North Khorasan Province

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North Khorasan Province

استان خراسان شمالی
North Khorasan.svg
North Khorasan counties
IranNorthKhorasan-SVG.svg
Location of North Khorasan Province in Iran
Coordinates: 37°28′34″N57°19′54″E / 37.4761°N 57.3317°E / 37.4761; 57.3317
Country Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Region Region 5
Capital Bojnord
Counties 8
Area
  Total28,434 km2 (10,978 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Total867,727
  Density31/km2 (79/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+03:30 (IRST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+04:30 (IRST)
Main languages Persian
Kurdish
Turkmen
Khorasani Turkic
HDI (2017)0.745 [2]
high · 29th

North Khorasan Province (Persian : استان خراسان شمالی, Ostān-e Khorāsān-e Shomālī) is a province located in northeastern Iran. Bojnord is the capital of the province. The counties of North Khorasan Province are Shirvan County, Esfarayen County, Maneh and Samalqan County, Raz and Jargalan County, Jajarm County, Faruj County, and Garmeh County. North Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5. [3]

Contents

History

Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of Persians, Arabs, Turks, Kurds, [4] Mongols, Turkmens, and Afghans have brought change to the region time and time again.

Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran into eight segments, of which the most flourishing[ citation needed ] and largest[ citation needed ] was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among other cities of the province, was one of the focal points for settlement by Aryan tribes entering Iran.

The Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years. In Parthian times, Esfarayen was one of the important villages of Nishapur.

During the Sassanid dynasty, the province was governed by a Spahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgoosban" and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province.

In the year 651, the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan. The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820, followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896 and the Samanid dynasty in 900. Khorasan was divided into four parts during the Muslim conquest of Persia, each section being named after the four largest cities; Nishapur, Merv, Herat, and Balkh.

Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Khorasan in 994 and in the year 1037 Tuğrul Beg, the first of the Seljuq empire rulers, conquered Nishapur.

Mahmud Qaznavi retaliated against the invaders several times, and finally, the Qaznavi Turks defeated Sultan Sanjar. But there was more to come, as in 1157 Khorasan was conquered by the Khwarazmids. In 1220 was annexed by the Mongols of Genghis Khan. When in 1226 the great conqueror finally died, Khorasan was inherited by his son Tolui and then by Tolui's son Hulegu, the first emperor of the Mongolic Ilkhanate of Persia.

In the 14th century, a flag of independence was hoisted by the Sarbedaran movement in Sabzevar, and in 1368, Khorasan came into the hands of Tamerlane.

In 1507, Khorasan was occupied by Uzbek tribes. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, it was occupied by the Afghans.

In 1824, Herat became independent for several years when the Afghan Empire was split between the Durranis and Barakzais. The Persians sieged the city in 1837, but the British assisted the Afghans in repelling them. In 1856, the Persians launched another invasion, and briefly managed to recapture the city; it led directly to the Anglo-Persian War. In 1857 hostilities between the Persians and the British ended after the Treaty of Paris was signed, and the Persian troops withdrew from Herat. [5] Afghanistan reconquered Herat in 1863 under Dost Muhammad Khan, two weeks before his death. [6]

Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on September 29, 2004. The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on May 18, 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on May 29, 2004) were Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan.

North Khorasan today

North Khorasan province is one of the most diverse territories in Iran today, largely reflecting the ethnic make-up of Iran. Most people in North Khorasan are Shia Muslims, who are often Khorasani Kurds, Persians, Khorasani Turks and so on, although there is also a small minority of Sunnis who generally are Turkmen [7] [8] There used to be a sizeable population of Lurs inhabiting this province, however, most returned to their native area in western Iran as there are no signs of them in the province today [9]

Previously there used to be a sizeable community of Arabs who settled in the area during the Arab invasion of Iran, however by 1875 they had intermarried so extensively with Persians and Turks that they were indistinguishable, having largely abandoned the Arab language and culture in favour of the local one. [10]

Culture

Besh Qardash in Bojnord Frontpage beshghardash persian.jpg
Besh Qardash in Bojnord
Jalalal-din castle in Jajarm Jalaleddin.jpg
Jalalal-din castle in Jajarm

Attractions

This province contains many historical and natural attractions, such as mineral water springs, small lakes, recreational areas, caves, and protected regions, and various hiking areas. Most of the historical relics are from the Qajar era, as earthquakes continue to ravage older relics.

The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran lists 1,179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan.

Some of the popular attractions of North Khorasan are:

Colleges and universities

See also

Related Research Articles

Herat City in Afghanistan

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The history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history. Early tribes were nomadic or semi-nomadic due to the arid conditions of the region as the steppe culture in Central Asia was an extension of a larger Eurasian series of horse cultures which spanned the entire spectrum of language families including the Indo-Europeans and Turko-Mongol groups. Some of the known early Iranian tribes included the Massagatae, Scythians/Sakas, and early Soghdians. Turkmenistan was a passing point for numerous migrations and invasions by tribes which gravitated towards the settled regions of the south including ancient Mesopotamia, Elam, and the Indus Valley Civilization.

Khorasan Province Former Province in Iran

Khorasan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times, is a province in northeastern Iran but historically referred to a much larger area, comprising the east and the northeast of the Persian Empire. The name Khorāsān is Persian and means "where the sun arrives from". The name was first given to the eastern province of Persia during the Sasanian Empire and was used from the late middle ages in distinction to neighbouring Transoxiana.

Nishapur City in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran

Nishapur or Nishabur is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Khorasan Province, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains. It had an estimated population of 239,185 as of 2011 and its county 433,105. Nearby are the turquoise mines that have supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia.

Sistan and Baluchestan Province Province in southeastern Iran

Sistan and Baluchestan Province is the second largest province of the 31 provinces of Iran, after Kerman Province. It is in the southeast of the country, bordering Pakistan and Afghanistan and its capital is Zahedan. The province is the second largest province in Iran with an area of 180,726 km2 and a population of 2.5 million. The counties of the province are Chabahar County, Qasr-e Qand County, Dalgan County, Golshan County, Hirmand County, Iranshahr County, Khash County, Konarak County, Nik Shahr County, Saravan County, Sarbaz County, Sib and Suran County, Taftan County, Zabol County, Mehrestan County, Zahedan County, Zehak County, Hamun County, Nimruz County, Bampur County, Mirjaveh County and Fanuj County.

South Khorasan Province Province of Iran

South Khorasan Province is a province located in eastern Iran. Birjand is the centre of the province. The other major cities are Ferdows, Tabas and Qaen. In 2014, it was placed in Region 5.

Razavi Khorasan Province Province of Iran

Razavi Khorasan Province is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the center and capital of the province. Other cities are Quchan, Dargaz, Chenaran, Sarakhs, Shahr Jadid-e Golbahar, Fariman, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Torbat-e Jam, Salehabad, Taybad, Khaf, Roshtkhar, Kashmar, Rivash, Bardaskan, Nishapur, Sabzevar, Gonabad, Kalat. Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan Province in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 with Mashhad as the location of the region's secretariat.

Greater Khorasan Historical region of greater iran

Khorāsān, sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region which formed the northeast province of Greater Iran. The name signifies "the Land of the Sun" or "the Eastern Province".

Khorasani Turkic is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken in the North Khorasan Province and the Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. Nearly all Khorasani Turkic speakers are also bilingual in Persian.

Esfarayen County County in North Khorasan Province, Iran

Esfarayen County is a county in North Khorasan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Esfarayen. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 119,152, in 30,307 families. The county has two districts: Central District and Bam and Safiabad District. The county has two cities: Safiabad and Esfarayen.

Jajarm County County in North Khorasan Province, Iran

Jajarm County is a county in North Khorasan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Jajarm. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 57,349, in 14,803 families. The county has three districts: Central District, Jolgeh Sankhvast District, and Jolgeh Shoqan District. The county has three cities: Jajarm, Sankhvast, and Shoqan.

Shirvan County County in North Khorasan Province, Iran

Shirvan County is a county in North Khorasan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Shirvan. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 152,493, in 37,647 families. The county has three districts: Central District, Sarhad District, and Qushkhaneh District. The county has four cities: Lujali, Ziarat, Qush Khaneh and Shirvan. Kurmanji Kurds, Persians, Khorasani Turks, and Tats are the largest ethnic groups in the county. A small Jewish population was noted to be present also, numbering only five.

Abu Abd al-Rahman Abdallah ibn Amir ibn Kurayz was a Rashidun politician and general, serving as governor of Basra from 647 to 656 AD under the reign of Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan. He was a cousin of the Caliph through his father. He is most well known for his administrative and military prowess; his campaign of reconquest and pacification of former territories of the Persian Empire has left a legacy of Islamization in both Iran and Afghanistan.

Bojnord City in North Khorasan, Iran

Bojnord, known in the Middle Ages as Buzanjird, is the capital city of North Khorasan Province, Iran. It is about 701 km (436 mi) from Tehran.

Nishapur County County in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran

Nishapur County is a county in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Nishapur. At the 2011 census, its population was 433,104, in 118,214 families; excluding those portions.

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Ramian City in Golestan Province, Iran

Ramian is a city and capital of, Ramian County in Golestan Province, in northern Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 11,719, in 2,831 families.

The history of Nishapur begins with the city's founding during the Sasanian dynasty ; the city is located in the eastern province of Khorasan and served as the seat of the governor and commander in chief of the province.

Faruj City in North Khorasan, Iran

Faruj is a city and capital of Faruj County, in North Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2016 census, its population was 18,061, in 2,639 families.Faruj is a city located next to Iran's No. 22 road, while in recent years its economy has been largely tied to the passage of travelers and pilgrims of the Shrine of Imam Reza (AS) and despite the hordes of nut shops, it is known as the capital of Nuts and Dried Fruits of Iran. Faruj was a district in Quchan County, Khorasan Province, Iran, until 2004.

Khorasani Turks Turkic ethnic group living in Khorasan region of Iran

Khorasani Turks are a Turkic ethnic group inhabiting part of North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan and Golestan provinces of Iran, as well as in the neighboring regions of Turkmenistan up to beyond the Amu Darya River and speak Khorasani Turkic.

References

  1. Selected Findings of National Population and Housing Census 2011 Archived 2014-11-14 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. "همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)". Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014 [1 Tir 1393, Jalaali]. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles, eds. (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran (Vol. 7): From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 183, 394–395. ISBN   978-0521200950.
  5. Ewans (2002). Afghanistan: A short History of its People and Politics . Perennial. pp.  77. ISBN   006-050508-7.
  6. Surveying and measurement plan of indicators of public culture of the country: North Khorasan Province, publication 2012 (National Bibliography Number: 2879739) Retrieved 10 December 2017
  7. Shia and Sunni people of North Khorasan Province showed their empathy and sympathy to the world Retrieved 10 December 2017
  8. The ethnic groups in Northern Khorasan, "", accessed in March 2014.
  9. "C. M. MacGregor, Narrative of a Journey through the Province of Khorassan, London, 1879, p. 141 ", accessed in March 2014.