Northern Maori

Last updated

Northern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Eastern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Northern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Tokerau electorate.

Contents

Population centres

The electorate included the following population centres: Auckland, Whangarei.

Tribal areas

The electorate included the following tribal areas:

History

The Northern Maori electorate boundary was in South Auckland. It extended from Auckland City north to Northland, and had only minor boundary changes from 1868 to 1996.

The first member of parliament for Northern Maori from 1868 was Frederick Nene Russell; he retired in 1870. The second member of parliament from 1871 to 1875 and in 1887 was Wi Katene.

In the 1879 election there was some doubt about the validity of the election result, and a law was passed to confirm the result in Northern Maori and two other electorates. [1]

The electorate was held by Labour from 1938. Paraire Karaka Paikea died in 1943, and was replaced by his son Tapihana Paraire Paikea.

In 1979, Matiu Rata resigned from the Labour Party as a protest against Labour policies. In 1980 he resigned from Parliament, but came second in the subsequent by-election. The by-election was won by the Labour candidate, Bruce Gregory.

Tau Henare won the electorate from Gregory for New Zealand First in 1993; a foretaste of the success of Henare and the other New Zealand First candidates (known as the Tight Five ) in the Māori electorates in 1996. In 1996 with MMP, the Northern Maori electorate was replaced by Te Tai Tokerau, and won by Henare.

Tau Henare is a great-grandson of Taurekareka Henare who had held the electorate for the Reform Party from 1914 to 1938.

Members of Parliament

The Northern Maori electorate was represented by 15 Members of Parliament: [2]

Key

  Independent     Liberal     Reform     National     Labour     NZ First   

ElectionWinner
1868 Māori election Frederick Nene Russell
1871 election Wi Katene
1876 election Hori Tawhiti
1879 election Hone Tawhai
1881 election
1884 election Ihaka Hakuene
1887 by-election Wi Katene
1887 election Sydney Taiwhanga
1890 election
1891 by-election Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa
1893 election Hone Heke Ngapua
1896 election
1899 election
1901 by-election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1909 by-election Te Rangi Hīroa
1911 election
1914 election Taurekareka Henare
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election Paraire Karaka Paikea
1943 election Tapihana Paraire Paikea
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 by-election Matiu Rata
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1980 by-election Bruce Gregory
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election Tau Henare

Election results

Note that the affiliation of many early candidates is not known.

1980 by-election

1980 Northern Maori by-election [3]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Bruce Gregory 3,580 52.41
Mana Motuhake Matiu Rata 2,58937.90
Social Credit Joe Toia5608.20
Cheer UpW Hetaraka801.17
Christian Democratic Tom Weal 130.19
Reform PartyP Te W Warner90.13
Majority99114.51
Turnout 6,83141.38
Labour hold Swing

1963 by-election

1963 Northern Maori by-election [4] [5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Matiu Rata 3,090 42.04
National James Henare 2,64335.96
Independent Labour Eru Maku Pou5627.65
Social Credit William Clarke3404.63
Independent Te Kaiaraiha Hui2683.65
Independent Whina Cooper 2573.50
Independent Labour Pikea Henare Toka1431.95
Independent Hohaia Tokowha Mokaraka250.34
KauhananuiHemi Kuit Peita220.30
Majority4476.08
Turnout 7,35058.10
Labour hold Swing

1943 election

There were nine candidates in 1943, with the election won by Tapihana Paraire Paikea over Eru Moka Pou. [6]

1931 election

1931 general election: Northern Maori [7]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Taurekareka Henare 3,297 58.56
Ratana Paraire Karaka Paikea 2,10937.46
Independent Hemi Whautere Witehira2243.98
Majority1,18821.10
Turnout 5,630

1909 by-election

1909 Northern Maori by-election [8] [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Te Rangi Hiroa 1,452 71.60
Independent Kaka Porowini29614.60
Independent Herepita Rapihana28013.81
Independent Hone Hapa1999.81
Independent Hone Wi Kaitaia1738.53
Independent Hetaraka Himi Hare934.59
Independent Te Riri Maihi Kawiti743.65
Independent Papa Uroroa522.56
Independent Reihana Netana251.23
Turnout 2028
Majority115657.00

1901 by-election

1901 Northern Maori by-election [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Hone Heke Ngapua 1,751 71.41
Independent Riapo Puhipi41616.97
Independent Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa 28511.62
Independent Hapeta Henare973.96
Independent Kiri Pararea943.83
Independent Pouaka Parore763.10
Turnout 2452
Majority133554.45

1899 election

1899 general election: Northern Maori [11]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Hone Heke Ngapua 1,453 64.15 -17.24
Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa 36716.20-2.40
Henry Flavell2259.93
Keritoke Te Ahu1265.56
Poata Uruamo944.15
Majority1,08647.95-14.84
Turnout 2,265

1891 by-election

1891 Northern Maori by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa 632 43.68
Independent Timoti Puhipuhi51535.59
Independent Wiremu Katene 30020.73
Independent Haki Rewite19413.41
Independent Renata Tekawatuku70.48
Independent Kipa Te Whatanui10.07
Turnout 1447
Majority1178.09

1896 election

1896 general election: Northern Maori [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Hone Heke Ngapua 1,706 81.39
Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa 39018.61
Majority1,31662.79
Turnout 2,096 [nb 1]

Table footnotes:

  1. Whilst the source states the count was final, McRobie states the number of votes cast as 2,104. [13]

1890 election

1890 general election: Northern Maori [14]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Sydney Taiwhanga 661 48.82
Tinoti Pupipupi39429.10
Conservative Wi Katene 19214.18
Wiremu Mikihana1077.90
Majority26719.72
Turnout 1,354

Notes

  1. "Elections Validation Act, 1879". New Zealand Law online.
  2. Wilson 1985, p. 268.
  3. Norton 1988, p. 398.
  4. Norton 1988, p. 397.
  5. "12 candidates for two by-election". The New Zealand Herald . 23 February 1963. p. 1.
  6. "Electoral". Auckland Star . Vol. LXXIV, no. 290. 7 December 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  7. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  8. "Northerrn Maori Election". The New Zealand Herald . 22 March 1909.
  9. "Northern Maori Election". Manawatu Herald. 23 March 1909.
  10. "Northern Maori Election". Auckland Star . 19 January 1901.
  11. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  12. "Untitled". Poverty Bay Herald. Vol. XXIII, no. 7810. 24 December 1896. p. 2. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  13. McRobie 1989, p. 133.
  14. "The Maori Representation". Otago Witness . No. 1920. 4 December 1890. p. 15. Retrieved 27 November 2013.

Related Research Articles

Rātana New Zealand church and political movement

The Rātana movement is a church and pan-iwi political movement founded by Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana in early 20th-century New Zealand. The Rātana Church has its headquarters at the settlement of Rātana Pā near Whanganui.

1996 New Zealand general election General election in New Zealand

The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.

Māori electorates Electoral districts for Māori voters in New Zealand

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that give reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; as of 2020, there are seven Māori electorates. Since 1967, candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare that they are of Māori descent.

Tau Henare New Zealand politician

Raymond Tau Henare is a former New Zealand Māori parliamentarian. In representing three different political parties in parliament—New Zealand First, Mauri Pacific and the National Party—Henare served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1993 to 1999 and from 2005 to 2014.

Taurekareka Henare New Zealand politician

Taurekareka (Tau) Henare was a Māori member of the New Zealand Parliament from 1914 to 1938, sitting for the Reform Party for most of that time, until it merged with the United Party to form the National Party in 1936.

The Northern Maori by-election of 1980 was a by-election for the Northern Maori electorate during the 39th New Zealand Parliament. It was prompted by the resignation of Matiu Rata, a former member of the Labour Party who was establishing a new group, Mana Motuhake. Rata believed that contesting a by-election would give him a mandate for his change of allegiance. In the end, however, his plan backfired when the seat was won by Bruce Gregory, his replacement as the Labour Party candidate.

Paraire Karaka Paikea

Paraire Karaka Paikea was a New Zealand Māori politician.

Tapihana Paraire Paikea New Zealand politician

Tapihana Paraire "Dobbie" Paikea, also known as Dobson, was a New Zealand politician and Ratana morehu who won the Northern Maori electorate for Labour in 1943. He was a Māori of Te Roroa, Te Parawhau and Ngāti Whātua descent. He was elected following the death of his father Paraire Karaka Paikea who had been the MP, and he held the parliamentary seat until his own death in 1963.

Rotorua (New Zealand electorate) Electoral district in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Rotorua is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was first established in 1919, and has existed continuously since 1954. The current MP for Rotorua is Todd McClay of the National Party, who won the electorate in the 2008 general election from incumbent Labour MP Steve Chadwick.

Te Tai Tokerau Māori electorate in Northland, New Zealand

Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was held first by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.

Hunua (New Zealand electorate) Former electorate in Auckland, New Zealand

The Hunua electorate existed three times for the New Zealand House of Representatives beginning in 1978, based at the south end of the Auckland urban area, and named for the Hunua Ranges. It covered different geographical areas over those periods. The electorate was last represented by Andrew Bayly of the National Party before its dissolution in 2020.

Hauraki is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1928 to 1987 and 1993 to 1996. In the 1987 general election it was renamed Coromandel, the name that had been used from 1972 to 1981. In 1993 it reverted to Hauraki, but became Coromandel again for the first MMP election in 1996.

Franklin was a rural New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1861 to 1996 during four periods.

Onehunga (New Zealand electorate) Former electorate in Auckland, New Zealand

Onehunga, initially with the formal name of Town of Onehunga, is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the south of the city of Auckland. Between 1861 and 1881, and between 1938 and 1996, it was represented by seven Members of Parliament. It was a stronghold for the Labour Party.

Southern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Eastern Maori, Western Maori and Eastern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Southern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Tonga and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Western Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Northern Maori, Eastern Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Western Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Hauāuru and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Eastern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Northern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Eastern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Rawhiti and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Roskill (New Zealand electorate) Former electorate in Auckland, New Zealand

Roskill was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1919 to 1996. The electorate was represented by eight Members of Parliament.

Papatoetoe (New Zealand electorate) Former electorate in Auckland, New Zealand

Papatoetoe is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, and is part of greater Auckland.

The Northern Maori by-election of 1963 was a by-election for the electorate of Northern Maori on 16 March 1963 during the 33rd New Zealand Parliament. The by-election resulted from the death of the previous member Tapihana Paikea on 7 January 1963.

References