Nordland (boat)

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Two Nordland Boats, the larger one is low in the water, loaded with a hold of fish or wooden logs. Photo from between 1890-1900. Nordlandboat.jpg
Two Nordland Boats, the larger one is low in the water, loaded with a hold of fish or wooden logs. Photo from between 1890-1900.

The Nordland boat (or Norwegian : Nordlandsbåt), is a type of fishing boat that has been used for centuries in northern counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark of Norway and derives its name from Nordland county where it has a long history. It has dominated the Lofoten and Vesterålen islands fishing industry for centuries and is closely related to the old Viking longships.

Contents

Construction

Traditional Norwegian Nordland boat near Kvitvaer (Luroy, Nordland) Femboring med raasegl - Braute ved Kvitvaer.png
Traditional Norwegian Nordland boat near Kvitvær (Lurøy, Nordland)

The Nordland boat has a clinker, or lapstrake hull design and has its rudder on the sternpost. Its length varies from 14 to well over 40 feet and usually has a length to beam ratio of 3-1 to 4-1. It has a high prow and stern, shallow keel, v-hull and has an inboard gunwale, which can be used to drain off the fishing nets when they are drawn on board. Some of the larger Nordlanders have a detachable cabin that is used for shelter, often having a wood-burning stove inside. [1]

The Nordlander normally carries a large single square sail with the largest boats carrying a topsail. It's one of the few types of boats that still carries such a sail to the present day.

Oak had been a favorite wood for ship builders for centuries for its resistance to rot, strength, and durability. However, oak is not native to Norway north of the county of Trøndelag and is also a heavy wood which would make such boats difficult to pull up on shore, which was done on a daily basis. For these reasons, the materials used for the Nordland is almost exclusively pine, and in the northern regions, fir. [2] Pine and fir are lighter woods which would make it easier to be drawn up on shore, but at the expense of durability.

Sami versions

The Nordland boat has a very long history in the north Norwegian coastline, with both Norwegians and Sami, who are first recorded as sailing such boats from about 950 onwards. Around 1000 AD the Sami were described as producing Nordlandbots for their Norwegian customers along the northern coastal farming communities, which the Norwegians soon started to build for themselves. [3]

One of the biggest differences between the Norwegian and Sami built Nordlands is that the Sami 'sewed' the lapstrakes together using reindeer intestines, while the Norwegians used iron rivets. [1] Nordland boats continued to be built for over 1,000 years, and in the early 20th century it was still used for fishing and coastal transport.

The coat-of-arms of Nordland County, Norway is from modern times (1965). Nordland vapen.svg
The coat-of-arms of Nordland County, Norway is from modern times (1965).

Unique feature

One of the unique features of the Nordland is its ballast system. Dozens of fist size round rocks are placed at the bottom of the boat to keep the boat weighted down. In the event that the boat is either swamped or capsizes, the rocks are designed to roll out of the boat which would lighten the boat and thus keep it afloat. [4]

The Nordland Boat today

Nordland boats today are no longer used as primarily fishing boats but as pleasure craft and have annual races. [5] The coat-of-arms of Nordland County shows the traditional boat - the Nordlandsbåt.

Related Research Articles

Longship sea vessel used by the Vikings

Longships were a type of specialised Scandinavian warships that have a long history in Scandinavia, with their existence being archaeologically proven and documented from at least the fourth century BC. Originally invented and used by the Norsemen for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age, many of the longship's characteristics were adopted by other cultures, like Anglo-Saxons, and continued to influence shipbuilding for centuries. The longship's design evolved over many centuries, and continuing up until the 6th century with clinker-built ships like Nydam and Kvalsund. The longship appeared in its complete form between the 9th and 13th centuries. The character and appearance of these ships have been reflected in Scandinavian boat-building traditions until today. The particular skills and methods employed in making longships are still used worldwide, often with modern adaptations. They were all made out of wood, with cloth sails and had numerous details and carvings on the hull.

Canoe Light boat that is paddled

A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle.

Dinghy Type of small boat

A dinghy is a type of small boat, often carried or towed by a larger vessel for use as a lifeboat or tender. Utility dinghies are usually rowboats or have an outboard motor. Some are rigged for sailing but they differ from sailing dinghies, which are designed first and foremost for sailing. A dinghy's main use is for transfers from larger boats, especially when the larger boat cannot dock at a suitably-sized port or marina.

Yawl

A yawl is a type of boat. The term has several meanings. It can apply to the rig, to the hull type or to the use which the vessel is put.

Nordland County of Norway

Nordland is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms og Finnmark in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The county was formerly known as Nordlandene amt. The county administration is in the town of Bodø. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen has been administered from Nordland since 1995.

Viking ships

Viking ships were marine vessels of unique structure, built by the Vikings during the Viking Age. The boat-types were quite varied, depending on what the ship was intended for, but they were generally characterized as being slender and flexible boats, with symmetrical ends with true keel. They were clinker built, which is the overlapping of planks riveted together. Some might have had a dragon's head or other circular object protruding from the bow and stern for design, although this is only inferred from historical sources. Viking ships were not just used for their military prowess but for long-distance trade, exploration and colonization.

Raft Flat structure for support or transportation over water

A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water. It is usually of basic design, characterized by the absence of a hull. Although there are cross-over types that blur this definition, rafts are usually kept afloat by using any combination of buoyant materials such as wood, sealed barrels, or inflated air chambers, and are typically not propelled by an engine.

Dugout canoe

A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (μονόξυλον) is Greek -- mono- (single) + ξύλον xylon (tree) -- and is mostly used in classic Greek texts. In German, they are called Einbaum. Some, but not all, pirogues are also constructed in this manner.

Carvel (boat building) Method of building a boat

Carvel built or carvel planking is a method of boat building in which hull planks are laid edge to edge and fastened to a robust frame, thereby forming a smooth surface. Traditionally the planks are neither attached to, nor slotted into, each other, having only a caulking sealant between the planks to keep water out. Modern carvel builders may attach the planks to each other with glues and fixings.

Gokstad ship

The Gokstad ship is a 9th-century Viking ship found in a burial mound at Gokstad in Sandar, Sandefjord, Vestfold, Norway. It is displayed at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo, Norway. It is the largest preserved Viking ship in Norway.

Clinker (boat building)

Clinker built is a method of boat building where the edges of hull planks overlap each other. Where necessary in larger craft, shorter planks can be joined end to end into a longer strake or hull plank. The technique developed in northern Europe and was successfully used by the Anglo-Saxons, Frisians, Scandinavians, and typical for the Hanseatic cog. A contrasting method, where plank edges are butted smoothly seam to seam, is known as carvel construction.

Faering

A faering is an open boat with two pairs of oars, commonly found in most boat-building traditions in western and northern Scandinavia.

Fishing vessel Boat or ship used to catch fish on a body of water

A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial, artisanal and recreational fishing.

Traditional fishing boat

Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Even today, many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels, of which 2.7 million were undecked (open) boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised, only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered, usually with outboard engines. The remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types, operated by sail and oars.

Fembøring

A fembøring is an open, clinker-built, wooden boat of the Nordland or Åfjord type, with similar proportions and appearance as smaller boats of the type. Fembørings traditionally are constructed of fir or pine, are rowed or sailed, and were used as fishing boats.

<i>Pinas</i> (ship)

The pinas, sometimes called "pinis" as well, is one of two types of junk rigged schooners of the east coast of the Malay peninsula, built in the Terengganu area. This kind of vessel was built of Chengal wood by the Malays since the 19th century and roamed the South China Sea and adjacent oceans as one of the two types of traditional sailing vessels the late Malay maritime culture has developed: The bedar and the pinas.

<i>Anna Karoline</i>

Anna Karoline is a jekt often called Nordlandsjekt, built at Brataker in Mosvik, Norway in 1876.

Rognan Airport

Rognan Airport is a private airport situated in the village of Rognan in the municipality of Saltdal in Nordland county, Norway. The municipal airport features a 735-meter (2,411 ft) grass runway aligned 01/19. It is used for recreational flying and is operated by Saltdal Flyklubb.

Mayang (boat)

Perahu Mayang or simply mayang is a type of fishing boat from Java, Indonesia. This type of boat is used mainly for fishing and trading. Historically, this indigenous vessel is also favored by European skippers and private merchants for trading in East Indies: 50% of them were using mayang and pencalang. It is mostly used in northern coast of Java. The major production site is in Rembang, Central Java.

The Drascombe Scaffie, now marketed as the Devon Scaffie, is a British trailerable sailboat that was designed by John L. Watkinson and first built in 1978. The modern Scaffie is based upon a traditional British boat design that dates back several hundred years.

References

  1. 1 2 Christiansen (1968) p.85
  2. Christiansen (1968), p.82-3
  3. Olsen (2005)
  4. Wooden Boat Magazine, A Nordlandsbat for Maine: An American Sailor Orders a Norwegian Icon, March/April 2003
  5. "Trebåtdagan på Rognan" (Boat Regalia at Rognan) http://www.hildringstimen.no Retrieved December 25, 2007