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Location of Nord in France
|• President of the General Council||Patrick Kanner|
|• Total||5,742.74 km2 (2,217.28 sq mi)|
|• Density||450/km2 (1,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2|
Nord (French : département du Nord or simply Nord, pronounced [nɔʁ] ; West Flemish and Dutch : Noorderdepartement, lit. 'Northern department') is a department in the Hauts-de-France region of France bordering Belgium. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and the Bishopric of Cambrai. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders.
Nord is the country's most populous department. It also contains the metropolitan region of Lille (the main city and the prefecture of the department), the fourth-largest urban area in France after Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Within the department is located the part of France where the French Flemish dialect of Dutch is still spoken (along with French) as a native language. Similarly, the distinct French Picard dialect, Ch'ti is spoken here.
Tribes of the Belgae, such as the Menapii and Nervii were the first peoples recorded in the area later known as Nord.
During the 4th and 5th Centuries, Roman rulers of Gallia Belgica secured the route from the major port of Bononia (Boulogne) to Colonia (Cologne), by co-opting Germanic peoples north-east of this corridor, such as the Tungri. In effect, the area known later as Nord became an isogloss (linguistic border) between the Germanic and Romance languages. Saxon colonisation of the region from the 5th to the 8th centuries likely shifted the isogloss further south so that, by the 9th century, most people immediately north of Lille spoke a dialect of Old Dutch. This has remained evident in the place names of the region. After the County of Flanders became part of France in the 9th century, the isogloss moved north and east.
During the 14th Century, much of the area came under the control of the Duchy of Burgundy and in subsequent centuries was therefore part of the Habsburg Netherlands (from 1482) and the Spanish Netherlands (1581).
Areas that later constituted Nord were ceded to France by treaties in 1659, 1668, and 1678, becoming the Counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and part of the Bishopric of Cambrai.
On 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution, Nord became one of the original 83 departments created to replace the counties.
Modern government policies making French the only official language have led to a decline in use of the Dutch West Flemish dialect. There are currently 20,000 speakers of a sub-dialect of West Flemish in the arrondissement of Dunkirk and it appears likely that this particular sub-dialect will be extinct within decades.There is, however, a movement to bring back use of the Dutch language as a second official language.
Nord is part of the current Hauts-de-France region and is surrounded by the French departments of Pas-de-Calais and Aisne, as well as by Belgium and the North Sea.
Situated in the north of the country along the western half of the Belgian frontier, the department is unusually long and narrow. Its principal city is Lille, which with nearby Roubaix, Tourcoing and Villeneuve d'Ascq constitutes the center of a cluster of industrial and former mining towns totalling slightly over a million inhabitants. Other important cities are Valenciennes, Douai, and Dunkirk. The principal rivers are the following: Yser, Lys, Escaut, Scarpe, Sambre
Nord is the most heavily populated department, with a population of 2,617,939 km².and an area of 5,743
The President of the Departmental Council is the unaffiliated right-winger Jean-René Lecerf.
The first President of the Fifth Republic, General Charles de Gaulle, was born in Lille in the department on 22 November 1890.
|•||The Republicans (LR)||25|
|Socialist Party (PS)||16|
|•||Miscellaneous right (DVD)||15|
|•||Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI)||11|
|French Communist Party (PCF)||10|
|Miscellaneous left (DVG)||2|
|•||France Arise (DLF)||1|
|Citizen and Republican Movement (MRC)||1|
|Radical Party of the Left (PRG)||1|
|Nord's 1st constituency||Adrien Quatennens||La France Insoumise|
|Nord's 2nd constituency||Ugo Bernalicis||La France Insoumise|
|Nord's 3rd constituency||Christophe Di Pompeo||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 4th constituency||Brigitte Liso||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 5th constituency||Sébastien Huyghe||The Republicans|
|Nord's 6th constituency||Charlotte Lecocq||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 7th constituency||Francis Vercamer||Union of Democrats and Independents|
|Nord's 8th constituency||Catherine Osson||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 9th constituency||Valérie Petit||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 10th constituency||Vincent Ledoux||The Republicans|
|Nord's 11th constituency||Laurent Pietraszewski||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 12th constituency||Anne-Laure Cattelot||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 13th constituency||Christian Hutin||Citizen and Republican Movement|
|Nord's 14th constituency||Paul Christophe||The Republicans|
|Nord's 15th constituency||Jennifer de Temmerman||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 16th constituency||Alain Bruneel||French Communist Party|
|Nord's 17th constituency||Dimitri Houbron||La République En Marche!|
|Nord's 18th constituency||Guy Bricout||Union of Democrats and Independents|
|Nord's 19th constituency||Sébastien Chenu||National Rally|
|Nord's 20th constituency||Fabien Roussel||French Communist Party|
|Nord's 21st constituency||Béatrice Descamps||Union of Democrats and Independents|
At the forefront of France's 19th century industrialisation, the area suffered severely during World War I and now faces the economic, social and environmental problems associated with the decline of coal mining with its neighbours following the earlier decline of the Lille-Roubaix textile industry.
Until recently, the department was dominated economically by coal mining, which extended through the heart of the department from neighbouring Artois into central Belgium.
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history, and sometimes involving neighbouring countries. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is the City of Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, and the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as (Flemish) culture and education.
Nord-Pas-de-Calais is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants.
Lille is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, the prefecture of the Nord department, and the main city of the Métropole Européenne de Lille.
The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century. They roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e. what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and most of the French departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais (Artois). Also within this area were semi-independent fiefdoms, mainly ecclesiastical ones, such as Liège, Cambrai and Stavelot-Malmedy.
Cambrai, formerly Cambray and historically in English Camerick or Camericke, is a commune in the Nord department and in the Hauts-de-France region of France on the Scheldt river, which is known locally as the Escaut river.
The country of Belgium is divided into three regions. Two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces. The third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces, as it was originally only a small part of a province itself.
Hainaut, historically also known as Heynowes in English, is a province of Wallonia and Belgium.
Comines-Warneton is a Belgian city and municipality in the Walloon province of Hainaut. On January 1, 2006, it had a total population of 17,562. Its total area is 61.09 km2 (23.59 sq mi) which gives a population density of 287 inhabitants per square kilometre (740/sq mi). The name "Comines" is believed to have a Celtic, or Gaulish, origin. Comines-Warneton is a municipality with language facilities for Dutch-speakers.
Tournai, known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt. In the province of Hainaut, Tournai is part of Eurometropolis Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai, which had 2,155,161 residents in 2008.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815). The region also included a number of smaller states that were never ruled by Spain or Austria: the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, the Imperial Abbey of Stavelot-Malmedy, the County of Bouillon, the County of Horne and the Princely Abbey of Thorn. The Southern Netherlands were part of the Holy Roman Empire until the whole area was annexed by Revolutionary France.
Spanish Netherlands was the name for the Habsburg Netherlands ruled by the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs from 1556 to 1714. They were a collection of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries held in personal union by the Spanish Crown. This region comprised most of the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, southern Netherlands, and western Germany with the capital being Brussels.
French Flanders is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings were traditionally the dominant ethnic group and where a dialect of Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken. The region lies in the modern-day region of Hauts-de-France and roughly corresponds to the arrondissements of Lille, Douai and Dunkirk on the southern border with Belgium. Together with French Hainaut and the Cambrésis, it makes up the French Department of Nord.
Hazebrouck is a commune in the Nord department, Hauts-de-France. Hazebrouck in Flanders was a small market town before it became an important railway junction in the 1860s. West Flemish was the usual popular language used in the town until 1880. At that time French was taught at school by mandate of the French government in an effort to "Frenchify" the people of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais and to extinguish their Flemish roots. The development of the railways linked Hazebrouck to Lille to Calais and Dunkirk.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France, comprising the arrondissements of Avesnes-sur-Helpe, Cambrai, Douai, and Valenciennes within the département of Nord, in the region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The current archbishop is Vincent Dollmann, appointed in December 2000. Since 2002 the archdiocese has been a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lille.
The 6 arrondissements of the Nord department are:
French Flemish is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France. Place names attest to Flemish having been spoken since the 8th century in the area that was ceded to France in the 17th century and which became known as French Flanders. Its dialect subgroup, called French Flemish, meanwhile, became a minority dialect that survives mainly in Dunkirk, Bourbourg, Calais (Kales), Saint-Omer (Sint-Omaars) with an ethnic enclave Haut-Pont (Haute-Ponte) known for its predominantly Flemish community and Bailleul (Belle). French-Flemish has about 20,000 daily users, and twice that number of occasional speakers. The language's status appears to be moribund, but there has been an active movement to retain French Flemish in the region.
Westhoek or Maritime Flanders is a region in Belgium and France and includes the following areas:
French Hainaut is one of two areas in France that form the département du Nord, the eastern part. It corresponds roughly with the Arrondissement of Avesnes-sur-Helpe (east), Arrondissement of Cambrai (south-west) and Arrondissement of Valenciennes (north-west).
Walloon Flanders was a semi-independent part of the County of Flanders, composed of the burgraviates of Lille, Douai and Orchies. It is sometimes referred to as Lille–Douai–Orchies
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.