This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations . (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Elias in 1933
|Born||22 June 1897|
|Died||1 August 1990 93) (aged|
|Known for||Figurational sociology, theory of civilizing/decivilizing processes, habitus|
|Influences||Max Weber, Sigmund Freud, Karl Mannheim, Richard Hönigswald|
|Influenced||Anthony Giddens, Pierre Bourdieu, Eric Dunning Hermann Korte, Stephen Mennell, Steven Pinker|
Norbert Elias (German: [eˈliːas] ; 22 June 1897 – 1 August 1990) was a German sociologist who later became a British citizen. He is especially famous for his theory of civilizing/decivilizing processes.
Elias was born on 22 June 1897 in Breslau (today: Wrocław) in Prussia's Silesia Province to Hermann and Sophie Gallewski. His father was a businessman in the textile industry. After passing the abitur in 1915 he volunteered for the German army in World War I and was employed as a telegrapher, first at the Eastern front, then at the Western front. After suffering a nervous breakdown in 1917, he was declared unfit for service and was posted to Breslau as a medical orderly. The same year, Elias began studying philosophy, psychology and medicine at the University of Breslau, in addition spending a term each at the universities of Heidelberg (where he attended lectures by Karl Jaspers) and Freiburg in 1919 and 1920. He quit medicine in 1919 after passing the preliminary examination (Physikum). To finance his studies after his father's fortune had been reduced by hyperinflation, he took up a job as the head of the export department in a local hardware factory 1922. In 1924, he graduated with a doctoral dissertation in philosophy entitled Idee und Individuum (Idea and Individual) supervised by Richard Hönigswald, a representative of neo-Kantianism. Disappointed about the absence of the social aspect from neo-Kantianism, which had led to a serious dispute with his supervisor about his dissertation, Elias decided to turn to sociology for his further studies.
During his Breslau years, until 1925, Elias was deeply involved in the German Zionist movement, and acted as one of the leading intellectuals within the German-Jewish youth movement "Blau-Weiss" (Blue-White). During these years he got acquainted with other young Zionists like Erich Fromm, Leo Strauss, Leo Löwenthal and Gershom Scholem. In 1925, Elias moved to Heidelberg, where Alfred Weber accepted him as a candidate for a habilitation (second book project) on the development of modern science, entitled Die Bedeutung der Florentiner Gesellschaft und Kultur für die Entstehung der Wissenschaft (The Significance of Florentine Society and Culture for the Development of Science). In 1930 Elias chose to cancel this project and followed Karl Mannheim to become his assistant at the University of Frankfurt. However, after the Nazi take-over in early 1933, Mannheim's sociological institute was forced to close. The already submitted habilitation thesis entitled Der höfische Mensch ("The Man of the Court") was never formally accepted and not published until 1969 in a much elaborated form as "Die höfische Gesellschaft" ("The Court Society"). In 1933, Elias fled to Paris. His elderly parents remained in Breslau, where his father died in 1940; on 30 August 1942 his mother was deported to Theresienstadt, and on 29 September transferred to and killed in Treblinka.
During his two years in Paris, Elias worked as a private scholar supported by a scholarship from the Amsterdam Steunfonds (Prof. Frijda's benefit fund) and tried to gain some additional income by organizing a workshop for the production of wooden children's toys. In 1935, he moved on to Great Britain, where he worked on his magnum opus, The Civilizing Process , until 1939, now supported by a scholarship from a relief organization for Jewish refugees.
In 1939, he met up with his former friend and supervisor Mannheim at the London School of Economics, where he obtained a position as Senior Research Assistant. In 1940, the LSE was evacuated to Cambridge, but when an invasion of Britain by German forces appeared imminent, Elias was detained at internment camps in Liverpool and on the Isle of Man for eight months, on account of his being German – an "enemy alien". During his internment he organized political lectures and staged a drama he had written himself, Die Ballade vom armen Jakob (The Ballad of Poor Jacob) with a musical score by Hans Gál (eventually published in 1987).
Upon his release in 1941, he returned to Cambridge. Towards the end of the war, he worked for British intelligence, investigating hardened Nazis among German prisoners of war (see his essay "The breakdown of civilisation", in Studies on the Germans). He taught evening classes for the Workers' Educational Association (the adult education organization), and later evening extension courses in sociology, psychology, economics and economic history at the University of Leicester. He also held occasional lectureships at other institutions of higher learning. In collaboration with a friend from Frankfurt days, the psychoanalyst S. H. Foulkes, he laid the theoretical foundations of Group Analysis, an important school of therapy, and co-founded the Group Analytic Society in 1952. He himself trained and worked as a group therapist. On Febr. 22, 1952 he was naturalized as a British citizen.
In 1954 – at the very late age of 57 – he at last gained his first secure academic post, at University College Leicester (which soon became the University of Leicester), first as Lecturer and later as Reader in Sociology. Along with his friend Ilya Neustadt, he made a major contribution to the development of the University's Department of Sociology, which became one of the largest and most influential departments in the United Kingdom. He retired in 1962, but continued to teach graduate students in Leicester until the mid-1970s. Among subsequently famous sociologists whom Neustadt and Elias appointed as colleagues at Leicester, were John H. Goldthorpe, Anthony Giddens, Martin Albrow, Sheila Allen, Joe and Olive Banks, Richard Brown, Mary McIntosh, Nicos Mouzelis and Sami Zubaida and Keith Hopkins. (Hopkins was subsequently Professor of Ancient History at Cambridge: his appointment to teach sociology in Leicester is one sign of the very broad conception Elias and Neustadt had of the discipline of sociology.) Students in the department included John Eldridge, Chris Bryant, Chris Rojek, Paul Hirst, Graeme Salaman and Bryan Wilson. From 1962 to 1964, Elias taught as Professor of Sociology at the University of Ghana in Legon near Accra. After his return to Europe in 1965, he spent much time as visiting professor in various German and Dutch universities, and from 1978 based himself in Amsterdam.
His reputation and popularity grew immensely after the republication of The Civilising Process in 1969. From 1978 to 1984 he worked at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Bielefeld from which he received an honorary doctorate in 1980. Elias was the first ever laureate of both the Theodor W. Adorno Prize (1977) and the European Amalfi Prize for Sociology and Social Sciences (1987). In 1986 the Große Verdienstkreuz of the German Federal Republic was awarded to him, and on his 90th birthday he was appointed Commander in the Order of Orange-Nassau by the Dutch queen. By 1998 an International Sociological Association worldwide survey of sociologists ranked "On the Process of Civilization" (revised later title) seventh among the most important books in sociology in the twentieth century. In 1990 he collected himself the Nonino prize for a 'Maestro del nostro tempo' in Italy. Outside his sociological work he always also wrote poetry.
Elias died at his home in Amsterdam on 1 August 1990. In September 2017, a bridge in the Vondelpark, not too far from where he lived, was named after him. In Almere city a street in the 'sustainable' sociologists' quarter also bears his name.
Elias' theory focused on the relationship between power, behavior, emotion, and knowledge over time. He significantly shaped what is called process or figurational sociology. Due to historical circumstances, Elias had long remained a marginal author, until being rediscovered by a new generation of scholars in the 1970s, when he eventually became one of the most influential sociologists in the history of the field. Interest in his work can be partly attributed to the fact that his concept of large social figurations or networks of interdependencies between people explains the emergence and function of large societal structures without neglecting the aspect of individual agency. In the 1960s and 1970s, the overemphasis of structure over agency was heavily criticized about the then-dominant school of structural functionalism.
Elias' most famous work is Über den Prozess der Zivilisation, published in English as The Civilizing Process (or, more accurately in the Collected Works edition – see below – as On the Process of Civilisation). Originally published in German, in two volumes, in 1939, it was virtually ignored until its republication in 1969, when its first volume was also translated into English. The first volume traces the historical developments of the European habitus , or "second nature," the particular individual psychic structures molded by social attitudes. Elias traced how post-medieval European standards regarding violence, sexual behaviour, bodily functions, table manners and forms of speech were gradually transformed by increasing thresholds of shame and repugnance, working outward from a nucleus in court etiquette. The internalized "self-restraint" imposed by increasingly complex networks of social connections developed the "psychological" self-perceptions that Freud recognized as the "super-ego." The second volume of The Civilizing Process looks into the causes of these processes and finds them in the increasingly centralized Early Modern state and the increasingly differentiated and interconnected web of society.
When Elias' work found a larger audience in the 1960s, at first his analysis of the process was misunderstood as an extension of discredited "social Darwinism," the idea of upward "progress" was dismissed by reading it as consecutive history rather than a metaphor for a social process.
Elias came to write both in English and German. Almost all his work on the sociology of knowledge and the sciences (much of which would more conventionally be called "philosophy of science") was written in English, as was his seminal work in the sociology of sport, collected in The Quest for Excitement, written by Norbert Elias with Eric Dunning, and published in 1986. Bielefeld University's Center for Sociology of Development in 1984 invited Norbert Elias to preside over a gathering of a host of his internationally distinguished fellows who in turn wanted to review and discuss Elias' most interesting theories on civilising processes in person.
In 1983, Elias established the Norbert Elias Foundation to administer his legacy after his death. The initial members of the board of the foundation were Johan Goudsblom (Amsterdam), Hermann Korte (Münster) and Abraham van Stolk, the latter replaced after his death in 1996 by Stephen Mennell (Dublin). In 2017 a new board took over the management of the Foundation: Johan Heilbron (Rotterdam and Paris), Jason Hughes (Leicester), Adrian Jitschin (Frankfurt), and Arjan Post (Secretary, Amsterdam)
Until he retired from the University of Leicester in 1962, Elias had published only one book, Über den Prozess der Zivilisation, and no more than a handful of articles. By the time of his death in 1990, he had published 15 books and something approaching 150 essays. He had always written a great deal, but found it very difficult ever to be satisfied with the results, and was very reluctant to release his work for publication. Still more curious, although he was such a perfectionist in his writing, he could rarely be persuaded to undertake such mundane tasks as reading and correcting the proofs. Thus, although his German works were well translated into English (for the most part by Edmund Jephcott), the original English editions contain many errors that could have been corrected by thorough proof-reading. In the early twenty-first century, therefore, the Norbert Elias Foundation entered into agreement with UCD Press, Dublin, to publish new scholarly editions of Elias's work, running to 18 volumes.
The new editions of Elias's works, published by University College Dublin Press, have been carefully revised, cross-referenced and annotated (with notes especially about many historical people and events to which Elias makes reference), with a view to making them far more accessible to the reader. Especially important are the three volumes of Elias's collected essays, many of which have not previously been published in English – or were published in such a scattered way or in obscure places that they were hitherto little known. (Other essays can also be found in Early Writings, Mozart and other volumes.)
The 18 volumes are as follows:
1 Early Writings, edited by Richard Kilminster (2006).
2 The Court Society, edited by Stephen Mennell (2006).
3 On the Process of Civilisation [note new title], edited by Stephen Mennell, Eric Dunning, Johan Goudsblom and Richard Kilminster (2012).
4 The Established and the Outsiders, edited by Cas Wouters (2008).
5 What is Sociology? edited by Artur Bogner, Katie Liston and Stephen Mennell (2012).
6 The Loneliness of the Dying and Human Condition, edited by Alan and Brigitte Scott (2009).
7 Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilising Process, by Norbert Elias and Eric Dunning, edited by Eric Dunning (2008).
8 Involvement and Detachment, edited by Stephen Quilley (2007).
9 An Essay on Time, edited by Steven Loyal and Stephen Mennell (2007).
10 The Society of Individuals, edited by Robert van Krieken (2010)
11 Studies on the Germans [note new title], edited by Stephen Mennell and Eric Dunning (2013).
12 Mozart, and Other Essays on Courtly Culture, edited by Eric Baker and Stephen Mennell (2010).
13 The Symbol Theory, edited by Richard Kilminster (2011).
14 Essays I: On the Sociology of Knowledge and the Sciences, edited by Richard Kilminster and StephenMennell (2009).
15 Essays II: On Civilising Processes, State Formation and National Identity, edited by Richard Kilminster and Stephen Mennell (2008).
16 Essays III: On Sociology and the Humanities, edited by Richard Kilminster and Stephen Mennell (2009).
17 Interviews and Autobiographical Reflections, edited by Edmund Jephcott, Richard Kilminster, Katie Liston and Stephen Mennell (October 2013).
18 Supplements and Index to the Collected Works [includes major unpublished essays on Freud and on Lévy-Bruhl], edited by Stephen Mennell, Marc Joly and Katie Liston (2014).
The Genesis of the Naval Profession, edited by René Moelker and Stephen Mennell (2007).
Books (in chronological order, by date of original publication):
In sociology, Habitus comprises socially ingrained habits, skills and dispositions. It is the way that individuals perceive the social world around them and react to it. These dispositions are usually shared by people with similar backgrounds. The habitus is acquired through imitation (mimesis) and is the reality in which individuals are socialized, which includes their individual experience and opportunities. Thus, the habitus represents the way group culture and personal history shape the body and the mind; as a result, it shapes present social actions of an individual.
Niklas Luhmann was a German sociologist, philosopher of social science, and a prominent thinker in systems theory, who is considered one of the most important social theorists of the 20th century.
Theodor W. Adorno was a German philosopher, sociologist, psychologist, musicologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.
Alfred Schutz was an Austrian philosopher and social phenomenologist whose work bridged sociological and phenomenological traditions. Schutz is gradually being recognized as one of the twentieth century's leading philosophers of social science. He related Edmund Husserl's work to the social sciences, and influenced Max Weber's legacy of philosophical foundations for sociology and economics through Schutz's major work, Phenomenology of the Social World.
Karl Mannheim was an influential German sociologist during the first half of the 20th century. He is a key figure in classical sociology, as well as one of the founders of the sociology of knowledge. Mannheim is best known for his book Ideology and Utopia (1929/1936), in which he distinguishes between partial and total ideologies, the latter representing comprehensive worldviews distinctive to particular social groups, and also between ideologies that provide outdated support for existing social arrangements, and utopias, which look to the future and threaten to transform a society.
Ulrich Beck was a well known German sociologist, and one of the most cited social scientists in the world during his lifetime. His work focused on questions of uncontrollability, ignorance and uncertainty in the modern age, and he coined the terms "risk society" and "second modernity" or "reflexive modernization". He also tried to overturn national perspectives that predominated in sociological investigations with a cosmopolitanism that acknowledges the interconnectedness of the modern world. He was a professor at the University of Munich and also held appointments at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme (FMSH) in Paris, and at the London School of Economics.
Peter Sloterdijk is a German philosopher and cultural theorist. He is a professor of philosophy and media theory at the University of Art and Design Karlsruhe. He co-hosted the German television show Im Glashaus: Das Philosophische Quartett from 2002 until 2012.
The Civilizing Process is a book by German sociologist Norbert Elias. It is an influential work in sociology and Elias' most important work. It was first published in Basel, Switzerland in two volumes in 1939 in German as Über den Prozeß der Zivilisation.
Eric Dunning was a British sociologist who was Emeritus Professor of sociology at the University of Leicester.
The positivism dispute was a political-philosophical dispute between the critical rationalists and the Frankfurt School in 1961, about the methodology of the social sciences. It grew into a broad discussion within German sociology from 1961 to 1969. The naming itself is controversial, since it was the Frankfurt School proponents who accused the critical rationalists of being positivists—while the latter considered themselves to be opponents of positivism.
Leo Löwenthal was a German sociologist and philosopher usually associated with the Frankfurt School.
Dietmar Dath is a German author, journalist and translator.
Jason Hughes is currently a professor and head of the School of Media, Communication and Sociology at University of Leicester. Previously, he worked as a senior lecturer at Brunel University in West London.
Uta Gerhardt is a German sociologist and professor emeritus at the University of Heidelberg. She studied sociology, philosophy and history at the universities of Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. In 1969, she obtained a Ph.D. at the University of Konstanz. The focus of her work is on medical sociology, structural-functionalist role theory, and general sociological theory. She also wrote a major biography of Talcott Parsons.
In cultural and social studies, configurations are patterns of behaviour, movement and thinking, which research observes when analysing different cultures and/ or historical changes. The term “configurations” is mostly used by comparative anthropological studies and by cultural history. Configurational analysis became a special method by the Stuttgart school of Historical Behaviour Studies during the 1970s and later by body culture studies in Denmark.
Ingo Mörth is an Austrian sociologist.
Stephen Mennell is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at University College Dublin.
Body culture studies describe and compare bodily practice in the larger context of culture and society, i.e. in the tradition of anthropology, history and sociology. As body culture studies analyse culture and society in terms of human bodily practices, they are sometimes viewed as a form of materialist phenomenology.
Casparus Adrianus Petrus Maria "Cas" Wouters is a Dutch sociologist. He studied sociology in Amsterdam. At present he is a researcher at Utrecht University, affiliated with the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research (ASSR).
Andreas Reckwitz is a German sociologist and cultural theorist. He is Professor for comparative cultural sociology at the Viadrina European University in Frankfurt (Oder). In April 2020 he is transferring to the institute of social sciences at Humboldt University Berlin. Reckwitz is a prominent proponent of social practice theory and contributed significantly to its development as an encompassing social and cultural theory. This foundational theoretical groundwork and vocabulary serves as a basis for his influential works on subjectivation, creativity and singularization of the social. Reckwitz also gained wide attention in the German media public with his 2017 published diagnosis of the present time Die Gesellschaft der Singularitäten. Zum Strukturwandel der Moderne which won the Bavarian Book Price. He wrote several articles for the newspaper Die Zeit and appeared as an interview partner on the German national radio Deutschlandfunk Kultur discussing recent socio-cultural and political trends and issues in western societies. In 2019 Reckwitz was awarded the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Price of the German Research Foundation.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Norbert Elias|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Norbert Elias .|