Northern pudu

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Northern pudu
Pudu mephistophiles.png
Northern pudu (P. mephistophiles)
CITES Appendix II (CITES) [2]
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Pudella
Species:
P. mephistophiles
Binomial name
Pudella mephistophiles
(de Winton, 1896)
Pudu mephistophiles map.png
Geographic range of Pudu mephistophiles
Synonyms

Pudua mephistophilesde Winton, 1896 [3]

The northern pudu (Pudella mephistophiles, Mapudungun püdü or püdu, [4] Spanish : pudú, Spanish pronunciation: [puˈðu] ) is a species of South American deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador. It is the world's smallest deer [5] and is classified as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List. [1] Originally classified under genus Pudu , some authorities consider it to belong to a separate genus (Pudella) from the southern pudu, along with Pudella carlae . [6]

Contents

Description

The northern pudu is the smallest species of deer in the world, standing 32 to 35 cm (13 to 14 in) tall at the shoulder and weighing 3.3 to 6 kg (7.3 to 13.2 lb). [7] The antlers of the northern pudu grow to about 6 cm (2.4 in) long and curve backward. Its coat tends to be lighter than that of the southern pudu, but the face is darker compared to the coat. [7]

Range and habitat

The northern pudu is found at higher altitudes than its sister species, from 2,000 to 4,000 m (6,600 to 13,100 ft) above sea level. It has a discontinuous range across the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. It inhabits montane forests, high-elevation elfin forests, and humid alpine páramo grasslands above the tree-line. The Marañón dry forests are a gap in the species' range, separating the Ecuadorian population from the Peruvian population in the Peruvian Yungas south of the Marañón River. [1]

Related Research Articles

<i>Pudu</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

The pudus are two species of South American deer from the genus Pudu, and are the world's smallest deer. The chevrotains are smaller, but they are not true deer. The name is a loanword from Mapudungun, the language of the indigenous Mapuche people of central Chile and south-western Argentina. The two species of pudus are the northern pudu from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, and the southern pudu from southern Chile and south-western Argentina. Pudus range in size from 32 to 44 centimeters tall, and up to 85 centimeters (33 in) long. The southern pudu is classified as near threatened, while the northern pudu is classified as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andean emerald</span> Species of hummingbird

The Andean emerald is a species of hummingbird in the "emeralds", tribe Trochilini of subfamily Trochilinae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taruca</span> Species of deer

The taruca, also known as the Peruvian guemal, north Andean deer, north Andean huemul, northern huemul or northern guemal, is a mid sized deer species that inhabits the high regions of the Andes mountains in South America. The common name taruca means "deer" in both the Quechua and Aymara languages, though these are not interrelated. The taruca is closely related to the southern guemal, the only other member of the Hippocamelus genus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Little red brocket</span> Species of deer

The little red brocket or swamp brocket, also known as the Ecuador red brocket, is a small, little-studied deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru, where found in forest and páramo at altitudes between 1,400 and 3,600 metres. It is one of the smallest brocket deer. The coat is reddish, and the legs and crown are blackish. As recently as 1999, some authorities included both the pygmy brocket and Merida brocket as subspecies of the little red brocket.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mountain velvetbreast</span> Species of hummingbird

The mountain velvetbreast is a species of hummingbird in the "brilliants", tribe Heliantheini in subfamily Lesbiinae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">White-sided flowerpiercer</span> Species of bird

The white-sided flowerpiercer is a fairly common and widespread species of Flowerpiercer. Flowerpiercers are a genus of birds within the Tanager family Thraupidae, with specially adapted bills that enable them to pierce the sides of flower blossoms to access the nectar. The white-sided flowerpiercer is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and heavily degraded former forest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yellow-breasted antwren</span> Species of bird

The yellow-breasted antwren is a species of bird in subfamily Thamnophilinae of family Thamnophilidae, the "typical antbirds". It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Foothill stipplethroat</span> Species of bird

The foothill stipplethroat, previously called the foothill antwren, is a species of bird in subfamily Thamnophilinae of family Thamnophilidae, the "typical antbirds". It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiery-throated fruiteater</span> Species of bird

The fiery-throated fruiteater is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is becoming rare due to habitat destruction of its rainforest habitat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black-chested fruiteater</span> Species of bird

The black-chested fruiteater is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, mostly on the eastern side of the Andes. Its natural habitat is subtropical and tropical moist montane forests and the IUCN lists its status as being of "least concern".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flame-faced tanager</span> Species of bird from South America

The flame-faced tanager is a species of bird in the tanager family Thraupidae. It is endemic to South America and is found in the eastern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is a distinctive-looking species with black and opalescent green upperparts, opalescent green and buff underparts, and a deep red and yellow face. The subspecies lunigera lacks the deep red on the face, which is replaced with orangish-red.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Blue-and-black tanager</span> Species of bird from South America

The blue-and-black tanager is a species of bird in the tanager family Thraupidae. It is found in the Andes of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, where it inhabits montane evergreen forest, dwarf forest, and secondary forest at elevations of 1,500–3,500 m (4,900–11,500 ft). It inhabits the highest altitude of any Tangara species, and is the only species from the genus that is found near the tree line. Adults are 13 cm (5.1 in) long and weigh 18 g (0.63 oz) on average, and are mostly blue with black masks, wings, and tails. The species shows slight sexual dimorphism, with females being slightly duller than males.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern slaty antshrike</span> Species of bird

The northern slaty antshrike is a species of bird in the family Thamnophilidae. It previously included the Natterer's slaty antshrike, Bolivian slaty antshrike, Planalto slaty antshrike and Sooretama slaty antshrike as subspecies, in which case the combined species simply was referred to as the slaty antshrike.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lined antshrike</span> Species of bird

The lined antshrike is a species of bird in subfamily Thamnophilinae of family Thamnophilidae, the "typical antbirds". It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Capreolinae</span> Subfamily of mammals

The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in Central Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern pudu</span> Species of small South American deer

The southern pudu is a species of South American deer native to the Valdivian temperate forests of south-central Chile and adjacent Argentina. It is classified as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peruvian Yungas</span> Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Yungas of Peru

The Peruvian Yungas comprise a tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion in Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cordillera Central páramo</span> Ecoregion in the Andes Mountains

The Cordillera Central páramo (NT1004) is an ecoregion containing páramo vegetation above the treeline in the Andes mountain range of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. Due to its isolation there are high levels of endemism. Despite many human settlements and some destruction of habitat by agriculture and mining, the ecoregion is relatively intact.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marañón white-fronted capuchin</span> Species of New World monkey

The Marañón white-fronted capuchin also or known as Peruvian white-fronted capuchin or Andean white-fronted capuchin is a species of gracile capuchin monkey from the upper Amazon Basin. It had been regarded as synonymous with the shock-headed capuchin, which was then considered a subspecies of Humboldt's white-fronted capuchin, but it was classified as a separate species by Mittermeier and Rylands based on genetic studies by Boubli.

Pudella carlae, the Peruvian Yungas pudu, is a species of cervid from Peru. It was found in 2024 to be a distinct species from the northern pudu, from which it is separated geographically by the Huancabamba Depression. It is the first extant cervid species to be described in the 21st century.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Barrio, J.; Tirira, D.G. (2019). "Pudu mephistophiles". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2019: e.T18847A22163836. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T18847A22163836.en . Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  3. de Winton, W. E. (1896). "On some Mammals from Ecuador". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 64 (2): 507–513 [508]. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1896.tb03055.x.
  4. Muñoz Urrutia, Rafael, ed. (2006). Diccionario Mapuche: Mapudungun/Español, Español/Mapudungun (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Centro Gráfico Ltda. p. 184. ISBN   956-8287-99-X.
  5. "Southern Pudu". Animal Planet. 2009. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
  6. Javier Barrio; Eliécer E Gutiérrez; Guillermo D’Elía (2024). "The First living cervid Species described in the 21st Century and Revalidation of Pudella (Artiodactyla)". Journal of Mammalogy. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyae012.
  7. 1 2 Geist, Valerius (September 1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. pp. 119–121. ISBN   978-0-8117-0496-0.