Nome (Egypt)

Last updated

A nome ( /nm/ , [1] from Ancient Greek : νομός, nomós, "district") was a territorial division in ancient Egypt. [2]


Each nome was ruled by a nomarch (Ancient Egyptian : ḥrj tp ꜥꜣ Great Chief). [3] The number of nomes changed through the various periods of the history of ancient Egypt. [4]


The term nome comes from Ancient Greek νομός, nomós, meaning "district"; the Ancient Egyptian term was sepat or spAt. [5] Today's use of the Ancient Greek rather than the Ancient Egyptian term came about during the Ptolemaic period, when the use of Greek was widespread in Egypt. [6] The availability of Greek records on Egypt influenced the adoption of Greek terms by later historians.


Dynastic Egypt

The nomes & towns of Egypt in hieroglyphics Ancient Egypt map-hiero.svg
The nomes & towns of Egypt in hieroglyphics

The division of ancient Egypt into nomes can be traced back to prehistoric Egypt (before 3100 BC). These nomes originally existed as autonomous city-states[ citation needed ], but later began to unify. According to ancient tradition, the ruler Menes completed the final unification. [7]

Not only did the division into nomes remain in place for more than three millennia, the areas of the individual nomes and their ordering remained remarkably stable. Some, like Xois in the Nile Delta or Khent in Upper Egypt, were first mentioned on the Palermo Stone, which was inscribed in the Fifth Dynasty. The names of a few, like the nome of Bubastis, appeared no earlier than the New Kingdom. Under the system that prevailed for most of pharaonic Egypt's history, the country was divided into 42 nomes.

Lower Egypt nomes

Lower Egypt nomes Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png
Lower Egypt nomes

Lower Egypt (Egyptian: "Ā-meḥty"), from the Old Kingdom capital Memphis to the Mediterranean Sea, comprised 20 nomes. The first was based around Memphis, Saqqara, and Giza, in the area occupied by modern-day Cairo. The nomes were numbered in a more or less orderly fashion south to north through the Nile Delta, first covering the territory on the west before continuing with the higher numbers to the east. Thus, Alexandria was in the Third Nome; Bubastis was in the Eighteenth.

  1. White Walls Nome
  2. Travellers land
  3. Cattle land
  4. Southern shield land
  5. Northern shield land
  6. Mountain bull land
  7. West harpoon land
  8. East harpoon land
  9. Andjety god land
  10. Black bull land
  11. Heseb bull land
  12. Calf and Cow land
  13. Prospering Sceptre land
  14. Eastmost land
  15. Ibis-Tehut land
  16. Fish land
  17. The throne land
  18. Prince of the South land
  19. Prince of the North land
  20. Sopdu-Plumed Falcon land

Upper Egypt nomes

Upper Egypt nomes UpperEgyptNomes.png
Upper Egypt nomes
Middle Egypt nomes Middle Egypt Nomes.jpg
Middle Egypt nomes

Upper Egypt was divided into 22 nomes. The first of these was centered on Elephantine close to Egypt's border with Nubia at the First Cataract – the area of modern-day Aswan. From there the numbering progressed downriver in an orderly fashion along the narrow fertile strip of land that was the Nile valley. Waset (ancient Thebes or contemporary Luxor) was in the Fourth Nome, Amarna in the Fourteenth, and Meidum in the Twenty-first.

  1. Bows land
  2. Throne of Horus land
  3. Shrine land
  4. Sceptre land
  5. The two falcons land
  6. The crocodile land
  7. Sistrum land
  8. The Great land
  9. Min-God land
  10. Cobra land
  11. Sha-Set animal land
  12. Viper mountain land
  13. Upper Sycamore and Viper land
  14. Lower Sycamore and Viper land
  15. Hares land
  16. Oryx Nome
  17. Anubis land
  18. Set land
  19. Two Sceptres land
  20. Southern Sycamore land
  21. Northern Sycamore land
  22. Knife land

Ptolemaic Egypt

Some nomes were added or renamed during the Graeco-Roman occupation of Egypt. [8] For example, the Ptolemies renamed the Crocodilopolitan nome to Arsinoe. Hadrian created a new nome, Antinoopolites, for which Antinoöpolis was the capital.

Roman Egypt

The nomes survived into Roman times. Under Roman rule, individual nomes minted their own coinage, the so-called "nome coins," which still reflect individual local associations and traditions. The nomes of Egypt retained their primary importance as administrative units until the fundamental rearrangement of the bureaucracy during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine the Great.

From AD 307/8, their place was taken by smaller units called pagi . Eventually powerful local officials arose who were called pagarchs, through whom all patronage flowed. The pagarch's essential role was as an organizer of tax-collection. Later the pagarch assumed some military functions as well. The pagarchs were often wealthy landowners who reigned over the pagi from which they originated.


For most of the history, each nome was headed by a nomarch. The position of the nomarch was at times hereditary, while at others they were appointed by the pharaoh. Generally, when the national government was stronger, nomarchs were the king's appointed governors. When the central government was weaker, however—such as during foreign invasions or civil wars—individual nomes would assert themselves and establish hereditary lines of succession. [4] Conflicts among these different hereditary nomarchies were common, most notably during the First Intermediate Period, a time that saw a breakdown in central authority lasting from the 7th–11th Dynasties which ended when one of the local rulers became strong enough to again assert control over the entire country as pharaoh.

List of nomes

The nomes (Ancient Egyptian : spꜣt, Coptic : ⲡⲑⲱϣ) are listed in separate tables for "Isti" - "the two Egypts" (Upper and Lower Egypt).


  1. older or other variants of the name in square brackets '[ ]';
  2. names vary from different time or era, or even titles, most epithets, honorific titles with a slash '/';
  3. Greek-Egypto derived names from the original Egyptian in parentheses '()'

Lower Egypt

NumberNome Standard (Symbol on top of head of man or woman)Ancient Egyptian

Nome Name

Ancient Greek and Coptic Nome NameCapitalModern name of capital siteTranslationGod
Nome 1 of Lower-Egypt.png
Inebu-hedj𓈠 Inebu-hedj Μεμφίτης


ⲙⲛⲫⲉ/ ⲉⲕⲉⲡϯⲁIneb-Ḥedjet [ 𓏠𓈖𓄤𓆑𓂋𓉴𓊖 Men-nefer/ Menfe] (Memphis) Mit Rahina White Walls Ptah
Khensu Nome 2 of Lower-Egypt.png
Khepesh𓈡 (Khensu)Λητοπολίτης


ⲃⲟⲩϣⲏⲙ𓐍𓋉𓅓𓊖 Khem [Sekhem/ Iry] (Letopolis) Ausim Cow's thigh Horus
Iment (Ament) Nome 3 of Lower-Egypt.png
Iment (Ament)
Imentet/ Amentet𓈢 Iment (Ament)Γυναικοπολίτης


I-am/ Imu (Apis) Kom El Hisn West Hathor
4Nit Resu𓈣 (Sapi-Res)Προσωπίτης


ⲡϣⲁϯNiciu Zawyet el-Razin
4 (21)
Sapi-Res Nome 4 of Lower-Egypt.png
Nit Resu𓈣 (Sapi-Res)Φθεμφουθ


Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield Sobek, Isis, Amun
Sap-Meh Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-T64C.png
Sap-Meh Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-T64D.png
Sap-Meh Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-T64D.png
Nit Meḥtet, Nit Meḥetet𓈤/𓈥 (Sap-Meh)Σαίτης


ⲥⲁⲓ𓊃𓅭𓄿𓅱𓊖 Sau/ Zau (Sais) Sa El Hagar Northern shield Neith
Khaset Nome 6 of Lower-Egypt.png
Khasu'u/ Khasu'wu𓈦 (Khaset)Ξοίτης


ⲥϧⲱⲟⲩ𓆼𓋴𓅱𓅱𓏏𓊖 Khasu (Xois) Sakha Mountain bullAmun-Ra
A-ment Nome 7 of Lower-Egypt.png
Ḥui-ges Imenti/ Ḥui-ges Amenti𓈧 (A-ment)Μενελαίτης


𓂧𓏇𓇌𓊖𓏌𓅃𓏤 (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon Hu
Nefer-Iabti Nome 8 of Lower-Egypt.png
Ḥui-ges Iabti/ Ḥui-ges Aabti𓈨 Nefer-Iabti (A-bt)Ἡροοπολίτης


Thek/ Tjeku / Iset-Tem [= 𓉐𓏤𓏏𓍃𓅓𓏏𓊖 Per-Atum]/ Ān (Heroonpolis, Pithom) Tell al-Maskhuta East harpoon Atum
Ati Nome 9 of Lower-Egypt.png
‘Andjeti/ ‘Anedjti𓈩 (Ati)Βουσιρίτης


ⲡⲁⲛⲁⲩ𓉐𓏤𓊨𓁹𓎟𓊽𓂧𓅱𓊖 Djed/ Djedu [Iti] (Busiris)Abu Sir Bara Andjeti Osiris
Ka-Khem Nome 10 of Lower-Egypt.png
Kem-Ur/ Kem-Wer𓈪 Ka-Ka'm (Ka-khem)Ἀθριβίτης


ⲁⲑⲣⲏⲃⲓ𓉗𓏏𓉐𓇾𓁷𓄣𓊖 Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) Banha (Tell Atrib)Black bullHorus
Ka-Heseb Nome 11 of Lower-Egypt.png
Ḥesbu/ Ḥesebu𓈫 (Ka-heseb)Λεοντοπολίτης


ⲛⲁⲑⲱTaremu/ Ikhenu (Leontopolis)Tell el-MuqdamHeseb bullIsis
Tjeb-Ka Nome 12 of Lower-Egypt.png
Tjeb-Netjer𓈬 (Theb-ka)Σεβεννύτης


ϫⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩϯ𓊹𓍿𓃀𓊖 Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos)SamanudCalf and Cow Anhur
Heq-At Nome 13 of Lower-Egypt.png
Ḥeka-Redj𓈭 (Heq-At)Ἡλιοπολίτης


ⲱⲛIn (Iunu)/ In-meḥ/ Iset-Tem/ Igert, Igertet, Iqert, Iugertet (Heliopolis)Materiya (suburb of Cairo)Prospering Sceptre Ra
Khent-Abt Nome 14 of Lower-Egypt.png
Khenti-Iabti/ Khenti-Aabti𓈮 (Khent-abt)Σεθρωίτης


Tjaru/ Dj‘anet (Sile, Tanis)Tell Abu SefaEastmost/ Foremost of the EastHorus
Djehuti Nome 15 of Lower-Egypt.png
Djeḥuti𓈯 (Tehut)Μενδήσιος


ⲛⲓⲙⲉϣϣⲱⲧBa'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Baqliya Djehuti (Thoth)/ Ibis Thoth
Kha Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-K17A.png
Ḥat Meḥit𓈰 (Kha)Μενδήσιος


ⲛⲓⲙⲉϣϣⲱⲧDjedet/ Ā'atjaba (Mendes)Tell El RubˁFish/ Foremost of the Fish Banebdjedet and Hatmehyt
Sema-Behut Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-Aa100.png
Sema-Behut Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-Aa101.png
Beḥdet/ Beḥedet𓈱/𓈲 Sma-Beḥut (Sema-Beḥut)Διοπολίτης Κάτω

Diospolites Kato

ⲡⲟⲩⲛⲉⲙⲟⲩSemabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) Tel El Balamun The Throne/ Throne of Horus of Behdet Amun-Ra
Im-Khent Nome 18 of Lower-Egypt.png
Imty Khenti/ Amty Khenti𓈳 Im-Khent (Am-Khent)Βουβαστίτης


ⲡⲟⲩⲃⲁⲥϯPer-Bastet (Bubastis)Tell Bastah (near Zagazig)Prince of the South Bastet
Im-Peh Nome 19 of Lower-Egypt.png
Imty Peḥu/ Amty Peḥu𓈴 Im-Peḥ (Am-Peḥu)Τανίτης


ϫⲁⲛⲏDja'net (Leontopolis Tanis) Tell Nebesha or San El Hagar Prince of the North Uatchet
Sep-d Nome 20 of Lower-Egypt.png
Sepdju/ Sepedju𓈵 Sep-d (Sopdu)Ἀραβία


ϯⲁⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁPer-Sopdu Saft El Hinna Plumed Falcon/ Sepdju Sopdet

Upper Egypt

NumberNome Standard (Symbol on top of head of man or woman)Ancient Egyptian

Nome Name

CapitalModern CapitalTranslationGod
Ta-Seti Nome 1 of Upper-Egypt.png
Ta-Seti𓈶𓈶(Ta-Seti)𓍋𓃀𓃰𓅱𓎶𓈊 Abu / Yeb [Yb] (Elephantine)Sunnu/ Irp-Ḥesp (Aswan)Land of the bow Khnum
Wetjes-Her Nome 2 of Upper-Egypt.png
Wetjes-Ḥer𓈷 (Wetjes-Hor)𓌥𓃀𓊖 Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna)Ineb/ Iset-Unep/ Iset-en-Rā/ Iset-Neterui/ Iset-Ḥeq/ Iset-Khnem-Iten/ Iset-Sekhen-en-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Shu/ Isebt/ Ā'ay-t-en-Beḥud/ Ā'a-t-enty-Ā'ap (Edfu)Throne of Horus Horus-Behdety
Nekhen Nome 3 of Upper-Egypt.png
Nekhen𓈸 (Nekhen) Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) Elkab Shrine Nekhebet
Uas (Uaset/ Waset) Nome 4 of Upper-Egypt.png
Uas (Uaset/ Waset)
Waset/ Uaset𓈹 Uas (Uaset/ Waset)Niwt-rst / Waset [Ir-t Rā/ Iset-Sekhenu-en-Ākhemu/ Ānkh] (Thebes) Luxor SceptreAmun-Ra
Herui Nome 5 of Upper-Egypt.png
Netjerui𓈺 (Herui)𓎤𓃀𓅂𓊖 Gebtu/ Iter-Shemā (Coptos) Qift The two falcons Min
Iqer Nome 6 of Upper-Egypt.png
Iqer Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-I106.png
Meseḥ/ Mes-ḥ𓈻 (Iqer)In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera)In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-en-Sek-Djet/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera)The crocodileHathor
Seshesh Nome 7 of Upper-Egypt.png
Bat𓈼 (Seshesh)Seshesh/ Pa-Khen-Iment/ Uas-Meḥ (Diospolis Parva) Hu Sistrum Hathor
Ta-wer Nome 8 of Upper-Egypt.png
Ta-Wer/ Ta-Ur𓈽 Ta-wer Thinis Great landAnhur
Min Nome 9 of Upper-Egypt.png
Menu/ Minu𓈾 (Min)Ip/ Ipi/ Ipu/ Apu/ [later: Khen-Min, perhaps another name for "Khemenu"]/ Ārty-Ḥeru (Panopolis) Akhmim Min Min
Uadj (Wadjet) Nome 10 of Upper-Egypt.png
Uadj (Wadjet)
Uadj (Wadjet) Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-Aa105.png
Uadj (Wadjet)
Wadjyt/ Uadjyt𓈿/𓉀 Uadj (Wadjet)Djew-qa / Tjebu (Antaeopolis) Qaw El Kebir CobraHathor
Set Nome 11 of Upper-Egypt.png
Set Abydos-Bold-hieroglyph-Aa106.png
Sha𓉁/𓉂 (Set) Shashotep (Hypselis)ShutbThe creature associated with Set Khnum
Ta-wer Nome 12 of Upper-Egypt.png
Dju-fet𓉃 (Tu-ph)Pr nmty (Hieracon)al AtawlaViper mountainHorus
Ta-wer Nome 13 of Upper-Egypt.png
Nedjfet Khentet/ Nedjefet Khentet𓉄 (Atef-Khent) Zawty (z3wj-tj, Lycopolis) Asyut Upper Sycamore and Viper Apuat
Ta-wer Nome 14 of Upper-Egypt.png
Nedjfet Peḥtet/ Nedjefet Peḥtet𓉅 (Atef-Peḥu)Qesy (Cusae) El Qusiya Lower Sycamore and ViperHathor
Ta-wer Nome 15 of Upper-Egypt.png
Wenet/ Uenet/ Unit𓉆 (Wenet)Khemenu (Hermopolis Magna) El Ashmounein Hare [9] Thoth
Ta-wer Nome 16 of Upper-Egypt.png
Ma-Ḥedj𓉇 (Ma-hedj) Herwer?Hur? Oryx [9] Horus
Ta-wer Nome 17 of Upper-Egypt.png
Input𓉈 Inpu (Anpu)Saka (Cynopolis) El Qais Anubis Anubis
Ta-wer Nome 18 of Upper-Egypt.png
Nemti𓉉/𓉊 (Sep)Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis) El Hiba Set Anubis
Ta-wer Nome 19 of Upper-Egypt.png
Wabwi/ Uabwi/ Uabui𓉋 (Uab) Per-Medjed/ Per-Mādjet/ Uabu-t (Oxyrhynchus) El Bahnasa Two Sceptres Set
Ta-wer Nome 20 of Upper-Egypt.png
N‘art Khentet/ N‘aret Khentet𓉌 (Atef-Khent)Henen-nesut (Herakleopolis Magna)IhnasiyaSouthern Sycamore Heryshaf
Ta-wer Nome 21 of Upper-Egypt.png
N‘art Peḥtet/ N‘aret Peḥtet𓉍 (Atef-Peḥu)Shenakhen / Semenuhor/ Ium'ā (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoe) Faiyum Northern SycamoreKhnemu
Ta-wer Nome 22 of Upper-Egypt.png
Mednit/ Medenit𓉎/𓉏 (Maten)𓁶𓏤𓃒𓏪𓊖 Tepihu (Aphroditopolis) Atfih KnifeHathor

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thebes, Egypt</span> Ancient Egyptian city

Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt for long periods during the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom eras. It was close to Nubia and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city during many periods of ancient Egyptian history. The site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and where the city was situated; and the western bank, where a necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and funerary complexes can be found. In 1979, the ruins of ancient Thebes were classified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">First Intermediate Period of Egypt</span> Era of Ancient Egyptian history

The First Intermediate Period, described as a 'dark period' in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately 125 years, c. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It comprises the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, and part of the Eleventh Dynasties. The concept of a "First Intermediate Period" was coined in 1926 by Egyptologists Georg Steindorff and Henri Frankfort.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Middle Kingdom of Egypt</span> Reunified ancient Egypt c. 2000-1700 BC

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom lasted from approximately 2040 to 1782 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II in the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. The kings of the Eleventh Dynasty ruled from Thebes and the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht.

The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The pharaonic period, the period in which Egypt was ruled by a pharaoh, is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule in 332 BC.

A nomarch was a provincial governor in ancient Egypt; the country was divided into 42 provinces, called nomes. A nomarch was the government official responsible for a nome.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bubastis</span> Archaeological site in Egypt

Bubastis, also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an ancient Egyptian city. Bubastis is often identified with the biblical Pi-Beseth. It was the capital of its own nome, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt, and notable as a center of worship for the feline goddess Bastet, and therefore the principal depository in Egypt of mummies of cats.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thebaid</span> Administrative region in Aegyptus

The Thebaid or Thebais was a region in ancient Egypt, comprising the 13 southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.

Qift is a small town in the Qena Governorate of Egypt about 43 km (27 mi) north of Luxor, situated under 26° north lat., on the east bank of the Nile. In ancient times its proximity to the Red Sea made it an important trading emporium between India, Punt, Felix Arabia and the North. It was important for nearby gold and quartzite mines in the Eastern Desert, and as a starting point for expeditions to Punt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beni Hasan</span> Village and archaeological site in Middle Egypt

Beni Hasan is an ancient Egyptian cemetery. It is located approximately 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the south of modern-day Minya in the region known as Middle Egypt, the area between Asyut and Memphis.

Thinis was the capital city of the first dynasties of ancient Egypt. Thinis remains undiscovered but is well attested by ancient writers, including the classical historian Manetho, who cites it as the centre of the Thinite Confederacy, a tribal confederation whose leader, Menes, united Egypt and was its first pharaoh. Thinis began a steep decline in importance from Dynasty III, when the capital was relocated to Memphis, which was thought to be the first true and stable capital after the unification of old Egypt by Menes. Thinis's location on the border of the competing Heracleopolitan and Theban dynasties of the First Intermediate Period and its proximity to certain oases of possible military importance ensured Thinis some continued significance in the Old and New Kingdoms. This was a brief respite and Thinis eventually lost its position as a regional administrative centre by the Roman period.

Articles related to Modern Egypt include:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ptolemaic Kingdom</span> Hellenistic-era Greek state in Egypt (305–30 BC)

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was an Ancient Greek state based in Egypt during the Hellenistic Period. It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Ruling for nearly three centuries, the Ptolemies were the longest and most recent Egyptian dynasty of ancient origin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Minya, Egypt</span> City in Minya, Egypt

Minya is the capital of the Minya Governorate in Upper Egypt. It is located approximately 245 km (152 mi) south of Cairo on the western bank of the Nile River, which flows north through the city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Middle Egypt</span> Section of land between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt

Middle Egypt is the section of land between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north. At the time, Ancient Egypt was divided into Lower and Upper Egypt, though Middle Egypt was technically a subdivision of Upper Egypt. It was not until the 19th century that archaeologists felt the need to divide Upper Egypt in two. As a result, they coined the term "Middle Egypt" for the stretch of river between Cairo and the Qena Bend. It was also associated with a region termed "Heptanomis", generally as the district which separates the Thebaïd from the Delta.

This page list topics related to ancient Egypt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Djehutihotep</span> Ancient Egyptian nomarch

Djehutihotep was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the fifteenth nomos of Upper Egypt during the twelfth dynasty, c. 1900 BC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khety II (nomarch)</span>

Khety II was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the 13th nomos of Upper Egypt during the reign of pharaoh Merykare of the 10th Dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tefibi</span>

Tefibi was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the 13th nomos of Upper Egypt during the 10th Dynasty. In addition, he also was hereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, sole companion and high priest of Wepwawet. The main source about his life came from his biography, inscribed on the "tomb III" in Asyut.

Khety I was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the 13th nomos of Upper Egypt during the 10th dynasty. Like many other local governors, he also was a priest of the native deity Wepwawet.



  1. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster, 2007. p. 841
  2. "Nome | ancient Egyptian government". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-09-14.
  3. Bunson, Margaret (2014). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Infobase Publishing. p. 280. ISBN   978-1-4381-0997-8.
  4. 1 2 "Nomes". Ancient Egypt Online. Retrieved 2020-09-14.
  5. "Provinces of Egypt". Retrieved 2017-05-21.
  6. "Ptolemaic Dynasty". World History Encyclopedia . Retrieved 2020-09-14.
  7. Herodotus, Euterpe, 2.4.1 and 2.99.1ff.
  8. Bagnall, Roger S. (1996). Egypt in Late Antiquity (Fourth printing ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 333. ISBN   0691069867 . Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  9. 1 2 Wolfram Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt: history, archaeology and society. London, Duckworth Egyptology, 2006, pp. 109-111