land of the bow|
|2||𓈷 (Wetjes-Hor)||𓌥𓃀𓊖 Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna)||Ineb/ Iset-Unep/ Iset-en-Rā/ Iset-Neterui/ Iset-Ḥeq/ Iset-Khnem-Iten/ Iset-Sekhen-en-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Shu/ Isebt/ Ā'ay-t-en-Beḥud/ Ā'a-t-enty-Ā'ap (Edfu)||Throne of Horus|
|3||𓈸 (Nekhen)||Nekhen (Hierakonpolis)||El Kab||Shrine|
|4||𓈹 Uas (Uaset/ Waset)||Niwt-rst / Waset [Ir-t Rā/ Iset-Sekhenu-en-Ākhemu/ Ānkh] (Thebes)||Karnak||Sceptre|
|5||𓈺 (Herui)||𓎤𓃀𓅂𓊖 Gebtu/ Iter-Shemā (Coptos)||Qift||The two falcons|
|6||𓈻 (Iqer)||In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera)||In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-en-Sek-Djet/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera)||The crocodile|
|7||𓈼 (Seshesh)||Seshesh/ Pa-Khen-Iment/ Uas-Meḥ (Diospolis Parva)||Hu||Sistrum|
|8||𓈽 Ta-wer||Thinis||Great land|
|9||𓈾 (Min)||Ip/ Ipi/ Ipu/ Apu/ [later: Khen-Min, perhaps another name for "Khemenu"]/ Ārty-Ḥeru (Panopolis)||Akhmim||Min|
|10||𓈿/𓉀 Uadj (Wadjet)||Djew-qa / Tjebu (Antaeopolis)||Qaw El Kebir||Cobra|
|11||𓉁/𓉂 (Set)||Shashotep (Hypselis)||Shutb||The creature associated with Set|
|12||𓉃 (Tu-ph)||Pr nmty (Hieracon)||al Atawla||Viper mountain|
|13||𓉄 (Atef-Khent)||Zawty (z3wj-tj, Lycopolis)||Asyut||Upper Sycamore and Viper|
|14||𓉅 (Atef-Peḥu)||Qesy (Cusae)||El Qusiya||Lower Sycamore and Viper|
|15||𓉆 (Wenet)||Khemenu (Hermopolis Magna)||El Ashmounein||Hare|
|17||𓉈 Inpu (Anpu)||Saka (Cynopolis)||El Qais||Anubis|
|18||𓉉/𓉊 (Sep)||Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis)||El Hiba||Set|
|19||𓉋 (Uab)||Per-Medjed/ Per-Mādjet/ Uabu-t (Oxyrhynchus)||El Bahnasa||Two Sceptres|
|20||𓉌 (Atef-Khent)||Henen-nesut (Herakleopolis Magna)||Ihnasiya||Southern Sycamore|
|21||𓉍 (Atef-Peḥu)||Shenakhen / Semenuhor/ Ium'ā (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoe)||Faiyum||Northern Sycamore|
|22||𓉎/𓉏 (Maten)||𓁶𓏤𓃒𓏪𓊖 Tepihu (Aphroditopolis)||Atfih||Knife|
Zagazig is a city in Lower Egypt. Situated in the eastern part of the Nile delta, it is the capital of the governorate of Sharqia.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. The Eleventh Dynasty ruled from Thebes and the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht. Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish around 1650 BC, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay around 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion. The Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, another period of division that involved foreign invasions of the country by the Hyksos of West Asia.
Nomos or Nomoi may refer to:
Bubastis, also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city. Bubastis is often identified with the biblical Pi-Beseth. It was the capital of its own nome, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt, and notable as a center of worship for the feline goddess Bastet, and therefore the principal depository in Egypt of mummies of cats.
The was sceptre is a symbol that appeared often in relics, art, and hieroglyphics associated with the ancient Egyptian religion. It appears as a stylized animal head at the top of a long, straight staff with a forked end.
Wahankh Intef II was the third ruler of the Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt during the First Intermediate Period. He reigned for almost fifty years from 2112 BC to 2063 BC. His capital was located at Thebes. In his time, Egypt was split between several local dynasties. He was buried in a saff tomb at El-Tarif.
Beni Hasan is an Ancient Egyptian cemetery site. It is located approximately 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the south of modern-day Minya in the region known as Middle Egypt, the area between Asyut and Memphis.
Thinis or This was the capital city of the first dynasties of ancient Egypt. Thinis is, as yet, undiscovered but well attested by ancient writers, including the classical historian Manetho, who cites it as the centre of the Thinite Confederacy, a tribal confederation whose leader, Menes, united Egypt and was its first pharaoh. Thinis began a steep decline in importance from Dynasty III, when the capital was relocated to Memphis, which was thought to be the first true and stable capital after unification of old Egypt by Menes. Thinis's location on the border of the competing Heracleopolitan and Theban dynasties of the First Intermediate Period and its proximity to certain oases of possible military importance ensured Thinis some continued significance in the Old and New Kingdoms. This was a brief respite and Thinis eventually lost its position as a regional administrative centre by the Roman period.
Meir is a village in Upper Egypt. It is located on the west bank of the Nile, in the Asyut Governorate, some 7 kilometers southwest of el-Qusiya (Cusae). The modern village is situated at coordinates, while the necropolis is located at .
Middle Egypt is the section of land between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north. At the time, Ancient Egypt was divided into Lower and Upper Egypt, though Middle Egypt was technically a subdivision of Upper Egypt. It was not until the 19th century that archaeologists felt the need to divide Upper Egypt in two. As a result, they coined the term "Middle Egypt" for the stretch of river between Cairo and the Qena Bend. It was also associated with a region termed Heptanomis, generally as the district which separates the Thebaïd from the Delta.
Khaset was one of 42 nomes in Ancient Egypt.
Djehutihotep was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the fifteenth nomos of Upper Egypt during the twelfth dynasty, c. 1900 BC.
Khety II was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the 13th nomos of Upper Egypt during the reign of pharaoh Merykare of the 10th Dynasty.
Tefibi was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the 13th nomos of Upper Egypt during the 10th Dynasty. In addition, he also was hereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, sole companion and high priest of Wepwawet. The main source about his life came from his biography, inscribed on the "tomb III" in Asyut.
Khety I was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the 13th nomos of Upper Egypt during the 10th dynasty. Like many other local governors, he also was a priest of the native deity Wepwawet.
The Oryx nome was one of the 42 nomoi in ancient Egypt. More precisely, it was the 16th nome of Upper Egypt. It was named after the Scimitar oryx, and was roughly located in the territories surrounding the modern city of Minya in Middle Egypt.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Nome (Egypt) .|