North Island

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North Island
Te Ika-a-Māui  (Māori)
NewZealand.A2002296.2220.250m North Island crop.jpg
Oceania laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
North Island
Geography
LocationOceania
Coordinates 38°24′S175°43′E / 38.400°S 175.717°E / -38.400; 175.717
ArchipelagoNew Zealand
Area113,729 km2 (43,911 sq mi)
Area rank 14th
Highest elevation2,797 m (9,177 ft)
Highest point Mount Ruapehu
Administration
New Zealand
ISO 3166-2:NZ NZ-N
Regions 9
Territorial authorities 43
Largest settlement Auckland (pop. 1,570,100)
Demographics
Population3,702,300 (June 2018)
Pop. density32.6 /km2 (84.4 /sq mi)

The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, [1] is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), [2] making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,702,300(June 2018). [3]

Contents

Twelve main urban areas (half of them officially cities) are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangarei, Auckland, Hamilton, Tauranga, Rotorua, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Hastings, Whanganui, Palmerston North, and Wellington, the capital, located at the south-west extremity of the island. About 76% of New Zealand's population lives in the North Island.

Naming and usage

Although the island has been known as the North Island for many years, [4] in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the South Island, the North Island had no official name. [5] After a public consultation, the board officially named the island North Island or Te Ika-a-Maui in October 2013. [6]

In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article. It is also normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Hamilton is in the North Island", "my mother lives in the North Island". [7] Maps, headings, tables and adjectival expressions use North Island without "the".

Māori mythology

According to Māori mythology, the North and South Islands of New Zealand arose through the actions of the demigod Māui. Māui and his brothers were fishing from their canoe (the South Island) when he caught a great fish and pulled it from the sea. While he was not looking his brothers fought over the fish and chopped it up. This great fish became the North Island and thus a Māori name for the North Island is Te Ika-a-Māui ("The Fish of Māui"). [8] The mountains and valleys are believed to have been formed as a result of Māui's brothers' hacking at the fish. Until the early 20th Century, an alternative Māori name for the North Island was Aotearoa. In present usage, Aotearoa is a collective Māori name for New Zealand as a whole.

Economy

The sub-national GDP of the North Island was estimated at US$102.863 billion in 2003, 79% of New Zealand's national GDP. [9]

Ecology

The North Island is divided into two ecoregions within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, the northern part being the Northland temperate kauri forest, and the southern part being the North Island temperate forests. The island has an extensive flora and bird population, with numerous National Parks and other protected areas.

Regions

Territorial authorities of the North Island NZ Territorial Authorities North Island.png
Territorial authorities of the North Island

Nine local government regions cover the North Island and all its adjacent islands and territorial waters.

Cities and towns

Map of the North Island showing some of its cities NZNorthIsland.png
Map of the North Island showing some of its cities

The North Island has a larger population than the South Island, with the country's largest city, Auckland, and the capital, Wellington, accounting for nearly half of it.

There are 28 urban areas in the North Island with a population of 10,000 or more:

NamePopulation
(June 2019) [10]
% of island
Auckland 1,467,80039.0%
Wellington 215,4005.7%
Hamilton 169,3004.5%
Tauranga 135,0003.6%
Lower Hutt 104,9002.8%
Palmerston North 80,3002.1%
Napier 62,8001.7%
Porirua 55,5001.5%
New Plymouth 55,3001.5%
Rotorua 54,5001.4%
Whangarei 52,6001.4%
Hibiscus Coast 52,4001.4%
Hastings 45,0001.2%
Upper Hutt 41,0001.1%
Whanganui 39,4001.0%
Gisborne 35,5000.9%
Paraparaumu 28,9000.8%
Pukekohe 24,3000.6%
Taupo 23,9000.6%
Masterton 23,9000.5%
Cambridge 19,1500.5%
Levin 17,7000.5%
Feilding 16,4500.4%
Whakatane 15,8500.4%
Havelock North 13,9500.4%
Tokoroa 13,6500.4%
Te Awamutu 12,4000.3%
Waikanae 12,1000.3%

Demographics

Culture and identity

Ethnic groups of North Island residents, 2013 census [11]
EthnicityNumber%
European2,122,58769.6
   New Zealand European1,934,03763.4
   English30,3931.0
   British27,0240.9
   South African24,9210.8
   Dutch21,5490.7
   European (not further defined)20,9550.7
   Australian16,4310.5
Māori514,80916.9
Asian418,28713.7
   Chinese145,0894.8
   Indian134,5594.4
   Filipino32,7961.1
   Korean25,8420.8
Pacific peoples274,8069.0
   Samoan133,9684.4
   Cook Islands Maori56,9101.9
   Tongan56,6851.9
   Niuean22,8780.7
Middle Eastern/Latin American/African39,5101.3
Other47,3941.6
   New Zealander45,9061.5
Total people stated3,050,874100.0
Not elsewhere included186,1745.8

Healthcare

Healthcare in the North Island is provided by fifteen District Health Boards (DHBs). Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions.

District Health BoardDistrictPopulation
Northland District Health Board (Te Poari Hauora a Rohe o te Tai Tokerau) Whangarei District, Far North District, Kaipara District 159,160
Waitemata District Health Board (Te Wai Awhina) Auckland Region 525,000
Auckland District Health Board (Te Toka Tumai) Auckland Region 468,000
Counties Manukau District Health Board (A Community Partnership) Auckland Region 490,610
Waikato District Health Board (Waikato DHB) Hamilton City, Hauraki District, Matamata-Piako District, Otorohanga District, part of Ruapehu District, South Waikato, Thames-Coromandel District, Waikato District, Waipa District, Waitomo District 372,865
Bay of Plenty District Health Board (Hauora a Toi) Tauranga City, Western Bay of Plenty District, Whakatāne District, Kawerau District, Opotiki District 214,170
Lakes District Health Board (Lakes DHB) Rotorua District, Taupo District 102,000
Tairawhiti District Health Board (Te Mana Hauora o te Tairawhiti) Gisborne District 44,499
Hawke's Bay District Health Board (Whakawateatia) Napier City, Hastings District, Wairoa District, Central Hawke's Bay District, Chatham Islands 155,000
Taranaki District Health Board (Taranaki DHB) New Plymouth District, Stratford District, South Taranaki District 104,280
Whanganui District Health Board (Whanganui DHB) Wanganui District, Rangitikei District, part of Ruapehu District 62,210
Mid Central District Health Board (Te Pae Hauora o Ruahine o Tararua) Palmerston North City, Horowhenua District, Manawatu District, Tararua District, part of Kapiti Coast District 158,838
Wairarapa District Health Board (Te Poari Hauora a Rohe o Wairarapa) South Wairarapa District, Carterton District, Masterton District 38,200
Hutt Valley District Health Board (Healthy People) Lower Hutt City, Upper Hutt City 145,000
Capital and Coast District Health Board (Upoko ki te Uru Hauora) Wellington City, Porirua City, part of Kapiti Coast District 270,000

Major geographic features

The North Island, in relation to the South Island New Zealand North Island.png
The North Island, in relation to the South Island

Bays and coastal features

Lakes and rivers

Capes and peninsulas

Forests and national parks

Egmont National Park Egmont National Park, December 2015, New Zealand (42).JPG
Egmont National Park
Tongariro National Park Carte postale -10 (17074160108).jpg
Tongariro National Park

Volcanology

Other

See also

Related Research Articles

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Northland Region Region of New Zealand

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Manawatū-Whanganui Region of New Zealand

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Te Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, which lies on the shores of the harbour. Te Whanganui-a-Tara translates as "the great harbour of Tara", named for Tara, a son of Polynesian explorer Whatonga, whose descendants lived in the area.

Whanganui River major river in the North Island of New Zealand

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Rangitikei District Territorial authority in Manawatu-Whanganui, New Zealand

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The Northland temperate kauri forests ecoregion, within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, is in northern New Zealand.

Muriwhenua

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This timeline sets out intertribal battles involving Māori people in what is now New Zealand.

References

  1. Reporter, Staff (10 October 2013). "Two official options for NZ island names". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  2. "Quick Facts – Land and Environment : Geography – Physical Features". Statistics New Zealand. 2000. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  3. "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2019". Statistics New Zealand. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2020. For urban areas, "Subnational population estimates (UA, AU), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996, 2001, 2006-18 (2017 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  4. On some 19th-century maps, the North Island is named New Ulster, which was also a province of New Zealand that included the North Island.
  5. "The New Zealand Geographic Board Considers North and South Island Names". Land Information New Zealand. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  6. "Two official options for NZ island names". The New Zealand Herald. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  7. Guardian and Observer style guide: N ("New Zealand"), The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2019
  8. "1000 Māori place names". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 6 August 2019.
  9. "Regional Gross Domestic Product". Statistics New Zealand. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  10. "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2019". Statistics New Zealand. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  11. "Ethnic group (total responses), for the census usually resident population count, 2001, 2006, and 2013 Censuses (RC, TA, AU)". Statistics New Zealand.

Coordinates: 38°24′S175°43′E / 38.400°S 175.717°E / -38.400; 175.717