Northern pudu

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Northern pudu
Pudu mephistophiles.png
Northern pudu (P. mephistophiles)
CITES Appendix II (CITES) [2]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Pudu
Species:
P. mephistophiles
Binomial name
Pudu mephistophiles
(de Winton, 1896)
Pudu mephistophiles map.png
Geographic range of Pudu mephistophiles
Synonyms

Pudua mephistophilesde Winton, 1896 [3]

The northern pudu (Pudu mephistophiles, Mapudungun püdü or püdu, [4] Spanish : pudú, Spanish pronunciation:  [puˈðu] ) is a species of South American deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador. It is the world's smallest deer [5] and is classified as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List. [1]

Contents

Description

The northern pudu is the smallest species of deer in the world, standing 32 to 35 cm (13 to 14 in) tall at the shoulder and weighing 3.3 to 6 kg (7.3 to 13.2 lb). [6] The antlers of the northern pudu grow to about 6 cm (2.4 in) long and curve backward. Its coat tends to be lighter than that of the southern pudu, but the face is darker compared to the coat. [6]

Range and habitat

The northern pudu is found at higher altitudes than its sister species, from 2,000 to 4,000 m (6,600 to 13,100 ft) above sea level. It has a discontinuous range across the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. It inhabits montane forests, high-elevation elfin forests, and humid alpine páramo grasslands above the tree-line. The Marañón dry forests are a gap in the species' range, separating the Ecuadorian population from the Peruvian population in the Peruvian Yungas south of the Marañón River. [1]

Related Research Articles

<i>Pudu</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

The pudus are two species of South American deer from the genus Pudu, and are the world's smallest deer. The chevrotains are smaller, but they are not true deer. The name is a loanword from Mapudungun, the language of the indigenous Mapuche people of central Chile and south-western Argentina. The two species of pudus are the northern pudu from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, and the southern pudu from southern Chile and south-western Argentina. Pudus range in size from 32 to 44 centimeters tall, and up to 85 centimeters (33 in) long. The southern pudu is classified as near threatened, while the northern pudu is classified as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andean cock-of-the-rock</span> Species of bird

The Andean cock-of-the-rock, also known as tunki (Quechua), is a large passerine bird of the cotinga family native to Andean cloud forests in South America. It is widely regarded as the national bird of Peru. It has four subspecies and its closest relative is the Guianan cock-of-the-rock.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Little red brocket</span> Species of deer

The little red brocket or swamp brocket, also known as the Ecuador red brocket, is a small, little-studied deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru, where found in forest and páramo at altitudes between 1,400 and 3,600 metres. It is one of the smallest brocket deer. The coat is reddish, and the legs and crown are blackish. As recently as 1999, some authorities included both the pygmy brocket and Merida brocket as subspecies of the little red brocket.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mountain velvetbreast</span> Species of hummingbird

The mountain velvetbreast is a species of hummingbird in the "brilliants", tribe Heliantheini in subfamily Lesbiinae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black-throated hermit</span> Species of hummingbird

The black-throated hermit is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grey-chinned hermit</span> Species of hummingbird

The grey-chinned hermit is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chestnut-crowned gnateater</span> Species of bird

The chestnut-crowned gnateater is a species of bird in the family Conopophagidae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Violaceous jay</span> Species of bird

The violaceous jay is a species of bird in the family Corvidae, the crows and their allies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">White-sided flowerpiercer</span> Species of bird

The white-sided flowerpiercer is a fairly common and widespread species of Flowerpiercer. Flowerpiercers are a genus of birds within the Tanager family Thraupidae, with specially adapted bills that enable them to pierce the sides of flower blossoms to access the nectar. The white-sided flowerpiercer is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and heavily degraded former forest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiery-throated fruiteater</span> Species of bird

The fiery-throated fruiteater is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is becoming rare due to habitat destruction of its rainforest habitat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black-chested fruiteater</span> Species of bird

The black-chested fruiteater is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, mostly on the eastern side of the Andes. Its natural habitat is subtropical and tropical moist montane forests and the IUCN lists its status as being of "least concern".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern slaty antshrike</span> Species of bird

The northern slaty antshrike is a species of bird in the family Thamnophilidae. It previously included the Natterer's slaty antshrike, Bolivian slaty antshrike, Planalto slaty antshrike and Sooretama slaty antshrike as subspecies, in which case the combined species simply was referred to as the slaty antshrike.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Speckle-breasted wren</span> Species of bird

The speckle-breasted wren is a species of bird in the family Troglodytidae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crested quetzal</span> Species of bird

The crested quetzal /ketSAHL/ is a species of bird in the family Trogonidae native to South America, where it is found in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Capreolinae</span> Subfamily of mammals

The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in Central Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Podocarpus National Park</span> Region of southeastern Ecuador intersecting the Andes and Amazon

Podocarpus National Park is a national park located in the provinces of Zamora Chinchipe and Loja, in the south-east of Ecuador. It was created in 1982.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern pudu</span> Species of small South American deer

The southern pudu is a species of South American deer native to the Andes of Chile and Argentina. It is found in high-altitude forests and is classified as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peruvian Yungas</span> Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Yungas of Peru

The Peruvian Yungas is a tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Yungas of Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cordillera Central páramo</span> Ecoregion in the Andes Mountains

The Cordillera Central páramo (NT1004) is an ecoregion containing páramo vegetation above the treeline in the Andes mountain range of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. Due to its isolation there are high levels of endemism. Despite many human settlements and some destruction of habitat by agriculture and mining, the ecoregion is relatively intact.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eastern Cordillera Real montane forests</span>

The Eastern Cordillera Real montane forests (NT0121) is an ecoregion in the eastern range of the Andes of southern Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. The ecoregion covers the eastern slopes of the Andes, and includes montane forest that rises from the Amazonian rain forest, with cloud forest and elfin forest at higher elevations. It is rich in species, including many endemics. It is threatened by logging and conversion for pasturage and subsistence agriculture.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Barrio, J.; Tirira, D.G. (2019). "Pudu mephistophiles". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2019: e.T18847A22163836. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T18847A22163836.en . Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  3. de Winton, W. E. (1896). "On some Mammals from Ecuador". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 64 (2): 507–513 [508]. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1896.tb03055.x.
  4. Muñoz Urrutia, Rafael, ed. (2006). Diccionario Mapuche: Mapudungun/Español, Español/Mapudungun (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Centro Gráfico Ltda. p. 184. ISBN   956-8287-99-X.
  5. "Southern Pudu". Animal Planet. 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. 1 2 Geist, Valerius (September 1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. pp. 119–121. ISBN   978-0-8117-0496-0.