This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Northern China (Chinese :中国北方 or 中国北部; lit. 'China's North') and Southern China (Chinese:中国南方 or 中国南部; lit. 'China's South') are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions is not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of the Chinese nation, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
Often used as the geographical dividing line between northern and southern China is the Qinling–Huaihe Line (lit. Qin Mountains–Huai River Line). This line approximates the 0 °C January isotherm and the 800 millimetres (31 in) isohyet in China.
Culturally, however, the division is more ambiguous. In the eastern provinces like Jiangsu and Anhui, the Yangtze River may instead be perceived as the north–south boundary instead of the Huai River, but this is a recent development.
There is an ambiguous area, the region around Nanyang, Henan, that lies in the gap where the Qin has ended and the Huai River has not yet begun; also, central Anhui and Jiangsu lie south of the Huai River but north of the Yangtze, making their classification somewhat ambiguous as well. As such, the boundary between northern and southern China does not follow provincial boundaries; it cuts through Shaanxi, Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu, and creates areas such as Hanzhong (Shaanxi), Xinyang (Henan), Huaibei (Anhui) and Xuzhou (Jiangsu) that lie on the opposite half of China from the rest of their respective provinces. This may have been deliberate; the Yuan dynasty and Ming dynasty established many of these boundaries intentionally to discourage anti-dynastic regionalism.[ citation needed ]
The Northeast and Inner Mongolia are conceived to belong to northern China according to the framework above. At some times in history, Xinjiang, Tibet and Qinghai were not conceived of as being part of either the north or south. However, internal migration, such as between the Shandong and Liaodong peninsulas during the Chuang Guandong period, have increased the purview of "north" China to include previously marginalized areas.
The concepts of northern and southern China originate from differences in climate, geography, culture, and physical traits; as well as several periods of actual political division in history. Northern and northeastern China is considered too cold and dry for rice cultivation (though rice is grown there today with the aid of modern technology) and consists largely of flat plains, grasslands, and desert; while Southern China is warm and rainy enough for rice and consists of lush mountains cut by river valleys. Historically, these differences have led to differences in warfare during the pre-modern era, as cavalry could easily dominate the northern plains but encountered difficulties against river navies fielded in the south. There are also major differences in cuisine, culture, and popular entertainment forms such as opera.
Episodes of division into North and South include:
The Northern and Southern Dynasties showed such a high level of polarization between North and South that sometimes northerners and southerners referred to each other as barbarians; Yuan subjects were divided into four political status classes. Northerners including Khitans and other ethnic groups occupy the third-caste and southern natives occupying the lowest one.
For a large part of Chinese history, northern China was economically more advanced than southern China [ citation needed ]. The Jurchen and Mongol invasion caused a massive migration to southern China, and the Emperor shifted the Song dynasty capital city from Kaifeng in northern China to Hangzhou, located south of the Yangtze River. The population of Shanghai increased from 12,000 households to over 250,000 inhabitants after Kaifeng was sacked by invading armies. This began a shift of political, economic, and cultural power from northern China to southern China. The east coast of southern China remained a leading economic and cultural center of China until the Republic of China. Today, southern China remains economically more prosperous than northern China.
During the Qing dynasty, regional differences and identification in China fostered the growth of regional stereotypes. Such stereotypes often appeared in historic chronicles and gazetteers and were based on geographic circumstances, historical and literary associations (e.g. people from Shandong, were considered upright and honest) and Chinese cosmology (as the south was associated with the fire element, Southerners were considered hot-tempered).These differences were reflected in Qing dynasty policies, such as the prohibition on local officials to serve their home areas, as well as conduct of personal and commercial relations. In 1730, the Kangxi Emperor made the observation in the Tingxun Geyan (《庭訓格言》):
The people of the North are strong; they must not copy the fancy diets of the Southerners, who are physically frail, live in a different environment, and have different stomachs and bowels.— the Kangxi Emperor, Tingxun Geyan (《庭訓格言》)
During the Republican period, Lu Xun, a major Chinese writer, wrote:
According to my observation, Northerners are sincere and honest; Southerners are skilled and quick-minded. These are their respective virtues. Yet sincerity and honesty lead to stupidity, whereas skillfulness and quick-mindedness lead to duplicity.— Lu Xun, Complete works of Lu Xun (《魯迅全集》), pp. 493–495.
In modern times, North and South are merely one of the ways that Chinese people identify themselves, and the divide between northern and southern China has been complicated both by a unified Chinese nationalism as well as by local loyalties to linguistically and culturally distinct regions within the province, prefecture, county, town and village isolates which prevent a coherent Northern or Southern identity from forming.
During the Deng Xiaoping reforms of the 1980s, South China developed much more quickly than North China, leading some scholars to wonder whether the economic fault line would create political tension between north and south. Some of this was based on the idea that there would be a conflict between the bureaucratic north and the commercial south. This has not occurred to the degree feared, in part because the economic fault lines eventually created divisions between coastal China and the interior, as well as between urban and rural China, which run in different directions from the north-south division, and in part because neither north nor south has any type of obvious advantage within the Chinese central government. Besides, there are other cultural divisions that exist within and across the north–south dichotomy.
Nevertheless, the concepts of North and South continue to play an important role in regional stereotypes.
"Northerners" are seen as:
While "Southerners" are seen as:
These are only rough and approximate stereotypes among a large and greatly varied population.
Hebei is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province. Its capital and largest city is Shijiazhuang. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.
Anhui is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the East China region. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a short section in the north.
Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.
The Subei Mongol Autonomous County is an autonomous county within the prefecture-level city of Jiuquan in the northwest of Gansu Province, China, bordering Xinjiang to the west, Qinghai Province to the southeast and Mongolia's Govi-Altai Province to the north. Containing the northernmost point in Gansu, Subei is split into two non-contiguous sections and has an area of 66,748 km2 (25,772 sq mi) and had approximately 13,046 inhabitants in 2000. To the east it shares a border with Ejin Banner, Alxa League, Inner Mongolia.
Northern Vietnam, Central Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are the three main historic, geographic and cultural regions within Vietnam. Each region consists of subregions, with considerable cultural differences originating from each subregions.
Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County is a county under the jurisdiction of Mianyang City in northern Sichuan province, China. It is located in an ethnically diverse mountainous region of Sichuan. Its Chinese name literally means "North" (bei) "River" (chuan). Its new county seat is located at Yongchang after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
The Yizhuang Line of the Beijing Subway is a rapid transit line that connects the Yizhuang Development Area with Beijing's subway network. The line is 23.23 km (14.43 mi) long with 14 stations, including six underground and eight elevated. It runs from Songjiazhuang in Fengtai District to Yizhuang Railway Station in Tongzhou District and passes through the southern Chaoyang and northern Daxing Districts. Total investment for the line was estimated at ¥1.2 billion. Construction began on December 8, 2007 and the line opened on December 30, 2010.
Zhan Furui is a former National Librarian of China and a literary critic.
Yuanling County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Huaihua Prefecturel-level City.
Chenxi County is a county in Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Huaihua prefecture-level City.
Zhongfang County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Huaihua.
Huitong County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Huaihua Prefecturel-level City.
Mayang is an autonomous county of Miao people in Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Huaihua.
Yao Di, is a female Chinese volleyball player. She is the setter of China women's national volleyball team，and plays for Tianjin Bohai Bank.
Xiao Tian is a former Chinese fencer and sports administrator. He most recently held the post of the Deputy Director of the General Administration of Sport of China. On June 25, 2015, Xiao Tian was investigated by the Communist Party of China's anti-graft agency. He is the first high-ranking implicated official being examined from sports system after the 18th Party Congress in 2012.
Over one hundred officials of provincial-ministerial level and above have been implicated by the anti-corruption campaign in China, which began after the 18th Party Congress in 2012. The number of officials implicated below the provincial level are much higher. The tables on this list includes only officials for which a case has been initiated by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.
The Ministry of Natural Resources is a ministry of the government of the People's Republic of China which is responsible for natural resources in the country. It was formed on 19 March 2018, taking on the responsibilities of the now-defunct Ministry of Land and Resources, State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping and State Oceanic Administration, with additional responsibilities coming from other departments and ministries.
The Tsunami Advisory Center of the Ministry of National Resources is a Chinese administrative agency that aims to mitigate tsunami damage in the coastal areas of China. The agency is also known as the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Committee South China Sea Regional Tsunami Warning Center, which is abbreviated as the South China Sea Tsunami Advisory Center (SCSTAC). It was founded in 2013 and is a subsidiary of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the People's Republic of China and the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center.
Beijing Gymnasium is an indoor arena located in Dongcheng District, Beijing, which consists of a main competition hall, a practice hall, and a swimming pool. Built in 1954 with the aid of Soviet architects, it is the first multi-purpose indoor stadium built after the founding of People's Republic of China. It was the venue for badminton competition of 1990 Asian Games. It has been serving as the Fitness Center of National Sports Training Center since 2009.