|Federal districts||Washington, D.C.|
|Largest city||New York City (8,804,190)|
|• Total||56,200 sq mi (146,000 km2)|
|• Density||931.3/sq mi (359.6/km2)|
The Northeast megalopolis, also known as the Northeast Corridor , Acela Corridor, [ citation needed ]Boston–Washington corridor, or BosWash , is the world's largest megalopolis in terms of economic output and the second most populous megalopolis in the United States with 52.3 million residents as of 2019.
Located primarily on the Atlantic Coast in the Northeastern United States with its lower terminus in the upper Southeast, the Northeast megalopolis runs primarily northeast to southwest from the northern suburbs of Boston to the Northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C.It includes many of the nation's most populated cities, including New York City, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Boston, Baltimore, and others, along with their metropolitan areas and suburbs. It is also sometimes defined to include smaller urban agglomerations beyond this, such as the Richmond and Hampton Roads regions to the south, Portland, Maine and Manchester, New Hampshire to the north, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, to the west.
The Northeast megalopolis extends in a roughly straight line along a section of U.S. Route 1 and Interstate 95. As of 2010, the region contained over 50 million people, about 17% of the U.S. population on less than 2% of the nation's land area, with a population density of approximately 1,000 people per square mile (390 people/km2), compared to the U.S. average of 80.5 per square mile 2(31 people/km2). America 2050 projections estimate the area will grow to 58.1 million people by 2025.
French geographer Jean Gottmann popularized the term megalopolis in his 1961 study of the region, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. Gottmann concluded that the region's cities, while discrete and independent, are uniquely tied to each other through the intermeshing of their suburban zones, taking on some characteristics of a single, massive city: a megalopolis, a term he co-opted from an ancient Greek town of the same name that named itself out of aspirations to become the largest Greek city.
There are hundreds of colleges and universities in the region, including Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Penn, Johns Hopkins, and MIT, all of which are ranked among the top universities in the world.
The megalopolis encompasses the national capital of Washington, D.C. and most, all, or part of 12 states, including (from north to south): Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. It is linked by Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1, which start in Miami and Key West, Florida, respectively, and terminate in Maine at the Canadian border, as well as the Northeast Corridor railway line, the busiest passenger rail line in the country that serves Amtrak and several commuter rail agencies. It is home to 52.3 million people as of 2019, and its metropolitan statistical areas are contiguous from Washington, D.C. to Boston.The region is not uniformly populated between the terminal cities, and there are regions nominally within the corridor yet located away from the main transit lines that have been bypassed by urbanization, such as Connecticut's Quiet Corner.
The region accounts for 20% of the U.S. gross domestic product.It is home to the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq, the White House, the U.S. Capitol, the U.S. Supreme Court, the headquarters of the United Nations, the headquarters of ABC, NBC, CBS, NPR, PBS, Fox, Comcast, The New York Times Company, USA Today , New York Post , The Wall Street Journal , Newsday , The Washington Post , and The Boston Globe . The headquarters of many major financial firms, including JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Capital One, and Fidelity, are located within the region, which is also home to 54 Fortune Global 500 companies and the U.S. headquarters for 162 of the world's Fortune 500 companies. The region is also the center of the global hedge fund industry, heavily based in New York City and the Connecticut cities of Greenwich and Stamford.
|Combined statistical area|
|1||New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA CSA||23,582,649||22,255,491||+5.96%|
|4||Washington–Baltimore–Arlington, DC–MD–VA–WV–PA CSA||9,973,383||9,032,651||+10.41%|
|6||Boston–Worcester–Providence, MA–RI–NH-CT CSA||8,466,186||7,893,376||+7.26%|
|8||Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA–NJ–DE–MD CSA||7,379,700||7,067,807||+4.41%|
|1||New York City||New York||8,804,190||8,175,133||+7.69%||301.5 sq mi (781 km2)||28,317/sq mi (10,933/km2)|
|2||Philadelphia||Pennsylvania||1,603,797||1,526,006||+5.10%||134.2 sq mi (348 km2)||11,683/sq mi (4,511/km2)|
|3||Hempstead||New York||793,409||759,757||+4.43%||118.6 sq mi (307 km2)||6,407/sq mi (2,474/km2)|
|4||Washington||District of Columbia||689,545||601,723||+14.60%||61.1 sq mi (158 km2)||11,148/sq mi (4,304/km2)|
|5||Boston||Massachusetts||675,647||617,594||+9.40%||48.3 sq mi (125 km2)||13,938/sq mi (5,381/km2)|
|6||Baltimore||Maryland||585,708||620,961||−5.68%||80.9 sq mi (210 km2)||7,598/sq mi (2,934/km2)|
|7||Brookhaven||New York||485,773||486,040||−0.05%||259.4 sq mi (672 km2)||1,873/sq mi (723/km2)|
|8||Islip||New York||339,938||335,543||+1.31%||104.1 sq mi (270 km2)||3,223/sq mi (1,244/km2)|
|9||Newark||New Jersey||311,549||277,140||+12.42%||24.1 sq mi (62 km2)||11,691/sq mi (4,514/km2)|
|10||Oyster Bay||New York||301,442||293,214||+2.81%||103.8 sq mi (269 km2)||2,826/sq mi (1,091/km2)|
|11||Jersey City||New Jersey||292,449||247,549||+18.14%||14.8 sq mi (38 km2)||17,848/sq mi (6,891/km2)|
|12||Arlington||Virginia||238,643||207,627||+14.94%||26 sq mi (67 km2)||7,994/sq mi (3,087/km2)|
|13||North Hempstead||New York||237,639||226,322||+5.00%||53.5 sq mi (139 km2)||4,229/sq mi (1,633/km2)|
|14||Richmond||Virginia||226,610||204,214||+10.97%||62.6 sq mi (162 km2)||3,782/sq mi (1,460/km2)|
|15||Babylon||New York||218,223||213,603||+2.16%||52.3 sq mi (135 km2)||4,083/sq mi (1,576/km2)|
|16||Yonkers||New York||211,569||195,976||+7.96%||18.0 sq mi (47 km2)||11,156/sq mi (4,307/km2)|
|17||Worcester||Massachusetts||206,518||181,045||+14.07%||37.4 sq mi (97 km2)||4,933/sq mi (1,905/km2)|
|18||Huntington||New York||204,127||203,264||+0.42%||94.1 sq mi (244 km2)||2,160/sq mi (830/km2)|
|19||Providence||Rhode Island||190,934||178,042||+7.24%||18.4 sq mi (48 km2)||9,740/sq mi (3,760/km2)|
|20||Paterson||New Jersey||159,732||146,199||+9.26%||8.4 sq mi (22 km2)||17,500/sq mi (6,800/km2)|
|21||Alexandria||Virginia||159,467||139,966||+13.93%||15.0 sq mi (39 km2)||10,387/sq mi (4,010/km2)|
|22||Springfield||Massachusetts||155,929||153,060||+1.87%||31.9 sq mi (83 km2)||4,830/sq mi (1,860/km2)|
|23||Ramapo||New York||148,919||126,595||+17.63%||61.2 sq mi (159 km2)||2,069/sq mi (799/km2)|
|24||Bridgeport||Connecticut||148,654||144,229||+3.07%||16.1 sq mi (42 km2)||9,064/sq mi (3,500/km2)|
|25||Elizabeth||New Jersey||137,298||124,969||+9.87%||12.3 sq mi (32 km2)||10,459/sq mi (4,038/km2)|
|26||Stamford||Connecticut||135,470||122,643||+10.46%||37.6 sq mi (97 km2)||3,434/sq mi (1,326/km2)|
|27||Lakewood||New Jersey||135,158||92,843||+45.58%||24.7 sq mi (64 km2)||4,079/sq mi (1,575/km2)|
|28||New Haven||Connecticut||134,023||129,779||+3.27%||18.7 sq mi (48 km2)||6,948/sq mi (2,683/km2)|
|29||Allentown||Pennsylvania||125,845||118,032||+6.62%||17.5 sq mi (45 km2)||6,882/sq mi (2,657/km2)|
|30||Hartford||Connecticut||121,054||124,775||−2.98%||17.4 sq mi (45 km2)||7,083/sq mi (2,735/km2)|
|31||Cambridge||Massachusetts||118,403||105,162||+12.59%||6.4 sq mi (17 km2)||17,289/sq mi (6,675/km2)|
|32||Smithtown||New York||116,296||117,801||−1.28%||53.7 sq mi (139 km2)||2,194/sq mi (847/km2)|
|33||Manchester||New Hampshire||115,644||109,565||+5.55%||33.1 sq mi (86 km2)||3,339/sq mi (1,289/km2)|
|34||Lowell||Massachusetts||115,554||106,519||+8.48%||13.6 sq mi (35 km2)||8,129/sq mi (3,139/km2)|
|35||Waterbury||Connecticut||114,403||110,366||+3.66%||28.5 sq mi (74 km2)||3,799/sq mi (1,467/km2)|
|36||Edison||New Jersey||107,588||99,967||+7.62%||30.1 sq mi (78 km2)||3,389/sq mi (1,309/km2)|
|37||Brockton||Massachusetts||105,643||93,810||+12.61%||21.3 sq mi (55 km2)||4,398/sq mi (1,698/km2)|
|38||Woodbridge||New Jersey||103,639||99,585||+4.07%||23.3 sq mi (60 km2)||4,351/sq mi (1,680/km2)|
|39||Quincy||Massachusetts||101,636||92,271||+10.15%||16.6 sq mi (43 km2)||5,567/sq mi (2,149/km2)|
|40||Lynn||Massachusetts||101,253||90,329||+12.09%||10.7 sq mi (28 km2)||8,409/sq mi (3,247/km2)|
|41||New Bedford||Massachusetts||101,079||95,072||+6.32%||20.0 sq mi (52 km2)||4,754/sq mi (1,836/km2)|
Due to its proximity to Europe, the Eastern coast of the United States was among the first regions of the continent to be widely settled. Over time, the cities and towns founded on the East Coast had the advantage of age over most other parts of the U.S. However, it was the Northeast in particular that developed most rapidly, owing to a number of fortuitous circumstances.
While possessing neither particularly rich soil—one exception being New England's Connecticut River Valley—nor exceptional mineral wealth, the region still supports some agriculture and mining.The climate is temperate and not particularly prone to hurricanes or tropical storms, which increase further south. However, the most important factor was the "interpenetration of land and sea," which makes for exceptional harbors, such as those at the Chesapeake Bay, the Port of New York and New Jersey, Narragansett Bay in Providence, Rhode Island, and Boston Harbor. The coastline to the north is rockier and less sheltered, and to the South is smooth and does not feature as many bays and inlets that function as natural harbors. Also featured are navigable rivers that lead deeper into the heartlands, such as the Hudson, Delaware, and Connecticut Rivers, which all support large populations and were necessary to early settlers for development. Therefore, while other parts of the country exceeded the region in raw resource value, they were not as easily accessible, and often, access to them necessarily had to pass through the Northeast first.
By 1800, the region included the only four U.S. cities with populations of over 25,000: Philadelphia, New York City, Baltimore, and Boston. By 1850, New York City and Philadelphia alone had over 300,000 residents while Baltimore, Boston, Brooklyn (at that time a separate city from New York), Cincinnati, and New Orleans had over 100,000: five were within one 400-mile strip while the last two were each four hundred miles away from the next closest metropolis. The immense concentration of people in one relatively densely packed area gave that region considerable sway through population density over the rest of the nation, which was solidified in 1800 when Washington, D.C., only 38 miles southwest of Baltimore, was made the nation's capital. According to Gottmann, capital cities "will tend to create for and around the seats of power a certain kind of built environment, singularly endowed, for instance, with monumentality, stressing status and ritual, a trait that will increase with duration."The transportation and telecommunications infrastructure that the capital city mandated also spilled over into the rest of the strip.
Additionally, the proximity to Europe, as well as the prominence of Ellis Island as an immigrant processing center, made New York City and cities nearby a "landing wharf for European immigrants," who represented an ever replenished supply of diversity of thought and determined workers.By contrast, the other major source of trans-oceanic immigrants was China, which was farther from the U.S. West Coast than Europe was from the East, and whose ethnicity made them targets of racial discrimination, creating barriers to their seamless integration into American society. By 1950, the region held over one-fifth of the total U.S. population, with a density nearly 15 times that of the national average.
The region has been home to the richest city in the nation for over 200 years: Hartford, Connecticut held the title from the pre–Civil War industrial era until about 1929, and New York City has held it since.[ citation needed ] Loudoun and Fairfax County, Virginia are the wealthiest counties in the country, and Connecticut’s Gold Coast has one of the highest population densities of families worth over $30 million USD.[ citation needed ]
Jean Gottmann wrote his most famous work, Megalopolis, around the central theory that the cities between Washington, D.C. and Boston together form a sort of cohesive, integrated "supercity." He took the term megalopolis from a small Greek town that had been settled in the Classical Era with the hope it would "become the largest of the Greek cities". Though it still exists today, it is just a sleepy agricultural community. The dream of the founders of the original Megalopolis, Gottmann argued, was being realized in the Northeastern U.S. in the 1960s.
Gottmann defined two criteria for a group of cities to be a true megalopolis: “polynuclear structure” and “manifold concentration:” that is, the presence of multiple urban nuclei, which exist independently of each other yet are integrated in a special way relative to sites outside their area.
To this end, "twin cities" such as Minneapolis–Saint Paul in Minnesota would not be considered a megalopolitan area since both cities are fairly integrated with each other even though both cities have distinct city borders and large central business districts. Large communities on the outskirts of major cities, such as Silver Spring or Bethesda in Maryland outside of Washington, DC, are clearly distinct areas with even their own downtowns. However, they are not in any way independent of their host city, being still considered suburbs that would almost certainly not have developed in the ways that they have without the presence of Washington.
On the other hand, while the major cities of the Boston–Washington megalopolis all are distinct, independent cities, they are closely linked by transportation and telecommunications. Neil Gustafson showed in 1961 that the vast majority of phone calls originating in the region terminate elsewhere in the region, and it is only a minority that are routed to elsewhere in the United States or abroad.In 2010 automobiles carried 80% of Boston-Washington corridor travel; intercity buses 8–9%; Amtrak 6%; and airlines 5%. Business ventures unique to the region have sprung up that capitalize on the interconnectedness of the megalopolis, such as airline shuttle services that operate short flights between Boston-New York and New York-Washington that leave every half-hour, Amtrak's Acela Express high-speed rail service from Washington to Boston, and the Chinatown bus lines, which offer economy transportation between the cities' Chinatowns and elsewhere. Other bus lines operating in the megalopolitan area owned by national or international corporations have also appeared, such as BoltBus and Megabus. These ventures indicate not only the dual "independent nuclei"/"interlinked system" nature of the megalopolis, but also a broad public understanding of and capitalization on the concept.
Among examples of academic acceptance of Gottmann's Megalopolis concept, John Rennie Short authored a major update to Gottmann’s book in 2007, Liquid City: Megalopolis and the Contemporary Northeast. The National Geographic Society released a map in 1994 of the region at the time of the Revolutionary War and in present day, which borrowed Gottmann's book's title and referred to him by name. Senator Claiborne Pell wrote a full-length book entitled Megalopolis Unbound in 1966, which summarized and then expanded on the original book to outline his vision for a cohesive transportation policy in the region (of which his state, Rhode Island, is part). Futurists Herman Kahn and Anthony Wiener coined the term "BosWash" in 1967 in their predictions concerning the area described by Gottmann as "Megalopolis".
The immensity of the megalopolis, and the idea that it might one day form an actual uninterrupted city, has inspired several authors and has resulted in extrapolations of the current megalopolis appearing in fiction. Examples include William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy, which envisions a future Boston–Atlanta Metropolitan Axis known as The Sprawl, and the even larger Quebec–Florida Mega-City One from the Judge Dredd comic books and films.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is the national passenger railroad company of the United States. It operates inter-city rail service in 46 of the 48 contiguous U.S. States and nine cities in Canada. Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track.
The East Coast of the United States, also known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast, and the Atlantic Seaboard, is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean. The eastern seaboard contains the coastal states and areas east of the Appalachian Mountains that have shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean, namely, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.
The Acela is Amtrak's flagship service along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in the Northeastern United States between Washington, D.C. and Boston via 13 intermediate stops, including Baltimore, New York City and Philadelphia. Acela trains are the fastest in the Americas, reaching 150 miles per hour (240 km/h), but only over 49.9 miles (80.3 km) of the 457-mile (735 km) route.
The Northeast Corridor (NEC) is an electrified railroad line in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States. Owned primarily by Amtrak, it runs from Boston through Providence, New Haven, Stamford, New York City, Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore to Washington, D.C. The NEC closely parallels Interstate 95 for most of its length, and is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States both by ridership and by service frequency as of 2013. The NEC carries more than 2,200 trains daily.
The Northeast Regional is an intercity rail service operated by Amtrak in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States. In the past it has been known as the NortheastDirect, Acela Regional, or Regional. It is Amtrak's busiest route, carrying 8,686,930 passengers in fiscal year (FY) 2018, a 1.4% increase over the 8.57 million passengers in FY 2017. The Northeast Regional service earned over $613.9 million in gross ticket revenue in FY 2016, a 0.4% increase over the $611.7 million earned during FY 2015.
The Metroliners were extra-fare high speed trains between Washington, D.C. and New York City which operated from 1969 to 2006. They were briefly first operated by Penn Central Transportation, then by Amtrak for 35 years.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the Northeast, the East Coast, or the American Northeast, is a geographic region of the United States. It is located on the Atlantic coast of North America; Canada is to its north, the Southern United States is to its south, and the Midwestern United States is to the west. The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics. The region is usually defined as including nine U.S. states: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
BosWash is a name coined by futurist Herman Kahn in a 1967 essay describing a theoretical United States megalopolis extending from the metropolitan area of Boston to that of Washington, D.C. The publication coined terms like BosWash, referring to predicted accretions of the Northeast, and SanSan for the urbanized region in Coastal California. The general concept for the area described by BosWash was first identified as "The Atlantic seaboard area from north of Boston to south of Washington" by French geographer Jean Gottmann in the annual report of the Twentieth Century Fund on May 25, 1958. Gottman elaborated on the 600 miles (970 km) stretch of cities in his 1961 book Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States, although the term BosWash did not appear in the work.
(Ivan) Jean Gottmann was a French geographer who was best known for his seminal study on the urban region of the Northeast megalopolis. His main contributions to human geography were in the sub-fields of urban, political, economic, historical and regional geography. His regional specializations ranged from France and the Mediterranean to the United States, Israel, and Japan.
The Bombardier–Alstom HHP-8 is a type of twin-cab electric locomotive manufactured by a consortium of Bombardier Transportation and Alstom for Amtrak and MARC. The locomotive's electrical drive technology is directly derived from the SNCF BB 36000 manufactured by Alstom.
Richmond Main Street Station, officially the Main Street Station and Trainshed, is a historic railroad station and office building in Richmond, Virginia. It was built in 1901, and is served by Amtrak. It is also an intermodal station with Richmond's city transit bus services, which are performed by Greater Richmond Transit Company (GRTC). It is colloquially known by people from the city as The Clock Tower. It is a U.S. National Historic Landmark. Main Street Station serves as a secondary train station for Richmond providing limited Amtrak service directly to downtown Richmond. Several Amtrak trains serving the Richmond metropolitan area only stop at the area's primary rail station, Staples Mill Road which is located five miles to the north in Henrico County.
Plans for high-speed rail in the United States date back to the High-Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965. Various state and federal proposals have followed. Despite being one of the world's first countries to get high-speed trains, it failed to spread. Definitions of what constitutes high-speed rail vary, including a range of speeds over 110 mph (180 km/h) and dedicated rail lines. Inter-city rail with top speeds between 90 and 125 mph is sometimes referred to in the United States as higher-speed rail.
A megalopolis or a supercity, also called a megaregion, is a group of metropolitan areas which are perceived as a continuous urban area through common systems of transport, economy, resources, ecology, and so on. They are integrated enough that coordinating policy is valuable, although the constituent metropolises keep their individual identities. The megalopolis concept has become highly influential as it introduced a new, larger scale thinking about urban patterns and growth.
New London Union Station is a railroad station on the Northeast Corridor located in downtown New London, Connecticut, United States. Union Station is a station stop for most Amtrak Northeast Regional trains and all CTrail Shore Line East commuter rail trains, making it the primary railroad station in southeastern Connecticut. It serves as the centerpiece of the Regional Intermodal Transit Center, with connections to local and intercity buses as well as ferries to Long Island and Fishers Island, New York, and Block Island, Rhode Island. The station has one side platform and one island platform serving the two-track Northeast Corridor; the latter platform also serves a siding track that connects to the New England Central Railroad mainline.
The Great Lakes megalopolis consists of the group of metropolitan areas in North America largely in the Great Lakes region. It extends from the Midwestern United States in the south and west to western Pennsylvania and Western New York in the east and northward through Southern Ontario into southwestern Quebec in Canada. It is the most populated and largest megalopolis in North America.
Megaregions of the United States are generally understood to be regions in the U.S. that contain two or more roughly adjacent urban metropolitan areas that, through commonality of systems—of transport, economy, resources, and ecologies—experience blurred boundaries between the urban centers, such that perceiving and acting as if they are a continuous urban area is, for the purposes of policy coordination, of practical value. The antecedent term, with which "megaregions" is synonymous, is megalopolis, which was coined in relation to the Boston through Washington, D.C., corridor in the Atlantic Northeast, by Jean Gottmann in the mid-twentieth century. America 2050, a project of the Regional Plan Association, lists 11 megaregions encompassing urban regions in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. As of December 2000, these clustered networks of American cities contained an estimated total population exceeding 280 million persons.
Northeastern United States, Northeast United States or Northeast region within the United States may refer to:
Avelia Liberty, also known as the Acela II, is a high-speed passenger train built for the North American market by French manufacturer Alstom and assembled in the United States. Amtrak has ordered 28 trainsets for use on its flagship Acela service along the Northeast Corridor between Boston and Washington, D.C., via New York City and Philadelphia.
Acela Corridor may refer to:
The first-generation Acela Express trainset is a unique set of vehicles used on the Acela, Amtrak's flagship high-speed service along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in the Northeastern United States. When they debuted in 2000, the sets were the fastest in the Americas; reaching 150 mph (240 km/h) on 33.9 mi (54.6 km) of the route. They were built between 1998 and 2001 by a consortium of Alstom and Bombardier. Each set has two power cars derived from units that Alstom built for the TGV, and six passenger cars derived from the LRC that Bombardier built for Via Rail.