Te Ika-a-Māui (Māori)
|Area||113,729 km2 (43,911 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,797 m (9177 ft)|
|Highest point||Mount Ruapehu|
|Largest settlement||Auckland (pop. 1,440,300)|
|Population||3,922,000 (June 2022)|
|Pop. density||34.5/km2 (89.4/sq mi)|
The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, 113,729 km2 (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. The world's 28th-most-populous island, and the most populous island in Polynesia, the North Island has a population of 3,922,000(June 2022), accounting for approximately 77% of the total residents of New Zealand.is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by the Cook Strait. The island's area is
Twelve main urban areas (half of them officially cities) are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangārei, Auckland, Hamilton, Tauranga, Rotorua, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Hastings, Whanganui, Palmerston North, and New Zealand's capital city Wellington, which is located at the south-west tip of the island.
Although the island has been known as the North Island for many years, the Māori name for it is Te Ika-a-Māui. On some 19th-century maps, the North Island is named New Ulster, which was also a province of New Zealand that included the North Island. In 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the South Island, the North Island had no official name.After a public consultation, the board officially named the island North Island or the before mentioned, Te Ika-a-Māui in October 2013.
In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article.It is also normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Hamilton is in the North Island", "my mother lives in the North Island". Maps, headings, tables, and adjectival expressions use North Island without "the".
According to Māori mythology, the North and South Islands of New Zealand arose through the actions of the demigod Māui. Māui and his brothers were fishing from their canoe (the South Island) when he caught a great fish and pulled it right up from the sea. While he was not looking, his brothers fought over the fish and chopped it up. This great fish became the North Island, and thus a Māori name for the North Island is Te Ika-a-Māui ("The Fish of Māui").The mountains and valleys are believed to have been formed as a result of Māui's brothers' hacking at the fish.
During Captain James Cook's voyage between 1769 and 1770, Tahitian navigator Tupaia accompanied the circumnavigation of New Zealand. The maps described the North Island as "Ea Heinom Auwe" and "Aeheinomowe", which recognises the "Fish of Māui" element.
Another Māori name that was given to the North Island, but is now used less commonly, is Aotearoa. Use of Aotearoa to describe the North Island fell out of favour in the early 20th century, and it is now a collective Māori name for New Zealand as a whole.
During the Last Glacial Period when sea levels were over 100 metres lower than present day levels, the North and South islands were connected by a vast coastal plain which formed at the South Taranaki Bight.During this period, most of the North Island was covered in thorn scrubland and forest, while the modern-day Northland Peninsula was a subtropical rainforest. Sea levels began to rise 7,000 years ago, eventually separating the islands and linking the Cook Strait to the Tasman Sea.
The North Island has an estimated population of 3,922,000 as of June 2022.
Ever since the conclusion of the Otago Goldrush in the 1860s, New Zealand's European population growth has experienced a steady 'Northern drift' as population centres in the North Island have grown faster than those of New Zealand's South Island. This population trend has continued into the twenty-first century, but at a much slower rate. While the North Island's population continues to grow faster than the South Island, this is solely due to the North Island having higher natural increase (i.e. births minus deaths) and international migration; since the late 1980s, the internal migration flow has been from the North Island to the South Island.In the year to June 2020, the North Island gained 21,950 people from natural increase and 62,710 people from international migration, while losing 3,570 people from internal migration.
At the 2018 New Zealand census, 65.7% of North Islanders identified as of European ethnicity, 18.5% as Māori, 17.0% as Asian, 9.7% as Pasifika, 1.6% as Middle Eastern/Latin American/African, and 1.2% as another ethnicity (mainly 'New Zealander'). Totals add to more than 100% since people may identify with multiple ethnicities.
The proportion of North Islanders born overseas is 29.3%. The most common foreign countries of birth are England (15.4% of overseas-born residents), Mainland China (11.3%), India (10.1%), South Africa (5.9%), Australia (5.5%) and Samoa (5.3%).
The North Island has a larger population than the South Island, with the country's largest city, Auckland, and the capital, Wellington, accounting for nearly half of it.
There are 30 urban areas in the North Island with a population of 10,000 or more:
|% of island|
The sub-national GDP of the North Island was estimated at US$102.863 billion in 2003, 79% of New Zealand's national GDP.
Nine local government regions cover the North Island and its adjacent islands and territorial waters.
Healthcare in the North Island is provided by fifteen District Health Boards (DHBs). Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions.
|District Health Board||District||Population|
|Northland District Health Board (Te Poari Hauora a Rohe o te Tai Tokerau)||Whangarei District, Far North District, Kaipara District||159,160|
|Waitematā District Health Board (Te Wai Awhina)||Auckland Region||525,000|
|Auckland District Health Board (Te Toka Tumai)||468,000|
|Counties Manukau District Health Board (A Community Partnership)||490,610|
|Waikato District Health Board (Waikato DHB)||Hamilton City, Hauraki District, Matamata-Piako District, Ōtorohanga District, part of Ruapehu District, South Waikato, Thames-Coromandel District, Waikato District, Waipa District, Waitomo District||372,865|
|Bay of Plenty District Health Board (Hauora a Toi)||Tauranga City, Western Bay of Plenty District, Whakatāne District, Kawerau District, Ōpōtiki District||214,170|
|Lakes District Health Board (Lakes DHB)||Rotorua Lakes, Taupō District||102,000|
|Tairāwhiti District Health Board (Te Mana Hauora o te Tairawhiti)||Gisborne District||44,499|
|Hawke's Bay District Health Board (Whakawateatia)||Napier City, Hastings District, Wairoa District, Central Hawke's Bay District, Chatham Islands||155,000|
|Taranaki District Health Board (Taranaki DHB)||New Plymouth District, Stratford District, South Taranaki District||104,280|
|Whanganui District Health Board (Whanganui DHB)||Whanganui District, Rangitikei District, part of Ruapehu District||62,210|
|Mid Central District Health Board (Te Pae Hauora o Ruahine o Tararua)||Palmerston North City, Horowhenua District, Manawatū District, Tararua District, part of Kāpiti Coast District||158,838|
|Wairarapa District Health Board (Te Poari Hauora a Rohe o Wairarapa)||South Wairarapa District, Carterton District, Masterton District||38,200|
|Hutt Valley District Health Board (Healthy People)||Lower Hutt City, Upper Hutt City||145,000|
|Capital and Coast District Health Board (Upoko ki te Uru Hauora)||Wellington City, Porirua City, part of Kāpiti Coast District||270,000|
The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. At low altitude, it has an oceanic climate.
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki, also known as Mount Egmont.
The Northland Region is the northernmost of New Zealand's 16 local government regions. New Zealanders sometimes refer to it as the Winterless North because of its mild climate all throughout the year. The main population centre is the city of Whangārei, and the largest town is Kerikeri. At the 2018 New Zealand census, Northland recorded a population growth spurt of 18.1% since the previous 2013 census, placing it as the fastest growing region in New Zealand, ahead of other strong growth regions such as the Bay of Plenty Region and Waikato.
Manawatū-Whanganui is a region in the lower half of the North Island of New Zealand, whose main population centres are the cities of Palmerston North and Whanganui. It is administered by the Manawatū-Whanganui Regional Council, which operates under the name Horizons Regional Council.
Patea is the third-largest town in South Taranaki District, New Zealand. It is on the western bank of the Pātea River, 61 kilometres north-west of Whanganui on State Highway 3. Hāwera is 27 km to the north-west, and Waverley 17 km to the east. The Pātea River flows through the town from the north-east and into the South Taranaki Bight.
Te Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington which lies on the shores of the harbour. Te Whanganui-a-Tara translates as "the great harbour of Tara", named for Tara, a son of Polynesian explorer Whatonga, whose descendants lived in the area.
Hāwera is the second-largest centre in the Taranaki region of New Zealand's North Island, with a population of 10,400. It is near the coast of the South Taranaki Bight. The origins of the town lie in a government military base that was established in 1866, and the town of Hāwera grew up around a blockhouse in the early 1870s.
The Whanganui River is a major river in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the country's third-longest river, and has special status owing to its importance to the region's Māori people. In March 2017 it became the world's second natural resource to be given its own legal identity, with the rights, duties and liabilities of a legal person. The Whanganui Treaty settlement brought the longest-running litigation in New Zealand history to an end.
Mōkau is a small town on the west coast of New Zealand's North Island, located at the mouth of the Mōkau River on the North Taranaki Bight. Mōkau is in the Waitomo District and Waikato region local government areas, just north of the boundary with the New Plymouth District and the Taranaki Region. Prior to 1989, the town was classed as being in Taranaki, and there is still a feeling that the community of interest is most associated with New Plymouth, 90 km to the southwest. State Highway 3 passes through the town on its route from Te Kuiti to Waitara and, eventually, New Plymouth.
Te Pīhopatanga o Te Upoko o Te Ika is an Anglican diocese in the lower and western regions of the North Island in Aotearoa, New Zealand. According to a 2001 census, there were approximately 14,000 Maori Anglicans living in the region. Te Upoko o Te Ika is one of five pīhopatanga, or episcopal units, that comprise Te Pīhopatanga o Aotearoa, the Maori Anglican Church in New Zealand.
Urenui is a settlement in northern Taranaki, in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located on State Highway 3 close to the shore of the North Taranaki Bight, 13 kilometres east of Waitara and 6 km south-west of Mimi. The Urenui River flows past the settlement into the North Taranaki Bight.
Waitōtara is a town in South Taranaki, New Zealand. Waverley is 10 km to the north-west, and Whanganui is 34 km to the south-east. State Highway 3 passes through it. The Waitōtara River flows past the east side of the town.
The Auckland Region is New Zealand's most populous territorial authority and Auckland its most populous city. In the 2018 census, 1,571,718 persons declared themselves as residents of the region – an increase of 156,178 people or 11.0% since the 2013 census. The Auckland Region accounts for about one-third (33.4%) of New Zealand's population. Auckland has a large multicultural mix, including the largest Polynesian population in the world.
Manakau is a settlement in the Horowhenua District, at the boundary of the Manawatū-Whanganui and Wellington regions of New Zealand's North Island. It lies 8 km north of Otaki and 12 km south of Levin, and is connected to both via State Highway 1, which skirts Manakau's western edge. The township 5 km inland from the coast of the Tasman Sea.
Taranaki Whānui ki te Upoko o te Ika is a Māori collective that was formed to lodge claims with the Waitangi Tribunal relating to the New Zealand Company's purchase of land in the vicinity of Wellington in 1839 and 1844. Following on from the Tribunal's 2003 report WAI145, a settlement of these claims was signed in 2008 between the New Zealand Government and the collective.
Te Moana O Raukawa Māori and Te Ūpoko o te Ika a Māui Māori are a Māori iwi from Manawatu, Horowhenua, Kāpiti Coast and Wellington. They include the iwi (tribes) of Rangitāne, Muaūpoko, Ngāti Raukawa, Ngāti Toa, Te Atiawa ki Whakarongotai, Te Āti Awa and Taranaki Whānui ki te Upoko o te Ika.
The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by the Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,922,000, accounting for approximately 77% of the total residents of New Zealand.
Waiinu Beach is a settlement on the South Taranaki Bight in South Taranaki, New Zealand. Waverley is 18.5 km to the north-west by road, and Whanganui is 42 km to the south-east.