Last updated

Norfolk UK locator map 2010.svg
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region East of England
EstablishedAnglo-Saxon period [1]
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament
Police Norfolk Constabulary
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Richard Jewson
High Sheriff Judith, Lady Roberts of Swaffham [2] (2020–21)
Area5,372 km2 (2,074 sq mi)
  Ranked 5th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)903,680
  Ranked 25th of 48
Density168/km2 (440/sq mi)
Ethnicity96.5% white [3]
Non-metropolitan county
County council Arms of Norfolk.svg
Norfolk County Council
Executive Conservative
Admin HQ Norwich
Area5,372 km2 (2,074 sq mi)
  Ranked 5th of 26
  Ranked 7th of 26
Density169/km2 (440/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 GB-NFK
ONS code 33
Norfolk numbered districts.svg
Districts of Norfolk
  1. Norwich
  2. South Norfolk
  3. Great Yarmouth
  4. Broadland
  5. North Norfolk
  6. King's Lynn and West Norfolk
  7. Breckland

Norfolk ( /ˈnɔːrfək/ ) is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and to the northwest, The Wash. The county town is the city of Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles (5,370 km2) and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a largely rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile (155 per km2). Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich (213,000), Great Yarmouth (63,000), King's Lynn (46,000) and Thetford (25,000). [4]


The Broads is a network of rivers and lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park [5] although it is marketed as such. It has similar status to a national park, and is protected by the Broads Authority. [6]


The area that was to become Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. [7] A Brittonic tribe, the Iceni, emerged in the 1st century BC. The Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, and again in 60 led by Boudica. The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread.

Situated on the east coast, the homelands of the Iceni were vulnerable to attacks from continental Europe and other parts of Britain, and forts were built to defend against raids by the Saxons and the Picts. A period of depopulation seems to have followed the departure of the Romans, which may have been due to these threats. [8] Soon afterward, Germanic peoples from the North Sea area settled in the region. Though they became known as Angles, they were likely not affiliated to any tribe in particular at the time of their migration. It is thought that the settlement here was early (possibly beginning at the start of the fifth century, thereby preceding the alleged date of Hengist and Horsa's arrival in Kent) and that it occurred on a large scale. [9] [10] [11]

By the 5th century the Angles had established control of the region and later became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk, Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia (one of the heptarchy), which later merged with Mercia and then with Wessex. The influence of the early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ham," "-ingham" and "-ton." Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are also fairly common, indicating Danish toponyms: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. Several place names around the Fenland area contain Celtic elements [12] ; this has been taken by some scholars to represent a possibly significant concentration of Britons in the area.

In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, and settlements grew in these areas. Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable agriculture and woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand some 659 have survived, more than in any other county in Britain and the greatest concentration in the world. [13] The economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which dramatically reduced the population in 1349.

Kett's Rebellion occurred in Norfolk during the reign of Edward VI, largely in response to the enclosure of land by landlords, leaving peasants with nowhere to graze their animals and the general abuses of power by the nobility. It was led by Robert Kett, a yeoman farmer, who was joined by recruits from Norwich and the surrounding countryside. His group numbered some 16,000 by the time the rebels stormed Norwich on 29 July 1549 and took the city. Kett's rebellion ended on 27 August when the rebels were defeated by an army under the leadership of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland at the Battle of Dussindale. Some 3,000 rebels were killed. Kett was captured, held in the Tower of London, tried for treason, and hanged from the walls of Norwich Castle. [14] [15] [16]

By the late 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, [17] and in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. [18] During the English Civil War Norfolk was largely Parliamentarian. The economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich which was a late addition to the railway network.

In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War; there was then a massive expansion during the Second World War with the growth of the Royal Air Force and the influx of the American USAAF 8th Air Force which operated from many Norfolk airfields.

Entrance to Norfolk at Walsoken, Wisbech on the Cambridgeshire and Norfolk County boundary. Norfolk boundary.jpg
Entrance to Norfolk at Walsoken, Wisbech on the Cambridgeshire and Norfolk County boundary.

The local Army regiments were the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry.

During the Second World War agriculture rapidly intensified, and it has remained very intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape.

Management of the shoreline

Norfolk's low-lying land and easily eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea. The most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953.

The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is currently managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities. [19] The Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the event of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there may a need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position. Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads, villages and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of any adverse climate change. [20]

Economy and industry

In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. [21]

Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy. The median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80; on a per year basis, the median gross income was £25,458. The employment rate among persons aged 16 to 64 was 74.2% while the unemployment rate was 4.6%. [22] The Norfolk economy was "treading water with manufacturing sales and recruitment remaining static in the first quarter of the year" according to research published in April 2018. A spokesperson for the Norfolk Chamber of Commerce made this comment: "At a time when Norfolk firms face steep up-front costs, the apprenticeship system is in crisis, roads are being allowed to crumble, mobile phone and broadband 'not-spots' are multiplying, it's obvious that the key to improved productivity and competitiveness lies in getting the basics right". The solution was seen as a need for the UK government to provide "a far stronger domestic economic agenda ... to fix the fundamentals needed for business to thrive here..." [23]

In 2017, tourism was adding £3.25 billion to the economy per year and supported some 65,000 jobs, being the fifth most important employment in Norfolk. The visitor economy had increased in value by more than £500 million since 2012. [24]

Important business sectors also include energy (oil, gas and renewables), advanced engineering and manufacturing, and food and farming.

Much of Norfolk's fairly flat and fertile land has been drained for use as arable land. The principal arable crops are sugar beet, wheat, barley (for brewing) and oil seed rape. The county also boasts a saffron grower. [25] Over 20% of employment in the county is in the agricultural and food industries. [26]

Well-known companies in Norfolk are Aviva (formerly Norwich Union), Colman's (part of Unilever), Lotus Cars and Bernard Matthews Farms. The Construction Industry Training Board is based on the former airfield of RAF Bircham Newton. The BBC East region is centred on Norwich, although it covers an area as far west as Milton Keynes; the BBC does however provide BBC Radio Norfolk solely for the county. Brewer Greene King, food producer Cranswick and feed supplier ForFarmers were seeing growth in 2016–2017. [27]

A Local Enterprise Partnership was being established by business leaders to help grow jobs across Norfolk and Suffolk. They secured an enterprise zone to help grow businesses in the energy sector, and established the two counties as a centre for growing services and products for the green economy.

To help local industry in Norwich, the local council offered a wireless internet service but this was subsequently been withdrawn as funding has ceased. [28]

The fishery business still continued in 2018, with individuals such as John Lee, a fifth generation crabman, who sells Cromer Crabs to eateries such as M Restaurants and the Blueprint Café. The problem that he has found is attracting young people to this small industry which calls for working many hours per week during the season. [29] Lobster trapping also continued in North Norfolk, around Sheringham and Cromer, for example. [30]


Primary and secondary education

Before 2011, Norfolk had a completely comprehensive state education or "maintained" system managed by Norfolk County Council, with secondary school age from 11 to 16 or in some schools with sixth forms, 18 years old. [31] Since then,a number of schools formerly in the "maintained" system have left it to become academies, or members of academy groups. Others have become free schools. Both academies and free schools are still publicly funded by the Department of Education, but are outwith County Council management.

In many of the rural areas, there is no nearby sixth form and so sixth form colleges are found in larger towns. There are twelve independent, or private schools, including Gresham's School in Holt in the north of the county, Thetford Grammar School in Thetford which is Britain's fifth oldest extant school, Langley School in Loddon, and several in the city of Norwich, including Norwich School and Norwich High School for Girls. The King's Lynn district has the largest school population. Norfolk is also home to Wymondham College, the UK's largest remaining state boarding school.

Tertiary education

The University of East Anglia is located on the outskirts of Norwich and Norwich University of the Arts is based in seven buildings in and around St George's Street in the city centre, next to the River Wensum.

The City College Norwich and the College of West Anglia are colleges covering Norwich and King's Lynn as well as Norfolk as a whole. Easton & Otley College, 7 miles (11 km) west of Norwich, provides agriculture-based courses for the county, parts of Suffolk and nationally.

The University of Suffolk also runs higher education courses in Norfolk, from multiple locations including Great Yarmouth College. [28]



Ward-by-ward map of the 2011 local district election results. Norfolk UK local election results 2011 map.svg
Ward-by-ward map of the 2011 local district election results.
Map of the 2013 Norfolk County Council election results. Norfolk County Council election 2013 map.svg
Map of the 2013 Norfolk County Council election results.

Norfolk is administered by Norfolk County Council which is the top tier local government authority, based at County Hall in Norwich. For details of the authority click on the link Norfolk County Council.

Below Norfolk County Council the county is divided into seven second tier district councils: Breckland District, Broadland District, Great Yarmouth Borough, King's Lynn and West Norfolk Borough, North Norfolk District, Norwich City and South Norfolk District.

Below the second tier councils the majority of the county is divided into Parish and Town Councils the lowest tier of local government, (the only exceptions being parts of Norwich and King's Lynn urban areas).

As of 2018 The Conservative Party control six of the seven District Councils: Breckland District, Broadland District, King's Lynn and West Norfolk Borough, North Norfolk District, Great Yarmouth Borough and South Norfolk District while Norwich City is controlled by The Labour Party.

Norfolk County Council has been under Conservative control since 2017. There have been two periods when the council has not been run by the Conservative Party, both when no party had overall control, these were 1993–2001 and 2013–2017.

For the full County Council election results for 2017 and previous elections click on the link Norfolk County Council elections.


The county is divided in to nine parliamentary constituencies:

In the 2010 General Election seven were held by the Conservatives and two by the Liberal Democrats. The Labour Party no longer held the urban constituencies they once held in Norwich North and Great Yarmouth, leaving them with no MP's in the whole of East Anglia; the former Labour Home Secretary Charles Clarke was a high level casualty of that election.

In the 2015 General Election seven of these seats were won by the Conservative Party, with Labour winning Norwich South and the Liberal Democrats winning North Norfolk.

In the 2017 General Election the 2015 result was repeated.

Norwich Unitary Authority dispute 2006–2010

In October 2006, the Department for Communities and Local Government produced a Local Government White Paper inviting councils to submit proposals for unitary restructuring. In January 2007 Norwich submitted its proposal, which was rejected in December 2007 as it did not meet the criteria for acceptance. In February 2008, the Boundary Committee for England (from 1 April 2010 incorporated in the Local Government Boundary Commission for England) was asked to consider alternative proposals for the whole or part of Norfolk, including whether Norwich should become a unitary authority, separate from Norfolk County Council. In December 2009, the Boundary Committee recommended a single unitary authority covering all of Norfolk, including Norwich. [32] [33] [34] [35]

However, on 10 February 2010, it was announced that, contrary to the December 2009 recommendation of the Boundary Committee, Norwich would be given separate unitary status. [36] The proposed change was strongly resisted, principally by Norfolk County Council and the Conservative opposition in Parliament. [37] Reacting to the announcement, Norfolk County Council issued a statement that it would seek leave to challenge the decision in the courts. [38] A letter was leaked to the local media in which the Permanent Secretary for the Department for Communities and Local Government noted that the decision did not meet all the criteria and that the risk of it "being successfully challenged in judicial review proceedings is very high". [39] The Shadow Local Government and Planning Minister, Bob Neill, stated that should the Conservative Party win the 2010 general election, they would reverse the decision. [40]

Following the 2010 general election, Eric Pickles was appointed Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government on 12 May 2010 in a Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government. According to press reports, he instructed his department to take urgent steps to reverse the decision and maintain the status quo in line with the Conservative Party manifesto. [41] [42] However, the unitary plans were supported by the Liberal Democrat group on the city council, and by Simon Wright, LibDem MP for Norwich South, who intended to lobby the party leadership to allow the changes to go ahead. [43]

The Local Government Act 2010 to reverse the unitary decision for Norwich (and Exeter and Suffolk) received Royal Assent on 16 December 2010. The disputed award of unitary status had meanwhile been referred to the High Court, and on 21 June 2010 the court (Mr. Justice Ouseley, judge) ruled it unlawful, and revoked it. The city has therefore failed to attain unitary status, and the two-tier arrangement of County and District Councils (with Norwich City Council counted among the latter) remains as of 2017. [44]

Emergency services


Norfolk's county town and only city is Norwich, one of the largest settlements in England during the Norman era. Norwich is home to the University of East Anglia, and is the county's main business and culture centre. Other principal towns include the port-town of King's Lynn and the seaside resort and Broads gateway town of Great Yarmouth.

Based on the 2011 Census [4] the county's largest centres of population are: Norwich (213,166), Great Yarmouth (63,434), King's Lynn (46,093), Thetford (24,883), Dereham (20,651), Wymondham (13,587), North Walsham (12,463), Attleborough (10,549), Downham Market (9,994), Diss (9,829), Fakenham (8,285), Cromer (7,749), Sheringham (7,367) and Swaffham (7,258). There are also several smaller market towns: Aylsham (6,016), Harleston (4,458) and Holt (3,810).

Much of the county remains rural in nature and Norfolk is believed to have around 200 lost settlements which have been largely or totally depopulated since the medieval period. These include places lost to coastal erosion, agricultural enclosure, depopulation and the establishment of the Stanford Training Area in 1940.


The Mid-Norfolk Railway at Dereham railway station. DerehamDMU.jpg
The Mid-Norfolk Railway at Dereham railway station.

Norfolk is one of the few counties in England that does not have a motorway. The A11 connects Norfolk to Cambridge and London via the M11. From the west there are only two routes from Norfolk that provide a direct link with the A1: the A47 to the East Midlands and to Birmingham via Peterborough, and the A17 to the East Midlands via Lincolnshire. These two routes meet at King's Lynn, which is also the starting point of the A10, which provides West Norfolk with a direct link to London via Ely, Cambridge and Hertford. The Great Eastern Main Line is a major railway from London Liverpool Street Station to Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk. Norwich International Airport offers flights within Europe, including a link to Amsterdam which offers onward flights throughout the world.

Dialect, accent and nickname

The Norfolk dialect is also known as "Broad Norfolk", although over the modern age much of the vocabulary and many of the phrases have died out due to a number of factors, such as radio, TV and people from other parts of the country coming to Norfolk. As a result, the speech of Norfolk is more of an accent than a dialect, though one part retained from the Norfolk dialect is the distinctive grammar of the region.[ citation needed ]

People from Norfolk are sometimes known as Norfolk Dumplings, [45] an allusion to the flour dumplings that were traditionally a significant part of the local diet. [46]

More cutting, perhaps, was the pejorative medical slang term "Normal for Norfolk", [47] alluding to the county's perceived status as a quirky rustic backwater due to a high level of inbreeding among residents. [48] [49]


Norfolk is a popular tourist destination and has several major holiday attractions. There are many seaside resorts, including some of the finest British beaches, such as those at Great Yarmouth, Cromer and Holkham. Norfolk contains the Broads and other areas of outstanding natural beauty and many areas of the coast are wild bird sanctuaries and reserves with some areas designated as national parks such as the Norfolk Coast AONB.

The Queen's residence at Sandringham House in Sandringham, Norfolk provides an all-year-round tourist attraction whilst the coast and some rural areas are popular locations for people from the conurbations to purchase weekend holiday homes. Arthur Conan Doyle first conceived the idea for The Hound of the Baskervilles whilst holidaying in Cromer with Bertram Fletcher Robinson, after hearing local folklore tales regarding the mysterious hound known as Black Shuck. [50] [51]

Amusement parks and zoos

Norfolk has several amusement parks and zoos.


Britannia Pier Britpieryarmouth.JPG
Britannia Pier
Theatre Royal Norwich Theatre Royal.JPG
Theatre Royal
Norwich Playhouse NorwichPlayhouse.JPG
Norwich Playhouse

The Pavilion Theatre (Cromer) is a 510-seater venue on the end of Cromer Pier, best known for hosting the 'end-of-the-pier' show, the Seaside Special. The theatre also presents comedy, music, dance, opera, musicals and community shows.

The Britannia Pier Theatre (Great Yarmouth) mainly hosts popular comedy acts such as the Chuckle Brothers and Jim Davidson. The theatre has 1,200 seats and is one of the largest in Norfolk.

The Theatre Royal (Norwich) has been on its present site for nearly 250 years, the Act of Parliament in the tenth year of the reign of George II having been rescinded in 1761. The 1,300-seat theatre, the largest in the city, hosts a mix of national touring productions including musicals, dance, drama, family shows, stand-up comedians, opera and pop.

The Norwich Playhouse (Norwich) hosts theatre, comedy, music and other performing arts. It has a seating capacity of 300.

The Maddermarket Theatre (Norwich) opened in 1921 and was the first permanent recreation of an Elizabethan theatre. The founder was Nugent Monck who had worked with William Poel. The theatre has a seating capacity of 312. [53]

The Norwich Puppet Theatre (Norwich) was founded in 1979 by Ray and Joan DaSilva as a permanent base for their touring company and was first opened as a public venue in 1980, following the conversion of the medieval church of St. James in the heart of Norwich. Under subsequent artistic directors – Barry Smith and Luis Z. Boy – the theatre established its current pattern of operation. It is a nationally unique[ citation needed ] venue dedicated to puppetry, and currently houses a 185-seat raked auditorium, 50 seat Octagon Studio, workshops, an exhibition gallery, shop and licensed bar. It is the only theatre in the Eastern region with a year-round programme of family-centred entertainment.[ citation needed ]

The Garage studio theatre (Norwich) can seat up to 110 people in a range of different layouts. It can also be used for standing events and can accommodate up to 180 people.

The Platform Theatre (Norwich) is in the grounds of City College Norwich (CCN), and has a large stage with raked seating for an audience of around 200. The theatre plays host to performances by both student and professional companies.

The Sewell Barn Theatre (Norwich) is the smallest theatre in Norwich and has a seating capacity of 100. The auditorium features raked seating on three sides of an open acting space.

The Norwich Arts Centre (Norwich) theatre opened in 1977 in St. Benedict's Street, and has a capacity of 290.

The Princess Theatre (Hunstanton) stands overlooking the Wash and the green in the East Coast resort of Hunstanton. It is a 472-seat venue. Open all year round, the theatre plays host to a wide variety of shows from comedy to drama, celebrity shows to music for all tastes and children's productions. It has a six-week summer season plus an annual Christmas pantomime.

Sheringham Little Theatre (Sheringham) has seating for 180. The theatre programmes a variety of plays, musicals and music, and also shows films.

The Gorleston Pavilion (Gorleston) is an original Edwardian building with a seating capacity of 300, situated on the Norfolk coast. The theatre stages plays, pantomimes, musicals and concerts as well as a 26-week summer season.


According to estimates by the Office for National Statistics, the population of Norfolk in 2018 was 903,680, split almost evenly between males and females. Roughly 24.3% of the population was aged 65 or older, compared to 18.2% for the whole of England.

Ethnic categoryNo. for Norfolk% for NorfolkNo. for East of England% for East of EnglandNo. for England% England
Asian/Asian British13,0171.5278,3724.84,143,4037.8
Black/African/Caribbean/Black British4,6090.5117,44221,846,6143.5
Mixed/multiple ethnic groups10,0271.2112,1161.91,192,8792.3
Other ethnic group2,2170.328,8410.5548,4181.0
Source [54]

Notable people

From Norfolk

Associated with Norfolk

The following people were not born or brought up in Norfolk but are long-term residents of Norfolk, are well known for living in Norfolk at some point in their lives, or have contributed in some significant way to the county.

See also

Related Research Articles

East Anglia Region of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, in what is now northern Germany.

Reedham, Norfolk Human settlement in England

Reedham is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk and within The Broads. It is on the north bank of the River Yare, some 12 miles (19 km) east of the city of Norwich, 7.5 mi (12.1 km) south-west of the town of Great Yarmouth and the same distance north-west of the Suffolk town of Lowestoft.

Holt, Norfolk Town in Norfolk, England

Holt is a market town, civil parish and electoral ward in the English county of Norfolk. The town is 22.8 miles (36.7 km) north of the city of Norwich, 9.5 miles (15.3 km) west of Cromer and 35 miles (56 km) east of King's Lynn. The town is on the route of the A148 King's Lynn to Cromer road. The nearest railway station is in the town of Sheringham where access to the national rail network can be made via the Bittern Line to Norwich. Holt also has a railway station on the preserved North Norfolk Railway, the 'Poppy Line', of which it is the south-western terminus. The nearest airport is Norwich. The town has a population of 3,550, rising and including the ward to 3,810 at the 2011 census. Holt is within the area covered by North Norfolk District Council.

Norwich City and non-metropolitan district in England

Norwich is a city in Norfolk, England, on the River Wensum in East Anglia, about 100 miles (160 km) north-east of London. Having city status since 1094, Norwich is the county town of Norfolk and unofficially seen as East Anglia's capital. From the late Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London and one of the most important. The present-day population of the city is about 142,000.

Cromer Human settlement in England

Cromer is a coastal town and civil parish on the north coast of the English county of Norfolk. It is approximately 23 miles (37 km) north of the county town of Norwich, 116 miles (187 km) north-northeast of London and 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Sheringham on the North Sea coastline. The local government authorities are North Norfolk District Council, whose headquarters is on Holt Road in the town, and Norfolk County Council, based in Norwich. The civil parish has an area of 4.66 km2 (1.80 sq mi) and at the 2011 census had a population of 7,683.

History of Norfolk

Norfolk is a rural county in the East of England. Knowledge of prehistoric Norfolk is limited by a lack of evidence — although the earliest finds are from the end of the Lower Paleolithic period. Communities have existed in Norfolk since the last Ice Age and tools, coins and hoards such as those found at Snettisham indicate the presence of an extensive and industrious population.

Thorpe St Andrew Human settlement in England

Thorpe St Andrew is a small town and suburb of Norwich in the English county of Norfolk. It is situated about two miles east of the city centre, outside the city boundary in the district of Broadland. It constitutes a civil parish covering an area of 705 ha which had a population of 13,762 according to the 2001 census, increasing to 14,556 at the 2011 Census. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Broadland district council.

First Norfolk & Suffolk

First Eastern Counties, trading as First Norfolk & Suffolk, is a bus operator providing services in Norfolk and Suffolk in eastern England. It is a subsidiary of FirstGroup.

The following are lists of recreational walks in Norfolk, England.

Felmingham Human settlement in England

Felmingham is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. It covers an area of 7.68 km2 (2.97 sq mi) and had a population of 564 in 218 households as of the 2001 census, reducing slightly to 561 at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, it falls within the district of North Norfolk.

Hockering Human settlement in England

Hockering is a village and civil parish in Norfolk, England. At the 2001 census the parish had a population of 628. By 2007 the district estimated that this had risen to 665. being measured at 711 in the 2011 Census.

Bowthorpe Suburban village to the west of Norwich, Norfolk, England

Bowthorpe is a suburban village to the west of Norwich, in the county of Norfolk, England. It is primarily a residential area, but includes a large industrial estate and one small out-of-town shopping centre, containing a supermarket and various smaller retail outlets. A community hall is situated close to Bowthorpe village centre. A police station was located near the centre until it closed in 2018. Most of present-day Bowthorpe has been developed from the 1970s onward.

Upper Sheringham Human settlement in England

Upper Sheringham is a village and a civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The village is 26.8 miles (43.1 km) north-north-west of Norwich, 6 miles (9.7 km) west of Cromer and 132 miles (212 km) north-north-east of London. The village is 1.2 miles (1.9 km) from the town of Sheringham. The nearest railway station is at Sheringham for the Bittern Line which runs between Sheringham, Cromer and Norwich. The nearest airport is Norwich International Airport. Nearby road connections are the A149 King's Lynn to Great Yarmouth road to the north of the village and the A148 King's Lynn to Cromer road just to the south. The parish of Upper Sheringham in the 2001 census, a population of 214, reducing slightly to 209 at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of North Norfolk.

Thursford Human settlement in England

Thursford is a village and civil parish in the county of Norfolk, eastern England. The village is 16.3 miles southwest of Cromer, 24.5 miles northwest of Norwich and 121 miles north-east of London. The village lies 6.9 miles northwest of the nearby town of Fakenham. The nearest railway station is at Sheringham for the Bittern Line which runs between Sheringham, Cromer and Norwich. The nearest airport is Norwich International Airport. The village once had its own Thursford railway station which is now closed. It is a proposed stop on the Norfolk Orbital Railway.

Melton Constable railway station Former railway station in Norfolk, England

Melton Constable was a railway station on the Midland and Great Northern Railway which served the North Norfolk village of Melton Constable from 1882 to 1964. Notwithstanding its rural location, the station became an important railway centre with lines converging from all directions providing connections to key East Anglian towns such as King's Lynn, Norwich, Cromer, Fakenham, Yarmouth and Lowestoft. Although long since demolished, there is a possibility that the station may yet be resurrected as part of the proposed Norfolk Orbital Railway.

Norfolk County Council

Norfolk County Council is the top-tier local government authority for Norfolk, England. Its headquarters are based in the city of Norwich.

East Norfolk Railway

The East Norfolk Railway was a pre-grouping railway company operating a standard gauge 25 mile, mostly single track, railway running between Norwich Thorpe railway station and Cromer in the English county of Norfolk. It opened in 1874, reaching Cromer three years later, and remains mostly operational. The company also operated a branch between Wroxham and County School, which closed to passengers in 1952, and had proposed a branch to Blakeney in 1878, which was never constructed.

2009 Norfolk County Council election

The Norfolk County Council election took place on 4 June 2009, coinciding with local elections for all county councils in England.

The Norfolk & Suffolk League was a football league covering the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk in England.


  1. Recorded in wills of 1043–45: Ekwall, Eilert (1940) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names; 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press; p. 327 citing Whitelock, Dorothy, ed. Anglo-Saxon Wills. Cambridge, 1930
  2. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  3. "Population and demography overview". Norfolk Insight. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  4. 1 2 "2011 Census – Built-up areas". ONS. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  5. "Broads Authority Act 2009 — UK Parliament". Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  6. "Homepage – Broads Authority". Archived from the original on 27 January 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2016.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  7. "Broads History Guide Norfolk UK". Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  8. Dark, Ken R. "Large-scale population movements into and from Britain south of Hadrian's Wall in the fourth to sixth centuries AD" (PDF).
  9. Toby F. Martin, The Cruciform Brooch and Anglo-Saxon England, Boydell and Brewer Press (2015), pp. 174-178
  10. Catherine Hills, "The Anglo-Saxon Migration: An Archaeological Case Study of Disruption," in Migrations and Disruptions, ed. Brenda J. Baker and Takeyuki Tsuda, pp. 45-48
  11. Coates, Richard. "Celtic whispers: revisiting the problems of the relation between Brittonic and Old English".
  12. Susan Oosthuizen, The Anglo-Saxon Fenland (2017), pp. 42-43
  13. "Medieval Churches in Norfolk :: Geograph Britain and Ireland". 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  14., Kett's Rebellion
  16., Radicalism, rebellion and Robert Kett: a walk through Norwich’s history
  17. "Voices of the Powerless: Boils and Buboes". BBC Radio 4. 29 August 2002. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  18. 4Seen web construction, Judi Ingram. "About the History of Norfolk". Archived from the original on 1 January 2003. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  19. "Shoreline Management Plan". 22 February 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  20. Elliott, Valerie (29 March 2008). "Climate change: surrender a slab of Norfolk, say conservationists". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
  21. Office for National Statistics, 2001. Regional Trends 26 Archived 22 December 2003 at the UK Government Web Archive ch:14.7 (PDF). Accessed 3 January 2006.
  22. "Norfolk's economy and employment". Norfolk Insight. 1 July 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  23. "Norfolk economy shows signs of stagnation in latest Chamber survey". EDP 24. 13 April 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  24. "Norfolk tourism breaks records in 2017 for visitor numbers and economic value". 18 September 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  25. "Home". Norfolk Saffron. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  26. "Welcome to Locate Norfolk " Locate:Norfolk". Archived from the original on 12 May 2006. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  27. "The Top 100: The power list of Norfolk and Suffolk's biggest companies is revealed". EDP 24. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  28. 1 2 "UCS Great Yarmouth". 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2016.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  29. "Cromer crab fisherman shortage as young people 'won't stick at it'". The Telegraph. 28 August 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  30. "L IS FOR LOBSTERS AND CRABS". Visit Norfolk. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019. the chalk reef – which is just 200 metres off the shoreline and up to 20 miles long – is so important
  31. Types of School - Norfolk County Council
  32. "Local Government White Paper, Strong and Prosperous Communities". Norfolk County Council. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
  33. "The business case for unitary Norwich". Norwich City Council. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  34. "Proposals for future unitary structures: Stakeholder consultation". Communities and Local Government. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  35. "Our advice to the Secretary of State on unitary local government in Norfolk (PDF Document)" (PDF). The Boundary Committee. 7 December 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012.
  36. "Minister's Statement of 10 February 2010". Communities and Local Government. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  37. "Unitary Authorities". House of Commons Hansard Debates. Parliament of the United Kingdom. 24 February 2009. Archived from the original on 24 April 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  38. "Reaction to announcement on Local Government Reorganisation Announcement". News Archive. Norfolk County Council. 10 February 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  39. "Peter Housden's letter in full". Eastern Daily Press . 12 February 2010.
  40. Shaun Lowthorpe (2 February 2010). "At last, a verdict on Norfolk councils' future". Eastern Daily Press .
  41. Lowthorpe, Shaun (14 May 2010). "Government chief moves to axe Norwich unitary plans". Eastern Daily Press .
  42. "Pickles stops unitary councils in Exeter, Norwich and Suffolk". Department for Communities and Local Government. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  43. "New bid to end unitary plans". Great Yarmouth Mercury . 30 June 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  44. "September by-elections for Exeter and Norwich". BBC News. 19 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  45. "FOND Norfolk Dumplings Page". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  46. "Norfolk Dumpling (Grose 1811 Dictionary)". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  47. "Health | Doctor slang is a dying art". BBC News. 18 August 2003. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  48. Cawley, Laurence; News, Jodie Smith BBC. "Normal for Norfolk: Where did the phrase come from?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  50. "Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and Devon: A Complete Tour Guide and Companion by Brian W Pugh, Paul R Spiring and Sadru Bhanji – book review". 15 December 2014. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  51. ''The District Messenger'' Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine . (PDF) . Retrieved on 25 August 2011.
  52. "Things to do during October half term: The 11 best zoos and animal parks near Essex". Essex Live. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  53. "Seating Plan » Maddermarket Theatre". Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  54. "Population Statistics and Demographics - Area reports - Norfolk Insight". Norfolk COuncil. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  55. "Sam Clemmett". IMDb. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  56. Bolton, Paul (8 November 2012). "Family proud as Ben and Tom Youngs prepare to represent England against Fiji". Daily Telegraph. ISSN   0307-1235 . Retrieved 15 February 2019.

Coordinates: 52°40′N1°00′E / 52.667°N 1.000°E / 52.667; 1.000