North Island

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North Island
Native name:
Te Ika-a-Māui  (Māori)
NewZealand.A2002296.2220.250m North Island crop.jpg
Oceania laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
North Island
Geography
LocationOceania
Coordinates 38°24′S175°43′E / 38.400°S 175.717°E / -38.400; 175.717
ArchipelagoNew Zealand
Area113,729 km2 (43,911 sq mi)
Area rank 14th
Highest elevation2,797 m (9,177 ft)
Highest point Mount Ruapehu
Administration
New Zealand
ISO 3166-2:NZ NZ-N
Regions 9
Territorial authorities 43
Largest settlement Auckland (pop. 1,628,900)
Demographics
Population3,749,200 (June 2018)
Pop. density33.0 /km2 (85.5 /sq mi)

The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, [1] is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), [2] making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,749,200(June 2018). [3]

New Zealand Country in Oceania

New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.

South Island Southernmost of the two main islands in New Zealand

The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area; the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate.

Cook Strait strait between the North and South Islands of New Zealand

Cook Strait is a strait that separates the North and South Islands of New Zealand. It connects the Tasman Sea on the northwest with the South Pacific Ocean on the southeast, and runs next to the capital city, Wellington. It is 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide at its narrowest point, and is considered one of the most dangerous and unpredictable waters in the world.

Contents

Twelve main urban areas (half of them officially cities) are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangarei, Auckland, Hamilton, Tauranga, Rotorua, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Hastings, Whanganui, Palmerston North, and Wellington, the capital, located at the south-west extremity of the island. About 77% of New Zealand's population lives in the North Island.

Whangarei City in Northland, New Zealand

Whangarei is the northernmost city in New Zealand and the regional capital of Northland Region. It is part of the Whangarei District, a local body created in 1989 from the former Whangarei City, Whangarei County and Hikurangi Town councils, to administer both the city proper and its hinterland. The city population was estimated to be 58,800 in June 2018, an increase from 47,000 in 2001.

Auckland Metropolitan area in North Island, New Zealand

Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of around 1,628,900. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. Auckland is a diverse, multicultural and cosmopolitan city, home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. A Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.

Hamilton, New Zealand City in North Island, New Zealand

Hamilton is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the seat and most populous city of the Waikato region, with a territorial population of 169,300, the country's fourth most-populous city. Encompassing a land area of about 110 km2 (42 sq mi) on the banks of the Waikato River, Hamilton is part of the wider Hamilton Urban Area, which also encompasses the nearby towns of Ngaruawahia, Te Awamutu and Cambridge.

Naming and usage

Although the island has been known as the North Island for many years, [4] in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the South Island, the North Island had no official name. [5] After a public consultation, the board officially named the island North Island or Te Ika-a-Maui in October 2013. [6]

The New Zealand Geographic Board (NZGB) is constituted under the New Zealand Geographic Board Act 2008, and was previously constituted under the New Zealand Geographic Board Act 1946. Although an independent institution, it is responsible to the Minister for Land Information.

In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article. It is also normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Hamilton is in the North Island", "my mother lives in the North Island". [7] Maps, headings, tables and adjectival expressions use North Island without "the".

Māori mythology

According to Māori mythology, the North and South Islands of New Zealand arose through the actions of the demigod Māui. Māui and his brothers were fishing from their canoe (the South Island) when he caught a great fish and pulled it from the sea. While he was not looking his brothers fought over the fish and chopped it up. This great fish became the North Island and thus a Māori name for the North Island is Te Ika-a-Māui ("The Fish of Māui"). The mountains and valleys are believed to have been formed as a result of Māui's brothers' hacking at the fish. Until the early 20th Century, an alternative Māori name for the North Island was Aotearoa. In present usage, Aotearoa is a collective Māori name for New Zealand as a whole.

Māori mythology mythology

Māori mythology and Māori traditions are the two major categories into which the legends of the Māori of New Zealand may usefully be divided. The rituals, beliefs, and the world view of Māori society were ultimately based on an elaborate mythology that had been inherited from a Polynesian homeland and adapted and developed in the new setting.

Demigod mortal who is the offspring of a god and a human being in mythology (for demigods from works of fiction see Q64767588)

A demigod or demi-god is a minor deity, or a mortal or immortal who is the offspring of a god and a human, or a figure who has attained divine status after death.

Māui (Māori mythology) culture hero in Maori mythology

In Māori mythology, as in other Polynesian traditions, Māui is a culture hero and a trickster, famous for his exploits and cleverness.

Economy

The sub-national GDP of the North Island was estimated at US$102.863 billion in 2003, 79% of New Zealand's national GDP. [8]

Ecology

The North Island is divided into two ecoregions within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, the northern part being the Northland temperate kauri forest, and the southern part being the North Island temperate forests. The island has an extensive flora and bird population, with numerous National Parks and other protected areas.

Regions

Territorial authorities of the North Island NZ Territorial Authorities North Island.png
Territorial authorities of the North Island

Nine local government regions cover the North Island and all its adjacent islands and territorial waters.

Cities and towns

Map of the North Island showing some of its cities NZNorthIsland.png
Map of the North Island showing some of its cities

The North Island has a larger population than the South Island, with the country's largest city, Auckland, and the capital, Wellington, accounting for nearly half of it.

There are 28 urban areas in the North Island with a population of 10,000 or more:

NamePopulation
(June 2018) [9]
% of island
Auckland 1,467,80039.1%
Wellington 215,4005.7%
Hamilton 169,3004.5%
Tauranga 135,0003.6%
Lower Hutt 104,9002.8%
Palmerston North 80,3002.1%
Napier 62,8001.7%
Porirua 55,5001.5%
New Plymouth 55,3001.5%
Rotorua 54,5001.5%
Whangarei 52,6001.4%
Hibiscus Coast 52,4001.4%
Hastings 45,0001.2%
Upper Hutt 41,0001.1%
Whanganui 39,4001.1%
Gisborne 35,5000.9%
Paraparaumu 28,9000.8%
Pukekohe 24,3000.6%
Taupo 23,9000.6%
Masterton 23,9000.5%
Cambridge 19,1500.5%
Levin 17,7000.5%
Feilding 16,4500.4%
Whakatane 15,8500.4%
Havelock North 13,9500.4%
Tokoroa 13,6500.4%
Te Awamutu 12,4000.3%
Waikanae 12,1000.3%

Demographics

Culture and identity

Ethnic groups of North Island residents, 2013 census [10]
EthnicityNumber%
European2,122,58769.6
   New Zealand European1,934,03763.4
   English30,3931.0
   British27,0240.9
   South African24,9210.8
   Dutch21,5490.7
   European (not further defined)20,9550.7
   Australian16,4310.5
Māori514,80916.9
Asian418,28713.7
   Chinese145,0894.8
   Indian134,5594.4
   Filipino32,7961.1
   Korean25,8420.8
Pacific peoples274,8069.0
   Samoan133,9684.4
   Cook Islands Maori56,9101.9
   Tongan56,6851.9
   Niuean22,8780.7
Middle Eastern/Latin American/African39,5101.3
Other47,3941.6
   New Zealander45,9061.5
Total people stated3,050,874100.0
Not elsewhere included186,1745.8

Healthcare

Healthcare in the North Island is provided by fifteen District Health Boards (DHBs). Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions.

District Health BoardDistrictPopulation
Northland District Health Board (Te Poari Hauora a Rohe o te Tai Tokerau) Whangarei District, Far North District, Kaipara District 159,160
Waitemata District Health Board (Te Wai Awhina) Auckland Region 525,000
Auckland District Health Board (Te Toka Tumai) Auckland Region 468,000
Counties Manukau District Health Board (A Community Partnership) Auckland Region 490,610
Waikato District Health Board (Waikato DHB) Hamilton City, Hauraki District, Matamata-Piako District, Otorohanga District, part of Ruapehu District, South Waikato, Thames-Coromandel District, Waikato District, Waipa District, Waitomo District 372,865
Bay of Plenty District Health Board (Hauora a Toi) Tauranga City, Western Bay of Plenty District, Whakatāne District, Kawerau District, Opotiki District 214,170
Lakes District Health Board (Lakes DHB) Rotorua District, Taupo District 102,000
Tairawhiti District Health Board (Te Mana Hauora o te Tairawhiti) Gisborne District 44,499
Hawke's Bay District Health Board (Whakawateatia) Napier City, Hastings District, Wairoa District, Central Hawke's Bay District, Chatham Islands 155,000
Taranaki District Health Board (Taranaki DHB) New Plymouth District, Stratford District, South Taranaki District 104,280
Whanganui District Health Board (Whanganui DHB) Wanganui District, Rangitikei District, part of Ruapehu District 62,210
Mid Central District Health Board (Te Pae Hauora o Ruahine o Tararua) Palmerston North City, Horowhenua District, Manawatu District, Tararua District, part of Kapiti Coast District 158,838
Wairarapa District Health Board (Te Poari Hauora a Rohe o Wairarapa) South Wairarapa District, Carterton District, Masterton District 38,200
Hutt Valley District Health Board (Healthy People) Lower Hutt City, Upper Hutt City 145,000
Capital and Coast District Health Board (Upoko ki te Uru Hauora) Wellington City, Porirua City, part of Kapiti Coast District 270,000

Major geographic features

The North Island, in relation to the South Island New Zealand North Island.png
The North Island, in relation to the South Island

Bays and coastal features

Lakes and rivers

Capes and peninsulas

Forests and national parks

Volcanology

Other

See also

Related Research Articles

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Taranaki Region of New Zealand in North Island

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Coromandel, New Zealand Place in Waikato, New Zealand

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Northland Region region at the northern end of New Zealands North Island

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Auckland Region region of New Zealands North Island

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Kaikohe Place in Northland Region, New Zealand

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References

  1. Reporter, Staff (10 October 2013). "Two official options for NZ island names". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  2. "Quick Facts - Land and Environment : Geography - Physical Features". Statistics New Zealand. 2000. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  3. "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2018 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018. For urban areas, "Subnational population estimates (UA, AU), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996, 2001, 2006-18 (2017 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  4. On some 19th-century maps, the North Island is named New Ulster, which was also a province of New Zealand that included the North Island.
  5. "The New Zealand Geographic Board Considers North and South Island Names". Land Information New Zealand. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  6. "Two official options for NZ island names". The New Zealand Herald. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  7. Guardian and Observer style guide: N ("New Zealand"), The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2019
  8. "Regional Gross Domestic Product". Statistics New Zealand. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  9. "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2018 (final)". Statistics New Zealand. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  10. "Ethnic group (total responses), for the census usually resident population count, 2001, 2006, and 2013 Censuses (RC, TA, AU)". Statistics New Zealand.

Coordinates: 38°24′S175°43′E / 38.400°S 175.717°E / -38.400; 175.717