Northeast megalopolis

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Northeast megalopolis
Population density in the Northeast megalopolis along the Atlantic Seaboard
Northeast corridor, BosWash, Boston–Washington corridor, Eastern Seaboard, [1] Atlantic Seaboard
US Northeast Megalopolis Cities.jpg
Major cities of the Northeast megalopolis counterclockwise from top: Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.
Federal DistrictsFlag of Washington, D.C..svg  Washington, D.C.
Largest cityFlag of New York City.svg New York (8,405,837)
  Density931.3/sq mi (359.6/km2)
Demonym(s) Northeasterner

The Northeast megalopolis (also Boston–Washington corridor or Bos-Wash corridor [2] ) is the second most populous megalopolis in the United States with over 50 million residents and the most heavily urbanized agglomeration of the United States. Located primarily on the Atlantic Ocean in the Northeastern United States, with its lower terminus in the upper Southeast, it runs primarily northeast to southwest from the northern suburbs of Boston, Massachusetts, to the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C., in Northern Virginia. [3] It includes the major cities of Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., [4] along with their metropolitan areas and suburbs, as well as many smaller urban centers such as Richmond and Norfolk, Virginia to the south and Portland, Maine to the north. [5]

Megalopolis A large conurbation, where two or more large cities have sprawled outward to meet, forming something larger than a metropolis.

A megalopolis is typically defined as a group of two or more roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or simply America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Urban area Human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment

An urban area or urban agglomeration, is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources leads to human impact on the environment.


On a map, the megalopolis appears almost as a straight line. As of 2010, the region contained over 50 million people, about 17% of the U.S. population on less than 2% of the nation's land area, with a population density of approximately 1,000 people per square mile (390 people/km2), compared to the U.S. average of 80.5 per square mile 2 [6] (31 people/km2). America 2050 projections expect the area to grow to 58.1 million people by 2025. [7] [8]

French geographer Jean Gottmann popularized the term in his landmark 1961 study of the region, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. Gottmann concluded that the region's cities, while discrete and independent, are uniquely tied to each other through the intermeshing of their suburban zones, taking on some characteristics of a single, massive city: a megalopolis.

Geography The science that studies the terrestrial surface, the societies that inhabit it and the territories, landscapes, places or regions that form it

Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

(Ivan) Jean Gottmann was a French geographer who was best known for his seminal study on the urban region of the Northeast megalopolis. His main contributions to human geography were in the sub-fields of urban, political, economic, historical and regional geography. His regional specializations ranged from France and the Mediterranean to the United States, Israel, and Japan.

The megalopolis' higher education network comprises hundreds of colleges and universities, including Harvard University, Princeton University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Pennsylvania which are ranked among the top 10 universities in the United States and in the world. [9]

Harvard University Private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 13,100 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning. Its history, influence, wealth, and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. It is cited as the world's top university by many publishers.

Princeton University University in Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896.

Columbia University Private Ivy League research university in New York City

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 near the Upper West Side region of Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world.


The megalopolis encompasses the District of Columbia and part or all of 11 states: from south to north, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. It is linked by Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1, which start in Miami and Key West, Florida, respectively, and terminate in Maine at the Canadian border, as well as the Northeast Corridor railway line, the busiest passenger rail line in the country. It is home to over 50 million people, [7] and metropolitan statistical areas are contiguous from Washington to Boston. [10] The region is not uniformly populated between the terminal cities, and there are regions nominally within the corridor yet located away from the main transit lines that have been bypassed by urbanization, such as Connecticut's Quiet Corner.

Virginia State in the United States

Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million.

Maryland State in the United States

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary, who was the wife of King Charles I.

Delaware State in the United States

Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, and east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean. The state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor.

The region accounts for 20% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product. [11] It is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, the White House and United States Capitol, the UN Headquarters, and the headquarters of ABC, NBC, CBS, NPR, Fox, Comcast, the New York Times Company, USA Today , and The Washington Post . The headquarters of many major financial companies—such as J.P. Morgan Chase, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Fidelity—are located within the region, which is also home to 54 of the Fortune Global 500 companies. The headquarters of 162 of the Fortune 500 are in the region. [12] The region is also the center of the global hedge fund industry, Particularly in New York City and Greenwich, CT and Stamford, CT with 47.9% of $2.48 trillion of hedge fund assets being managed in its cities and suburbs. [13] Academically, the region is home to all of the eight Ivy League universities.

New York Stock Exchange American stock exchange

The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was approximately US$169 billion in 2013. The NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007. The main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978.

White House Official residence and workplace of the President of the United States

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. and has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800. The term "White House" is often used as a metonym for the president and his advisers.

United States Capitol seat of the United States Congress

The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants.


Largest combined statistical areas (CSAs) within the Northeast megalopolis [14]
Combined Statistical Area
1 New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA CSA 22,679,94822,255,491+1.91%
4 Washington–Baltimore–Arlington, DC–MD–VA–WV–PA CSA 9,778,3609,032,651+8.26%
6 Boston–Worcester–Providence, MA–RI–NH CSA 8,285,4077,893,376+4.97%
8 Philadelphia–Reading-Camden, PA–NJ–DE–MD CSA 7,204,0357,067,807+1.93%
40 Hartford-West Hartford, CT CSA 1,473,0841,486,436−0.90%
97 Salisbury-Cambridge, MD-DE CSA 409,979373,802+9.68%
Largest Cities and Towns in the Northeast Megalopolis with populations over 75,000 [15] [16]









Population Density

1 New York City Flag of New York.svg  New York 8,398,7488,175,133+2.74%301.5 sq mi28,317/sq mi
2 Philadelphia Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania 1,584,1381,526,006+3.81%134.2 sq mi11,683/sq mi
3 Hempstead Flag of New York.svg  New York 768,103759,757+1.10%118.6 sq mi6,407/sq mi
4 Washington Flag of Washington, D.C..svg  District of Columbia 702,455601,723+16.74%61.1 sq mi11,148/sq mi
5 Boston Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 694,583617,594+12.47%48.3 sq mi13,938/sq mi
6 Baltimore Flag of Maryland.svg  Maryland 602,495617,594−2.44%80.9 sq mi7,598/sq mi
7 Brookhaven Flag of New York.svg  New York 482,436486,040−0.74%259.4 sq mi1,873/sq mi
8 Islip Flag of New York.svg  New York 330,914335,543−1.38%104.1 sq mi3,223/sq mi
9 Oyster Bay Flag of New York.svg  New York 298,388293,214+1.76%103.8 sq mi2,826/sq mi
10 Newark Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 282,090277,140+1.79%24.1 sq mi11,691/sq mi
11 Jersey City Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 265,549247,549+7.27%14.8 sq mi17,848/sq mi
12 North Hempstead Flag of New York.svg  New York 231,117226,322+2.12%53.5 sq mi4,229/sq mi
13 Babylon Flag of New York.svg  New York 210,363213,603−1.52%52.3 sq mi4,083/sq mi
14 Huntington Flag of New York.svg  New York 201,546203,264−0.85%94.1 sq mi2,160/sq mi
15 Yonkers Flag of New York.svg  New York 199,663195,976+1.88%18.0 sq mi11,156/sq mi
16 Worcester Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 185,877181,045+2.67%37.4 sq mi4,933/sq mi
17 Providence Flag of Rhode Island.svg  Rhode Island 179,335178,042+0.73%18.4 sq mi9,740/sq mi
18 Alexandria Flag of Virginia.svg  Virginia 160,530139,966+14.69%15.0 sq mi10,387/sq mi
19 Springfield Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 155,032153,060+1.29%31.9 sq mi4,830/sq mi
20 Paterson Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 145,627146,199−0.39%8.4 sq mi17,500/sq mi
21 Bridgeport Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 144,900144,229+0.47%16.1 sq mi9,064/sq mi
22 Ramapo Flag of New York.svg  New York 136,848126,595+8.10%61.2 sq mi2,069/sq mi
23 New Haven Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 130,418129,779+0.49%18.7 sq mi6,948/sq mi
24 Stamford Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 129,775122,643+5.82%37.6 sq mi3,434/sq mi
25 Elizabeth Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 128,885124,969+3.13%12.3 sq mi10,459/sq mi
26 Hartford Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 122,587124,775−1.75%17.4 sq mi7,083/sq mi
27 Allentown Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania 121,443118,032+2.89%17.5 sq mi6,882/sq mi
28 Cambridge Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 118,977105,162+13.14%6.4 sq mi17,289/sq mi
29 Smithtown Flag of New York.svg  New York 116,384117,801−1.20%53.7 sq mi2,194/sq mi
30 Manchester Flag of New Hampshire.svg  New Hampshire 112,525109,565+2.70%33.1 sq mi3,339/sq mi
31 Lowell Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 111,670106,519+4.84%13.6 sq mi8,129/sq mi
32 Waterbury Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 108,093110,366−2.06%28.5 sq mi3,799/sq mi
33 Lakewood Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 104,15792,843+12.19%24.7 sq mi4,079/sq mi
34 Edison Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 100,69399,967+0.73%30.1 sq mi3,389/sq mi
35 Woodbridge Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 100,45099,585+0.87%23.3 sq mi4,351/sq mi
36 Brockton Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 95,77793,810+2.10%21.3 sq mi4,398/sq mi
37 New Bedford Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 95,31595,072+0.26%20.0 sq mi4,754/sq mi
38 Lynn Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 94,65490,329+4.79%10.7 sq mi8,409/sq mi
39 Quincy Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 94,58092,271+2.50%16.6 sq mi5,567/sq mi
40 Toms River Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 93,71791,239+2.72%40.5 sq mi2,254/sq mi
41 Greenburgh Flag of New York.svg  New York 91,33888,400+3.32%30.3 sq mi2,917/sq mi
42 Fall River Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 89,66188,857+0.90%33.1 sq mi2,682/sq mi
43 Nashua Flag of New Hampshire.svg  New Hampshire 89,24686,494+3.18%30.9 sq mi2,804/sq mi
44 Norwalk Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 89,04785,603+4.02%22.9 sq mi3,745/sq mi
45 Newton Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 88,90485,146+4.41%17.8 sq mi4,774/sq mi
46 Reading Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania 88,49588,082+0.47%9.9 sq mi8,912/sq mi
47 Hamilton Township Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 87,55288,464−1.03%39.5 sq mi2,240/sq mi
48 Clarkstown Flag of New York.svg  New York 86,32984,187+2.54%38.5 sq mi2,188/sq mi
49 Clifton Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 85,27384,136+1.35%11.3 sq mi7,472/sq mi
50 Danbury Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 84,73080,893+4.74%41.9 sq mi1,931/sq mi
51 Trenton Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 83,97484,913−1.11%7.7 sq mi11,102/sq mi
52 Upper Darby Township Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania 82,71682,795−0.10%7.8 sq mi10,581/sq mi
53 Somerville Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 81,56275,754+7.67%4.1 sq mi18,405/sq mi
54 Cranston Flag of Rhode Island.svg  Rhode Island 81,27480,387+1.10%28.3/sq mi2,837/sq mi
55 Warwick Flag of Rhode Island.svg  Rhode Island 80,84782,672−2.21%35.1 sq mi2,359/sq mi
56 Lawrence Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 80,37676,377+5.24%6.9 sq mi11,028/sq mi
57 New Rochelle Flag of New York.svg  New York 78,74277,062+2.18%10.4 sq mi7,446/sq mi
58 Brick Township Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 75,66775,072+0.79%25.7 sq mi2,919/sq mi
59 Camden Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 73,97377,344−4.36%8.9 sq mi8,670/sq mi


A satellite view of the megalopolitan region at night, 1995 BosWash-Night-Labeled.png
A satellite view of the megalopolitan region at night, 1995

The Eastern coast of the United States of America, due to its proximity to Europe, was among the first regions of the continent to be widely settled by Europeans. Over time, the cities and towns founded here had the advantage of age over most other parts of the US. However, it was the Northeast in particular that developed most rapidly, owing to a number of fortuitous circumstances.

While possessing neither particularly rich soil—one exception being New England's Connecticut River Valley—nor exceptional mineral wealth, the region does support some agriculture and mining. [17] The climate is also temperate and not particularly prone to hurricanes or tropical storms, which increase further south. However, the most important factor was the "interpenetration of land and sea," [18] which makes for exceptional harbors, such as those at the Chesapeake Bay, the Port of New York and New Jersey, Narragansett Bay in Providence, Rhode Island, Washington Harbor, and Boston Harbor. The coastline to the north is rockier and less sheltered, and to the South is smooth and does not feature as many bays and inlets that function as natural harbors. Also featured are navigable rivers that lead deeper into the heartlands, such as the Hudson, Delaware, Potomac, and Connecticut Rivers, which all support large populations and were necessary to early settlers for development. Therefore, while other parts of the country exceeded the region in raw resource value, they were not as easily accessible, and often, access to them necessarily had to pass through the Northeast first.

Modern history

By 1800, the region included the only four U.S. cities with populations of over 25,000: Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, and Boston. By 1850, New York and Philadelphia alone had over 300,000 residents, while Baltimore, Boston, Brooklyn (at that time a separate city from New York), Cincinnati, and New Orleans had over 100,000: five were within one 400-mile strip, while the last two were each four hundred miles away from the next closest metropolis. The immense concentration of people in one relatively densely packed area gave that region considerable sway through population density over the rest of the nation, which was solidified in 1800 when Washington, D.C., only 38 miles southwest of Baltimore, was made the capital. According to Gottmann, capital cities "will tend to create for and around the seats of power a certain kind of built environment, singularly endowed, for instance, with monumentality, stressing status and ritual, a trait that will increase with duration." [19] The transportation and telecommunications infrastructure that the capital city mandated also spilled over into the rest of the strip.

Additionally, the proximity to Europe, as well as the prominence of Ellis Island as an immigrant processing center, made New York especially but also the cities nearby a "landing wharf for European immigrants," who represented an ever-replenished supply of diversity of thought and determined workers. [20] By contrast, the other major source of trans-oceanic immigrants was China, which was farther from the U.S. West Coast than Europe was from the East, and whose ethnicity made them targets of racial discrimination, creating barriers to their seamless integration into American society.

By 1950, the region held over one-fifth of the total U.S. population, with a density nearly 15 times that of the national average. [21]

The region has been home to the richest city in the nation for over 200 years: Hartford, Connecticut held the title from the pre–Civil war industrial era until about 1929, and New York City has held it since.[ citation needed ] Loudon and Fairfax County, Virginia are the wealthiest counties in the country, and Connecticut’s Gold Coast has one of the highest population densities of families worth over $30 million USD.[ citation needed ]


Map of the 11 emerging megaregions of the United States (Upper right: Northeast) MapofEmergingUSMegaregions.png
Map of the 11 emerging megaregions of the United States (Upper right: Northeast)

Jean Gottmann wrote his most famous work, Megalopolis, around the central theory that the cities between Washington, DC and Boston, MA together form a sort of cohesive, integrated "supercity." He took the term "Megalopolis" from a small Greek town that had been settled in the Classical Era with the hope it would "become the largest of the Greek cities". Though it still exists today, it is just a sleepy agricultural community. The dream of the founders of the original Megalopolis, Gottmann argued, was being realized in the Northeastern U.S. in the 1960s. [22]

Gottmann defined two criteria for a group of cities to be a true megalopolis: “polynuclear structure” and “manifold concentration:” that is, the presence of multiple urban nuclei, which exist independently of each other yet are integrated in a special way relative to sites outside their area.

To this end, "twin cities" such as Minneapolis–Saint Paul in Minnesota would not be considered a megalopolitan area since both cities are fairly integrated with each other even though both cities have distinct city borders and large central business districts. Large communities on the outskirts of major cities, such as Silver Spring or Bethesda in Maryland outside of Washington, DC, are clearly distinct areas with even their own downtowns. However, they are not in any way independent of their host city, being still considered suburbs that would almost certainly not have developed in the ways that they have without the presence of Washington.

On the other hand, while the major cities of the Boston–Washington megalopolis all are distinct, independent cities, they are closely linked by transportation and telecommunications. Neil Gustafson showed in 1961 that the vast majority of phone calls originating in the region terminate elsewhere in the region, and it is only a minority that are routed to elsewhere in the United States or abroad. [23] In 2010 automobiles carried 80% of Boston-Washington corridor travel; intercity buses 8–9%; Amtrak 6%; and airlines 5%. [24] Business ventures unique to the region have sprung up that capitalize on the interconnectedness of the megalopolis, such as airline shuttle services that operate short flights between Boston-New York and New York-Washington that leave every half-hour, [25] Amtrak's Acela Express high-speed rail service from Washington to Boston, and the Chinatown bus lines, which offer economy transportation between the cities' Chinatowns and elsewhere. Other bus lines operating in the megalopolitan area owned by national or international corporations have also appeared, such as BoltBus and Megabus. These ventures indicate not only the dual "independent nuclei"/"interlinked system" nature of the megalopolis, but also a broad public understanding of and capitalization on the concept.

Among examples of academic acceptance of Gottmann's Megalopolis concept, John Rennie Short authored a major update to Gottmann’s book in 2007, Liquid City: Megalopolis and the Contemporary Northeast. The National Geographic Society released a map in 1994 of the region at the time of the Revolutionary War and in present day, which borrowed Gottmann's book's title and referred to him by name. Senator Claiborne Pell wrote a full-length book entitled Megalopolis Unbound in 1966, which summarized and then expanded on the original book to outline his vision for a cohesive transportation policy in the region (of which his state, Rhode Island, is part). Futurists Herman Kahn and Anthony Wiener coined the term "BosWash" in 1967 in their predictions concerning the area described by Gottmann as "Megalopolis". [26]

Use in fiction

The immensity of the megalopolis, and the idea that it might one day form an actual uninterrupted city, has inspired several authors and has resulted in extrapolations of the current megalopolis appearing in fiction. Examples include William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy, which envisions a future Boston–Atlanta Metropolitan Axis known as The Sprawl, and the even larger Quebec–Florida Mega-City One from the Judge Dredd comic books and films.

See also

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The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of metropolitan areas in North America largely in the Great Lakes region and along the Saint Lawrence Seaway. It extends from the Midwestern United States in the south and west to western Pennsylvania and Upstate New York in the east and northward through Southern Ontario into southwestern Quebec in Canada. It is the most populated and largest megalopolis in North America.

Demographics of New England

New Englanders are the inhabitants of the New England region in the Northeastern United States. Beginning with the New England Colonies, the name "New Englander" refers to those who live in the six New England states or those with cultural or family ties to the region. Originally inhabited by Algonquin American Indians, including tribes Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Penobscot, Pequots, Mohegans, Narragansetts, Pocumtucks, and Wampanoag. The region was first settled by European colonists from the Mayflower as part of the Plymouth Company in 1620. The region was named "New England" by English explorer John Smith in 1616. While the term "New Englander" can refer to anyone who identifies as such or has cultural ties to the region, the term "Native New Englander" refers to those New Englanders who were born in New England.

Megaregions of the United States are clustered networks of American cities, which are currently estimated to contain a total population exceeding 237 million.

Northeastern United States, Northeast United States or Northeast region within the United States may refer to:


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