Nome (Egypt)

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A nome ( /nm/ , [1] from Ancient Greek : νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

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Each nome was ruled by a nomarch (Ancient Egyptian: heri-tep a'a). [2] The number of nomes changed through the various periods of the history of ancient Egypt.

A nomarch was a provincial governor in Ancient Egypt; the country was divided into 42 provinces, called nomes. A nomarch was the government official responsible for a nome.

History of ancient Egypt aspect of history

The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, in 332 BC.

Etymology

Through French nome, the word comes from Ancient Greek νομός, nomós, meaning "district"; the Ancient Egyptian term was sepat or spAt. [3]

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.

Egyptian language Language spoken in ancient Egypt, branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian stage. Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.

Today's use of the Ancient Greek rather than the Ancient Egyptian term came about during the Ptolemaic period, when the use of Greek was widespread in Egypt. The availability of Greek records on Egypt influenced the adoption of Greek terms by later historians.

Ptolemaic Kingdom Hellenistic kingdom in ancient Egypt from 305 to 30 BC

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom based in ancient Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.

History

Dynastic Egypt

The nomes & towns of Egypt in hieroglyphics Ancient Egypt map-hiero.svg
The nomes & towns of Egypt in hieroglyphics

The division of ancient Egypt into nomes can be traced back to prehistoric Egypt (before 3100 BC). These nomes originally existed as autonomous city-states[ citation needed ], but later began to unify. According to ancient tradition, the ruler Menes completed the final unification. [4]

Prehistoric Egypt period of earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt

The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from the earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some Egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, with the name Menes also possibly used for one of these kings. This Predynastic era is traditionally equivalent to the final part of the Neolithic period beginning c. 6000 BC and ends in the Naqada III period c. 3000 BC.

The 32nd century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3200 BC to 3101 BC.

Not only did the division into nomes remain in place for more than three millennia, the areas of the individual nomes and their ordering remained remarkably stable. Some, like Xois in the Nile Delta or Khent in Upper Egypt, were first mentioned on the Palermo Stone, which was inscribed in the Fifth Dynasty. The names of a few, like the nome of Bubastis, appeared no earlier than the New Kingdom. Under the system that prevailed for most of pharaonic Egypt's history, the country was divided into 42 nomes.

Xois Place in Kafr El Sheikh, Egypt

Xois was a town of great antiquity and considerable size. It was located nearly in the center of the Nile Delta in Egypt, and is identified as the ancient Egyptian city of Khasut.

Nile Delta Delta produced by the Nile River at its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Lower Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.

Upper Egypt strip of land on the Nile valley between Nubia and Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

Lower Egypt nomes

Lower Egypt nomes Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png
Lower Egypt nomes

Lower Egypt (Egyptian "Ā-meḥty"), from the Old Kingdom capital Memphis to the Mediterranean Sea, comprised 20 nomes. The first was based around Memphis, Saqqara, and Giza, in the area occupied by modern-day Cairo. The nomes were numbered in a more or less orderly fashion south to north through the Nile Delta, first covering the territory on the west before continuing with the higher numbers to the east. Thus, Alexandria was in the Third Nome; Bubastis was in the Eighteenth.

  • Nome 1 of Lower Egypt (White Walls Nome)
  • Nome 2 of Lower Egypt (Travellers land)
  • Nome 3 of Lower Egypt (Cattle land)
  • Nome 4 of Lower Egypt (Southern shield land)
  • Nome 5 of Lower Egypt (Northern shield land)
  • Nome 6 of Lower Egypt (Mountain bull land)
  • Nome 7 of Lower Egypt (West harpoon land)
  • Nome 8 of Lower Egypt (East harpoon land)
  • Nome 9 of Lower Egypt (Andjety god land)
  • Nome 10 of Lower Egypt (Black bull land)
  • Nome 11 of Lower Egypt (Heseb bull land)
  • Nome 12 of Lower Egypt (Calf and Cow land)
  • Nome 13 of Lower Egypt (Prospering Sceptre land)
  • Nome 14 of Lower Egypt (Eastmost land)
  • Nome 15 of Lower Egypt (Ibis-Tehut land)
  • Nome 16 of Lower Egypt (Fish land)
  • Nome 17 of Lower Egypt (The throne land)
  • Nome 18 of Lower Egypt (Prince of the South land)
  • Nome 19 of Lower Egypt (Prince of the North land)
  • Nome 20 of Lower Egypt (Sopdu-Plumed Falcon land)

Upper Egypt nomes

Upper Egypt nomes UpperEgyptNomes.png
Upper Egypt nomes
Middle Egypt nomes Middle Egypt Nomes.jpg
Middle Egypt nomes

Upper Egypt was divided into 22 nomes. The first of these was centered on Elephantine close to Egypt's border with Nubia at the First Cataract – the area of modern-day Aswan. From there the numbering progressed downriver in an orderly fashion along the narrow fertile strip of land that was the Nile valley. Waset (ancient Thebes or contemporary Luxor) was in the Fourth Nome, Amarna in the Fourteenth, and Meidum in the Twenty-first.

  • Nome 1 of Upper Egypt (Bows land)
  • Nome 2 of Upper Egypt (Throne of Horus land)
  • Nome 3 of Upper Egypt (Shrine land)
  • Nome 4 of Upper Egypt (Sceptre land)
  • Nome 5 of Upper Egypt (The two falcons land)
  • Nome 6 of Upper Egypt (The crocodile land)
  • Nome 7 of Upper Egypt (Sistrum land)
  • Nome 8 of Upper Egypt (The Great land)
  • Nome 9 of Upper Egypt (Min-God land)
  • Nome 10 of Upper Egypt (Cobra land)
  • Nome 11 of Upper Egypt (Sha-Set animal land)
  • Nome 12 of Upper Egypt (Viper mountain land)
  • Nome 13 of Upper Egypt (Upper Sycamore and Viper land)
  • Nome 14 of Upper Egypt (Lower Sycamore and Viper land)
  • Nome 15 of Upper Egypt (Hares land)
  • Nome 16 of Upper Egypt (Oryx Nome)
  • Nome 17 of Upper Egypt (Anubis land)
  • Nome 18 of Upper Egypt (Set land)
  • Nome 19 of Upper Egypt (Two Sceptres land)
  • Nome 20 of Upper Egypt (Southern Sycamore land)
  • Nome 21 of Upper Egypt (Northern Sycamore land)
  • Nome 22 of Upper Egypt (Knife land)

Ptolemaic Egypt

Some nomes were added or renamed during the Graeco-Roman occupation of Egypt. [5] For example, the Ptolemies renamed the Crocodilopolitan nome to Arsinoe. Hadrian created a new nome, Antinoopolites, for which Antinopolis was the capital.

Roman Egypt

The nomes survived into Roman times. Under Roman rule, individual nomes minted their own coinage, the so-called "nome coins," which still reflect individual local associations and traditions. The nomes of Egypt retained their primary importance as administrative units until the fundamental rearrangement of the bureaucracy during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine the Great.

From AD 307/8, their place was taken by smaller units called pagi . Eventually powerful local officials arose who were called pagarchs, through whom all patronage flowed. The pagarch's essential role was as an organizer of tax-collection. Later the pagarch assumed some military functions as well. The pagarchs were often wealthy landowners who reigned over the pagi from which they originated.

Nomarch

For most of the history, each nome was headed by a nomarch. The position of the nomarch was at times hereditary, while at others they were appointed by the pharaoh. Generally, when the national government was stronger, nomarchs were the king's appointed governors. When the central government was weaker, however—such as during foreign invasions or civil wars—individual nomes would assert themselves and establish hereditary lines of succession. Conflicts among these different hereditary nomarchies were common, most notably during the First Intermediate Period, a time that saw a breakdown in central authority lasting from the 7th–11th Dynasties which ended when one of the local rulers became strong enough to again assert control over the entire country as pharaoh.

List of nomes (ancient Egyptian: Sepat-Isti)

The nomes (Ancient Egyptian: sepat) are listed in separate tables for "Isti" - "the two Egypts" (Upper and Lower Egypt).

Note:

  1. older or other variants of the name in square brackets '[ ]';
  2. names vary from different time or era, or even titles, most epithets, honorific titles with a slash '/';
  3. Greek-Egypto derived names from the original Egyptian in parentheses '( )'

Lower Egypt

NumberNome Standard (Symbol on top of head of man or woman)Ancient Egyptian

Nome Name

CapitalModern name of capital siteTranslation
KnownVariants
1
Nome 1 of Lower-Egypt.png
Inebu-hedj𓈠 Inebu-hedj Ineb-Ḥedjet [ 𓏠𓈖𓄤𓆑𓂋𓉴𓊖 Men-nefer/ Menfe] (Memphis)Mit RahinaWhite Walls
2
Khensu Nome 2 of Lower-Egypt.png
Khensu
Khepesh𓈡 (Khensu)𓐍𓋉𓅓𓊖 Khem [Sekhem/ Iry] (Letopolis)AusimCow's thigh
3
Iment (Ament) Nome 3 of Lower-Egypt.png
Iment (Ament)
Imentet/ Amentet𓈢 Iment (Ament)I-am/ Imu (Apis) Kom El Hisn West
4
Sapi-Res Nome 4 of Lower-Egypt.png
Sapi-Res
Nit Resu𓈣 (Sapi-Res)Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield
5
Sap-Meh
Sap-Meh Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-T64C.png
Sap-Meh Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-T64D.png
Sap-Meh
Sap-Meh
Sap-Meh Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-T64D.png
Sap-Meh
Nit Meḥtet, Nit Meḥetet𓈤/𓈥 (Sap-Meh)𓊃𓅭𓄿𓅱𓊖 Sau/ Zau (Sais)Sa El HagarNorthern shield
6
Khaset Nome 6 of Lower-Egypt.png
Khaset
Khasu'u/ Khasu'wu𓈦 (Khaset)𓆼𓋴𓅱𓅱𓏏𓊖 Khasu (Xois)SakhaMountain bull
7
A-ment Nome 7 of Lower-Egypt.png
A-ment
Ḥui-ges Imenti/ Ḥui-ges Amenti𓈧 (A-ment)𓂧𓏇𓇌𓊖𓏌𓅃𓏤 (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon
8
Nefer-Iabti Nome 8 of Lower-Egypt.png
Nefer-Iabti
Ḥui-ges Iabti/ Ḥui-ges Aabti𓈨 Nefer-Iabti (A-bt)Thek/ Tjeku / Iset-Tem [= 𓉐𓏤𓏏𓍃𓅓𓏏𓊖 Per-Atum]/ Ān (Heroonpolis, Pithom) Tell al-Maskhuta East harpoon
9
Ati Nome 9 of Lower-Egypt.png
Ati
‘Andjeti/ ‘Anedjti𓈩 (Ati)𓉐𓏤𓊨𓁹𓎟𓊽𓂧𓅱𓊖 Djed/ Djedu [Iti] (Busiris)Abu Sir Bara Andjeti
10
Ka-Khem Nome 10 of Lower-Egypt.png
Ka-Khem
Kem-Ur/ Kem-Wer𓈪 Ka-Ka'm (Ka-khem)𓉗𓏏𓉐𓇾𓁷𓄣𓊖 Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) Banha (Tell Atrib)Black bull
11
Ka-Heseb Nome 11 of Lower-Egypt.png
Ka-Heseb
Ḥesbu/ Ḥesebu𓈫 (Ka-heseb)Taremu/ Ikhenu (Leontopolis)Tell El UrydamHeseb bull
12
Tjeb-Ka Nome 12 of Lower-Egypt.png
Tjeb-Ka
Tjeb-Netjer𓈬 (Theb-ka)𓊹𓍿𓃀𓊖 Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos)SamanudCalf and Cow
13
Heq-At Nome 13 of Lower-Egypt.png
Heq-At
Ḥeka-Redj𓈭 (Heq-At)In (Iunu)/ In-meḥ/ Iset-Tem/ Igert, Igertet, Iqert, Iugertet (Heliopolis)Materiya (suburb of Cairo)Prospering Sceptre
14
Khent-Abt Nome 14 of Lower-Egypt.png
Khent-Abt
Khenti-Iabti/ Khenti-Aabti𓈮 (Khent-abt) Tjaru/ Dj‘anet (Sile, Tanis)Tell Abu SefaEastmost/ Foremost of the East
15
Djehuti Nome 15 of Lower-Egypt.png
Djehuti
Djeḥuti𓈯 (Tehut)Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Baqliya Djehuti (Thoth)/ Ibis
16
Kha Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-K17A.png
Kha
Ḥat Meḥit𓈰 (Kha)Djedet/ Ā'atjaba (Mendes)Tell El RubˁFish/ Foremost of the Fish
17
Sema-Behut Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-Aa100.png
Sema-Beḥut
Sema-Behut Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-Aa101.png
Sema-Beḥut
Beḥdet/ Beḥedet𓈱/𓈲 Sma-Beḥut (Sema-Beḥut)Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) Tel El Balamun The Throne/ Throne of Horus of Behdet
18
Im-Khent Nome 18 of Lower-Egypt.png
Im-Khent
Imty Khenti/ Amty Khenti𓈳 Im-Khent (Am-Khent)Per-Bastet (Bubastis)Tell Bastah (near Zagazig)Prince of the South
19
Im-Peh Nome 19 of Lower-Egypt.png
Im-Peḥ
Imty Peḥu/ Amty Peḥu𓈴 Im-Peḥ (Am-Peḥu)Dja'net (Leontopolis Tanis) Tell Nebesha or San El Hagar Prince of the North
20
Sep-d Nome 20 of Lower-Egypt.png
Sep-d
Sepdju/ Sepedju𓈵 Sep-d (Sopdu)Per-Sopdu Saft El Hinna Plumed Falcon/ Sepdju

Upper Egypt

NumberEgyptian NameCapitalModern CapitalTranslation
1𓈶𓈶(Ta-Seti)𓍋𓃀𓃰𓅱𓎶𓈊 Abu / Yeb [Yb] (Elephantine)Sunnu/ Irp-Ḥesp (Aswan)Land of the bow
2𓈷 (Wetjes-Hor)𓌥𓃀𓊖 Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna)Ineb/ Iset-Unep/ Iset-en-Rā/ Iset-Neterui/ Iset-Ḥeq/ Iset-Khnem-Iten/ Iset-Sekhen-en-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Shu/ Isebt/ Ā'ay-t-en-Beḥud/ Ā'a-t-enty-Ā'ap (Edfu)Throne of Horus
3𓈸 (Nekhen) Nekhen (Hierakonpolis)El KabShrine
4𓈹 Uas (Uaset/ Waset)Niwt-rst / Waset [Ir-t Rā/ Iset-Sekhenu-en-Ākhemu/ Ānkh] (Thebes) Karnak Sceptre
5𓈺 (Herui)𓎤𓃀𓅂𓊖 Gebtu/ Iter-Shemā (Coptos) Qift The two falcons
6𓈻 (Iqer)In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera)In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-en-Sek-Djet/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera)The crocodile
7𓈼 (Seshesh)Seshesh/ Pa-Khen-Iment/ Uas-Meḥ (Diospolis Parva) Hu Sistrum
8𓈽 Ta-wer Thinis Great land
9𓈾 (Min)Ip/ Ipi/ Ipu/ Apu/ [later: Khen-Min, perhaps another name for "Khemenu"]/ Ārty-Ḥeru (Panopolis) Akhmim Min
10𓈿/𓉀 Uadj (Wadjet)Djew-qa / Tjebu (Antaeopolis) Qaw El Kebir Cobra
11𓉁/𓉂 (Set) Shashotep (Hypselis)ShutbThe creature associated with Set
12𓉃 (Tu-ph)Pr nmty (Hieracon)al AtawlaViper mountain
13𓉄 (Atef-Khent) Zawty (z3wj-tj, Lycopolis) Asyut Upper Sycamore and Viper
14𓉅 (Atef-Peḥu)Qesy (Cusae) El Qusiya Lower Sycamore and Viper
15𓉆 (Wenet)Khemenu (Hermopolis Magna) El Ashmounein Hare [6]
16𓉇 (Ma-hedj) Herwer?Hur? Oryx [6]
17𓉈 Inpu (Anpu)Saka (Cynopolis) El Qais Anubis
18𓉉/𓉊 (Sep)Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis) El Hiba Set
19𓉋 (Uab) Per-Medjed/ Per-Mādjet/ Uabu-t (Oxyrhynchus) El Bahnasa Two Sceptres
20𓉌 (Atef-Khent)Henen-nesut (Herakleopolis Magna)IhnasiyaSouthern Sycamore
21𓉍 (Atef-Peḥu)Shenakhen / Semenuhor/ Ium'ā (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoe) Faiyum Northern Sycamore
22𓉎/𓉏 (Maten)𓁶𓏤𓃒𓏪𓊖 Tepihu (Aphroditopolis) Atfih Knife

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References

Citations

  1. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster, 2007. p. 841
  2. Bunson, Margaret (2014-05-14). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Infobase Publishing. p. 280. ISBN   9781438109978.
  3. "Provinces of Egypt". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-21.
  4. Herodotus, Euterpe, 2.4.1 and 2.99.1ff.
  5. Bagnall, Roger S. (1996). Egypt in Late Antiquity (Fourth printing ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 333. ISBN   0691069867 . Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  6. 1 2 Wolfram Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt: history, archaeology and society. London, Duckworth Egyptology, 2006, pp. 109-111

BIbliography