|Leader||Toril Bakken Kåven|
|Ideology|| Populism |
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North Calotte People (Norwegian : Nordkalottfolket, NKF) is a Sámi political party in Norway. It was first established in 2005 and contested the 2005 election as the Finnmark List (Norwegian : Finnmarkslista), but was renamed in 2009 to its current name. The NKF has been led by Toril Bakken Kåven since the 2005 election.
The party advocates for a multicultural and egalitarian approach towards the peoples of the north, including the Sámi, Kven, and Norwegian people. The NKF states that it wishes for equal opportunity for all Northern people on the Cap of the North (Norwegian : Nordkalotten). This position informs its stances on local issues such as land and water rights, reindeer husbandry, and the outfield industry. Its approach has been described as populist and its rhetoric has been compared to that of the Progress Party.
The party originally was named the "Finnmark List" (Finnmarkslista), a name which was decided upon in the last minute prior to running in the 2005 Norwegian Sámi parliamentary election. The party was eventually renamed in 2009 as the North Calotte People by Toril Bakken Kåven who considered the name "beautiful" and reflective of the common history and the multiple ethnic groups living in the Cap of the North. In addition to preventing confusion, as the party did not run in solely the region of Finnmark anymore.
The party received its highest share of vote during the 2021 Norwegian Sámi parliamentary election, becoming the second largest party in the Sámi parliament. Despite their increased result, the party was unable to find viable coalition partners and thus went into opposition.Analysts cited the mobilization of the party's voters in select electoral districts as contributing to the party's win.
The party describes itself as having a "want to safeguard culture, industry, and society". The party cites the communal nature of living, interaction, relation, and land use in the north as its reasoning.Rolf Edmund Lund described the party's policies as pragmatic with regards to issues of the outfield industry, rights to land and water, coastal Sámi interests, individuals who cannot speak Sámi due to assmiliation, and equality with a focus on the Kven people. In addition to describing the party's rhetoric as populist, the party is described as advocating for positive discrimination.
The party contrasts with the Norwegian Sámi Association by being on the party's ideological right. It has been compared with the Progress Party in both its rhetoric and attitudes.It has been described as "building lines of conflict between Sámi who speak Sámi and especially against the reindeer husbandry industry". The party has been formerly criticized for describing Sámi-speakers as "pigs".
The party supports all support and assistance towards the country of Ukraine during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The party urged Norwegian authorities to cease all cooperation with Russia and impose sanctions as long as the war was ongoing. The party cited the north's increased potential risk of invasion by Russia.
Toril Bakken Kåven stated that the party "[stands] firm on Sámi rights and indigenous peoples' rights" but that there was a need for responsible management of those rights. She stated that there should be freedom for deviation in order to create progress for their respective groups.The party objects to the concept of Free, prior and informed consent as the basis for northern policy. The party additionally advocates for the right for individuals to self-identify as Sámi with the party advocating for reintegration of individuals whose families were forcibly assimilated into Norwegian society and whose families no longer identify as Sámi.
The party is critical of the use of Sámi languages to participate in Sámi politics, citing the Norwegianization policy which left many Sámi unable to speak their native tongue, stating there "should be equal opportunities to participate in Sámi politics".On the question of whether the president of the Sámi parliament should speak Sámi, the NKF believes that it is acceptable if they were to speak Norwegian, as two out of three Sámi individuals cannot speak a Sámi language. The North Calotte People are in favour of language policies that allow students to exchange their Norwegian lessons in favor of instruction in the Kven or Sámi languages. The party is in favor of additional investment in Sámi language programs and the reinstatement of book buses in the Southern and Lule Sámi areas. However, the party stressed for the simultaneous need for equal opportunity in politics and a pragmatic approach towards language.
The party advocates for equal treatment and equal conditions between the Norwegian, Sámi, and Kven populations of the north.On issues of land use, the North Calotte People cite the communal usage by the three groups as basis for the rejection of Sámi veto rights over northern land. During the 2013 election, North Calotte People expressed their interest for the transformation of the Sámi Parliament into a joint Sámi and Kven parliament.
The party has been criticized by the leader of the Norwegian Sámi Association, Runar Myrnes Balto, for having "refined the art of attacking the rights of Sámi and presenting it as an equality project".He stated that the party portrayed the Sámi as wanting to have supremacy over the northern peoples, leading to an image of a culture war in the north. Myrnes Balto described the leader of the North Calotte People, Toril Bakken Kåven, as a "Trumper". Myrnes Balto had previously compared the party's policies to those of Jarl Hellesvik and his anti-Sámi organization EDL.
North Calotte People oppose expanding additional protections on local lands, citing the sustainable use of nature as the best kind of protection.The party additionally opposes the concept of the Sámi veto right with regards to land and natural encroachment by industry, an idea put forth by the NSR, Labour, and Centre parties. The party has previously worked to loosen protection for Sámi outfield industry, which was criticized by the NSR for paving the way for industries to gain access to the outfields.
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The Sámi are a Finno-Ugric-speaking people inhabiting the region of Sápmi, which today encompasses large northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and of the Murmansk Oblast, Russia, most of the Kola Peninsula in particular. The Sámi have historically been known in English as Lapps or Laplanders, but these terms are regarded as offensive by the Sámi, who prefer the area's name in their own languages, e.g. Northern Sámi Sápmi. Their traditional languages are the Sámi languages, which are classified as a branch of the Uralic language family.
Sápmi is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sámi people. Sápmi is in Northern and Eastern Europe and includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia, also known as the "Cap of the North".
Finnmark was a county in the northern part of Norway. On 1 January 2020, Finnmark was merged with the neighboring county of Troms to form the new Troms og Finnmark county. On 28 October 2021, the Norwegian government confirmed that work had started in regard to Finnmark becoming a separate county again.
Alta is the most populated municipality in Finnmark in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Alta. Some of the main villages in the municipality include Kåfjord, Komagfjord, Kvenvik, Langfjordbotn, Leirbotn, Rafsbotn, Talvik, and Tverrelvdalen.
Porsanger is a municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Lakselv. Other villages in the municipality include Børselv, Brenna, Indre Billefjord, Kistrand, Olderfjord, and Skoganvarre.
Karasjok is a municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Karasjok. Other villages include Dorvonjárga, Šuoššjávri, and Váljohka.
Sør-Varanger is a municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Kirkenes. Other settlements in the municipality include the villages of Bjørnevatn, Bugøynes, Elvenes, Grense Jakobselv, Hesseng, Jakobsnes, Neiden, and Sandnes. Located west of the Norway–Russia border, Sør-Varanger is the only Norwegian municipality that shares a land border with Russia, with the only legal border crossing at Storskog.
Kvens are a Balto-Finnic ethnic minority in Norway. They are descended from Finnish peasants and fishermen who emigrated from the northern parts of Finland and Sweden to Northern Norway in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1996, Kvens were granted minority status in Norway, and in 2005 the Kven language was recognized as a minority language in Norway.
Northern Norway is a geographical region of Norway, consisting of the two northernmost counties Nordland and Troms og Finnmark, in total about 35% of the Norwegian mainland. Some of the largest towns in Northern Norway are Mo i Rana, Bodø, Narvik, Harstad, Tromsø and Alta. Northern Norway is often described as the land of the midnight sun and the land of the northern lights. Further north, halfway to the North Pole, is the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, traditionally not regarded as part of Northern Norway.
The Kven language is a Finnic language or a group of Finnish dialects spoken in the northernmost parts of Norway by the Kven people. For political and historical reasons, it received the status of a minority language in 2005 within the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Linguistically, however, it is seen as a mutually intelligible dialect of the Finnish language, and grouped together with the Peräpohjola dialects such as Meänkieli, spoken in Torne Valley in Sweden. While it is often considered as a dialect in Finland, it is officially recognized as a minority language in Norway and some Kven people consider it a separate language.
There are many languages spoken in Norway. Of these, the Norwegian language in the form of Bokmål is the most widely spoken and the main official language of the country. The secondly most used being the form of Nynorsk, which is used by some 5 - 15% of the population of Norway.
Jens Andreas Friis was a Norwegian philologist, lexicographer and author. He was a university professor and a prominent linguist in the languages spoken by the Sami people. He is widely recognized as the founder of the studies of the Sami languages. Today he is also commonly associated with his novel Lajla: A New Tale of Finmark, which became the basis for Laila, a 1929 silent film.
Norwegianization was an official policy carried out by the Norwegian government directed at the Sámi and later the Kven people of northern Norway, in which the goal was to assimilate non-Norwegian-speaking native populations into an ethnically and culturally uniform Norwegian population.
The Cap of the North is the regions Norway, Sweden, and Finland located north of the arctic circle. It usually consists of the counties Troms og Finnmark and Nordland in Norway, Norrbotten in Sweden, and Lapland in Finland. The region has a subarctic climate and is home to the majority of the Sámi people.
The 2009 Sámi parliamentary election was held in Norway on September 14, 2009. Voters elected 39 members for the Sámi Parliament of Norway.
The 2005 Sámi parliamentary election was held in Norway on September 12, 2005. Voters elected 43 members for the Sámi Parliament of Norway.
Sandra Andersen Eira is a fisherman and Norwegian Sami politician from Russenes, Porsanger, Finnmark, Norway.
Troms og Finnmark is a county in northern Norway that was established on 1 January 2020 as the result of a regional reform. It is the largest county by area in Norway, encompassing about 75,000 square kilometres (29,000 sq mi). It was formed by the merger of the former Finnmark and Troms counties in addition to Tjeldsund Municipality from Nordland county.
The 2021 Norwegian Sámi parliamentary election was held on 13 September 2021. All 39 seats in the Norwegian Sámi legislature, the Sámediggi, were up for election.
The 2013 Norwegian Sámi parliamentary election was held on 9 September 2013, simultaneously with the 2013 Norwegian parliamentary election. All 39 seats in the Norwegian Sámi parliament, the Sámediggi, were up for election.