Northumberland

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Northumberland
Northumberland UK locator map 2010.svg
Coordinates: 55°10′N2°00′W / 55.167°N 2.000°W / 55.167; -2.000 Coordinates: 55°10′N2°00′W / 55.167°N 2.000°W / 55.167; -2.000
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North East
Established Ancient
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Northumbria Police
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland
High Sheriff Thomas Fairfax of Mindrum [1] (2020–21)
Area5,013 km2 (1,936 sq mi)
  Ranked 6th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)320,274
  Ranked 44th of 48
Density64/km2 (170/sq mi)
Ethnicity95.4% White British
Unitary authority
Council Northumberland County Council
Executive Conservative (council NOC)
Admin HQ Morpeth
Area5,014 km2 (1,936 sq mi)
  Ranked 1st of 326
Population322,434
  Ranked 36th of 326
Density64/km2 (170/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 GB-NBL
ONS code 00EM
GSS code E06000057
NUTS UKC21
Website www.northumberland.gov.uk

Northumberland ( /nɔːrˈθʌmbərlənd/ [2] ) is a unitary authority and historic county in North East England, the northernmost county of England. The unitary authority borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a path 103 kilometres (64 mi) long. [3] The county town is Alnwick, [4] although the county council is based in Morpeth. [5]

Contents

The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. [6] Northumberland expanded greatly in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. [7] Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. [8] Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972.

Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now largely protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.

Etymology

Northumberland originally meant 'the land of the people living north of the Humber' as opposed to the specific current land upon the Tyne. [9] The present county is an anachronism, a calque of the former kingdom of Northumbria, "-ia" is commonly translated from Latin to "-land" in English. The suffixes, of which are reversed for the area of East Anglia and country of England, are both in common usage in English for naming differentiation when they are from the same route meaning.

History

Long Crag summit Long Crag summit.jpg
Long Crag summit

The land has long been a frontier zone, with it being currently border for England and Scotland. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, and stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south.

During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall. It was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium (Melrose). As evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, [10] including those at Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth.

An early mention of Northumberland as nord hymbra land "north of Humber land" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - nord hymbra land.jpg
An early mention of Northumberland as norð hẏmbra land "north of Humber land" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Later, the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia (from about 547), which united with Deira (south of the River Tees) to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin (reigned 616–633) stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts gradually reclaimed the land previously invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth (including Lothian that contains present-day Edinburgh), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland.

Northumberland is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in England because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria (reigned 634–642) invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels (around 700). It became the home of St Cuthbert (about 634–687, abbot from about 665), who is buried in Durham Cathedral.

Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century.

The Earldom of Northumberland was briefly held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York (1237). The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions.

Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North (1569–1570) against Elizabeth I of England. These revolts were usually led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur (1364–1403), the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1 . The Percys were often aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles by the victorious Parliamentarians after the English Civil War of 1642–1651.

After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where outlaws and Border Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603. [11]

Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1970s and 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Bedlington, Blyth, Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and Pegswood. The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s.

Northumberland remains largely rural, and is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its scenic beauty and its historical sites.

Archaeology

Nearly 2000-year-old Roman boxing gloves were uncovered at Vindolanda in 2017 by the Vidolanda Trust experts led by Dr Andrew Birley. According to the Guardian, being similar in style and function to the full-hand modern boxing gloves, these two gloves found at Vindolanda look like leather bands date back to 120 AD. It is suggested that, based on their difference from gladiator gloves, warriors using this type of gloves had no purpose to kill each other, and that the gloves probably were used in a sport for promoting fighting skills. The gloves are currently displayed at Vindolanda's museum. [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

Physical geography

Physical geography of Northumberland and surrounding areas ShepherdPhysical1926Northumberland.png
Physical geography of Northumberland and surrounding areas
N NE England SRTM.png

Northumberland has a diverse physical geography. It is low and flat near the North Sea coast and increasingly mountainous toward the northwest. Being in the far north of England, above 55° latitude, and having many areas of high land, Northumberland is one of the coldest areas of the country. However, the county lies on the east coast, and has relatively low rainfall, with the highest amounts falling on the high land in the west. [21]

Approximately a quarter of the county is protected as the Northumberland National Park, an area of outstanding landscape that has largely been protected from development and agriculture. The park stretches south from the Scottish border and includes Hadrian's Wall. Most of the park is over 240 metres (790 feet) above sea level. The Northumberland Coast is also a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). A small part of the North Pennines AONB is also in the county.

Natural England recognises the following natural regions, or national character areas, that lie wholly or partially within Northumberland: [22]

Geology

River Coquet Rothbury, Northumberland.jpg
River Coquet

The Cheviot Hills, in the northwest of the county, consist mainly of resistant Devonian granite and andesite lava. A second area of igneous rock underlies the Whin Sill (on which Hadrian's Wall runs), an intrusion of Carboniferous dolerite. Both ridges support a rather bare moorland landscape. Either side of the Whin Sill the county lies on Carboniferous Limestone, giving some areas of karst landscape. [23] Lying off the coast of Northumberland are the Farne Islands, another dolerite outcrop, famous for their bird life.

There are coalfields in the southeast corner of the county, extending along the coastal region north of the river Tyne. The term 'sea coal' likely originated from chunks of coal, found washed up on beaches, that wave action had broken from coastal outcroppings.

Ecology and environment

There is a variety of notable habitats and species in Northumberland including: Chillingham Cattle herd; Holy Island; Farne Islands; and Staple Island. Moreover, 50% of England's red squirrel population lives in the Kielder Water and Forest Park along with a large variety of other species including roe deer and wildfowl.[ citation needed ]

Green belt

Northumberland's green belt is in the south of the county, surrounding Cramlington and other communities along the county border, to afford a protection from the Tyneside conurbation. The belt continues west along the border, past Darras Hall, and on to Hexham, stopping before Haydon Bridge. Its border there is shared with the North Pennines AONB. There are also some separated belt areas, for example to the east of Morpeth. The green belt was first drawn up in the 1950s.

Economy and industry

Housedon Hill Housedon hill.jpg
Housedon Hill

Northumberland's industry is dominated by some multi-national corporations: Coca-Cola, MSD, GE and Drager all have significant facilities in the region. [24]

Tourism is a major source of employment and income in Northumberland. In the early 2000s the county annually received 1.1 million British visitors and 50,000 foreign tourists, who spent a total of £162 million.

Coal mining in the county goes back to Tudor times. Coal mines continue to operate today; many of them are open-cast mines. Planning approval was given in January 2014 for an open-cast mine at Halton Lea Gate near Lambley. [25]

A major employer in Northumberland is Hexham-based Egger (UK) Limited. [26] [27]

Pharmaceuticals, healthcare and biotechnology

Pharmaceutical, healthcare and emerging medical biotechnology companies form a very significant part of the county's economy. [28] Many of these companies are part of the approximately 11,000-worker [29] Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC) and include Aesica Pharmaceuticals, [30] Arcinova, MSD, Piramal Healthcare, Procter & Gamble, Shire Plc (formerly SCM Pharma), [31] Shasun Pharma Solutions, [32] Specials Laboratory, [33] and Thermo Fisher Scientific. The cluster also includes Cambridge Bioresearch, GlaxoSmithKline, Fujifilm Dyosynth Biotech, Leica Bio, Data Trial, High Force Research, Non-Linear Dynamics, and Immuno Diagnostic Systems (IDS). The towns of Alnwick, Cramlington, Morpeth, Prudhoe all have significant pharmaceutical factories and laboratories. [34]

Newcastle University and Northumbria University are the leading academic institutions nearby. The local industry includes commercial or academic activity in pre-clinical research and development, clinical research and development, pilot-scale manufacturing, full-scale active pharmaceutical ingredient/intermediate manufacturing, formulation, packaging, and distribution. [35]

Education

Northumberland has a completely comprehensive education system, with 15 state schools, two academies and one independent school. Like Bedfordshire, it embraced the comprehensive ideal with the three-tier system of lower/middle/upper schools with large school year sizes (often around 300). This eliminated choice of school in most areas: instead of having two secondary schools in one town, one school became a middle school and another became an upper school. A programme introduced in 2006 known as Putting the Learner First has eliminated this structure in the former areas of Blyth Valley and Wansbeck, where two-tier education has been introduced. Although the two processes are not officially connected, the introduction of two tiers has coincided with the move to build academy schools in Blyth, with Bede Academy and in Ashington at Hirst. One response to these changes has been the decision of Ponteland High School to apply for Trust status.

Cramlington Learning Village has almost 400 pupils in each school year, making it one of the largest schools in England. The Blyth Academy in southeast Northumberland can hold 1,500 students throughout the building. Astley Community High School in Seaton Delaval, which accepts students from Seaton Delaval, Seaton Sluice and Blyth, has been the subject of controversial remarks from politicians claiming it would no longer be viable once Bede Academy opened in Blyth, a claim strongly disputed by the headteacher. Haydon Bridge High School, in rural Northumberland, is claimed to have the largest catchment area of any school in England, reputedly covering an area larger than that encompassed by the M25 motorway around London.

The county of Northumberland is served by one Catholic high school, St Benet Biscop Catholic Academy in Bedlington, which is attended by students from all over the area. Students from Northumberland also attend independent schools such as the Royal Grammar School in Newcastle.

Demographics

At the Census 2001 Northumberland registered a population of 307,190, [36] estimated to be 309,237 in 2003, [37] The 2011 census gave a population of 316,028. [38]

In 2001 there were 130,780 households, 10% of which were all retired, and one third were rented. Northumberland has an ethnic minority population at 0.985% of the population, compared to 9.1% for England as a whole. In the 2001 census, 81% of the population reported their religion as Christianity, 0.8% as "other religion", and 12% as having no religion. [39]

Being primarily rural with significant areas of upland, the population density of Northumberland is only 62 persons per square kilometre, giving it the lowest population density in England.

Politics

Northumberland County Council

Northumberland is a unitary authority area and is the largest unitary area in England. The County Council is based in Morpeth.

Like most English shire counties Northumberland had until April 2009 a two-tier system of local government, with one county council and six districts, each with their own district council, responsible for different aspects of local government. These districts were Blyth Valley, Wansbeck, Castle Morpeth, Tynedale, Alnwick and Berwick-upon-Tweed. The districts were abolished on 1 April 2009, the county council becoming a unitary authority.

Elections for the new unitary authority council first took place on 1 May 2008. The County Council elections in 2017 returned the following results:

County Council Election 2017: Northumberland
ConservativesLabourLiberal DemocratsIndependentsUKIPGreenTurnout
44,38727,12212,15011,5923,1142,270100,635
Overall Council seats as of 2017
ConservativeLabourIndependentsLibDemUKIPGreenTotal
33 (Increase2.svg12)24 (Decrease2.svg8)7 (Increase2.svg4)3 (Decrease2.svg8)0 (Steady2.svg)0 (Steady2.svg)47

Northumberland County Council composition.svg

House of Commons

Northumberland is represented by four UK Parliamentary constituencies: Berwick-upon-Tweed, Blyth Valley, Wansbeck and Hexham. The 2019 General Election produced the following results:

General Election 2019 : Northumberland
Liberal DemocratsLabourConservativeChristian Peoples AllianceGreenBrexitTurnout
17018

+ 855

57567
- 16665
83663
+ 6764
178

did not stand in 2017 election

3,673
- 3,167
6535

new party

103677
Overall numbers of seats as of 2019
LabourConservative
1

Ian Lavery

3

Anne-Marie Trevelyan

Guy Opperman

Ian Levy

2016 European Union Referendum

On 23 June 2016, Northumberland took part in the UK-wide referendum on the UK's membership of the EU. In Northumberland a majority voted to leave the European Union. At Westminster constituency level the only area in Northumberland to vote Remain was Hexham.

EU Referendum 2016 : Northumberland
LeaveRemainMajorityTurnout
96,699

54.11%

82,022

45.89%

14,677

8.22%

178,721

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results (North East England).svg

Culture

Northumberland has traditions not found elsewhere in England. These include the rapper sword dance, the clog dance and the Northumbrian smallpipe, a sweet chamber instrument, quite unlike the Scottish bagpipe. Northumberland also has its own tartan or check, sometimes referred to in Scotland as the Shepherd's Tartan. Traditional Northumberland music has more similarity to Lowland Scottish and Irish music than it does to that of other parts of England, reflecting the strong historical links between Northumbria and the Lowlands of Scotland, and the large Irish population on Tyneside.

The border ballads of the region have been famous since late mediaeval times. Thomas Percy, whose celebrated Reliques of Ancient English Poetry appeared in 1765, states that most of the minstrels who sang the border ballads in London and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries belonged to the North. The activities of Sir Walter Scott and others in the 19th century gave the ballads an even wider popularity. William Morris considered them to be the greatest poems in the language, while Algernon Charles Swinburne knew virtually all of them by heart.

One of the best-known is the stirring "Chevy Chase", which tells of the Earl of Northumberland's vow to hunt for three days across the Border "maugre the doughty Douglas". Of it, the Elizabethan courtier, soldier and poet Sir Philip Sidney famously said, "I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet". Ben Jonson said that he would give all his works to have written "Chevy Chase".

Overall the culture of Northumberland, as with the North East of England in general, has much more in common with Scottish Lowland culture than with that of Southern England. One reason is that both regions have their cultural origins in the old Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, a fact borne out by the linguistic links between the two regions. These include many Old English words not found in other forms of Modern English, such as bairn for child (see Scots language and Northumbrian dialect). [40] [41] The other reason for the close cultural links is the clear pattern of net southward migration. There are more Scots in England than English people north of the border. Much of this movement is cross-county rather than distant migration, and the incomers thus bring aspects of their culture as well as reinforce shared cultural traits from both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border.

Whatever the case, the lands just north or south of the border have long shared certain aspects of history and heritage; it is thus thought by some that the Anglo-Scottish border is largely political rather than cultural. [41] [42]

Attempts to raise the level of awareness of Northumberland culture have also started, with the formation of a Northumbrian Language Society to preserve the unique dialects (Pitmatic and other Northumbrian dialects) of this region, as well as to promote home-grown talent. [40] [41]

Northumberland's county flower is the bloody cranesbill ( Geranium sanguineum ) and her affiliated Royal Navy ship is her namesake, HMS Northumberland.

Flag

Northumberland flag Flag of Northumberland.svg
Northumberland flag

Northumberland has its own flag, which is a banner of the arms of Northumberland County Council. The shield of arms is in turn based on the arms medieval heralds had attributed to the Kingdom of Bernicia (which the first County Council used until it was granted its own arms). The Bernician arms were fictional but inspired by Bede's brief description of a flag used on the tomb of St Oswald in the 7th century. [43]

The current arms were granted to the county council in 1951, and adopted as the flag of Northumberland in 1995. [44]

Media

Having no large population centres, the county's mainstream media outlets are served from nearby Tyne and Wear, including radio stations and television channels (such as BBC Look North, BBC Radio Newcastle, Tyne Tees Television and Metro Radio), along with the majority of daily newspapers covering the area ( The Journal , Evening Chronicle ). It is worth remembering however that although Northumberland, like many administrative areas in England, has been shorn of its geographical regional centre, that centre—Newcastle upon Tyne—remains an essential element within the entity we know as Northumberland. Newcastle's newspapers are as widely read in its Northumbrian hinterland as any of those of the wider county: the Northumberland Gazette , Morpeth Herald , Berwick Advertiser , Hexham Courant and the News Post Leader .

Lionheart Radio, a community radio station based in Alnwick, has recently[ when? ] been awarded a five-year community broadcasting licence by Ofcom. Radio Borders covers Berwick and the rural north of the county.

Notable people

George Stephenson was born in Northumberland GeorgeStephenson.PNG
George Stephenson was born in Northumberland

Born in Northumberland

Ashington was the birthplace of three famous footballers: Bobby and Jack Charlton, born in 1937 and 1935 respectively, and Jackie Milburn, born in 1924. In 1978 the international cricketer Steve Harmison was born here.

Mickley was the birthplace of Thomas Bewick, an artist, wood engraver and naturalist in 1753 and Bob Stokoe, a footballer and F.A. Cup-winning manager (with Sunderland in 1973), born 1930.

Other notable births include:

Linked with Northumberland

Algernon Charles Swinburne, the poet, was raised in Northumberland Algernon Charles Swinburne sketch.jpg
Algernon Charles Swinburne, the poet, was raised in Northumberland

The site contains exhaustive detailed entries for notable deceased Northumbrians.

Settlements

Parishes

NOTE: New parishes have been added since 2001. These are missing from the list.

Parishes of Northumberland [46]
NamePopulation (2001)Former district/borough
Acklington 467 Alnwick
Acomb 1,184 Tynedale
Adderstone with Lucker 195 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Akeld 82 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Allendale 2,120 Tynedale
Alnham 99 Alnwick
Alnmouth 562 Alnwick
Alnwick 7,767 Alnwick
Alwinton 71 Alnwick
Amble 6,044 Alnwick
Ancroft 885 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Bamburgh 454 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Bardon Mill 364 Tynedale
Bavington 99 Tynedale
Beadnell 528 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Belford 1,055 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Belsay 436 Castle Morpeth
Bewick 69 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Biddlestone 88 Alnwick
Bowsden 157 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Branxton 121 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Brinkburn 200 Alnwick
Callaly 150 Alnwick
Capheaton 160 Castle Morpeth
Carham 347 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Cartington 97 Alnwick
Chatton 438 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Cornhill-on-Tweed 318 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Craster 342 Alnwick
Cresswell 237 Castle Morpeth
Denwick 266 Alnwick
Doddington 146 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Earle 89 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Easington 139 Berwick-upon-Tweed
East Chevington 3,192 Castle Morpeth
Edlingham 196 Alnwick
Eglingham 357 Alnwick
Ellingham 282 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ellington and Linton 2,678 Castle Morpeth
Elsdon 205 Alnwick
Embleton 699 Alnwick
Ewart 72 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Felton 958 Alnwick
Ford 487 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Glanton 222 Alnwick
Harbottle 235 Alnwick
Hartburn 198 Castle Morpeth
Hauxley 220 Alnwick
Haydon Bridge 2,184 Tynedale
Hebron 679 Castle Morpeth
Heddon-on-the-Wall 1,518 Castle Morpeth
Hedgeley 322 Alnwick
Hepple 139 Alnwick
Hepscott 898 Castle Morpeth
Hesleyhurst 30 Alnwick
Hexham 11,829 Tynedale
Hollinghill 90 Alnwick
Holy Island 162 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Horncliffe 374 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ilderton 94 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ingram 148 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kilham 131 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kirknewton 108 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kyloe 323 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Lesbury 871 Alnwick
Lilburn 106 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Longframlington 979 Alnwick
Longhirst 446 Castle Morpeth
Longhorsley 798 Castle Morpeth
Longhoughton 1,442 Alnwick
Lowick 559 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Lynemouth 1,832 Castle Morpeth
Matfen 495 Castle Morpeth
Meldon 162 Castle Morpeth
Middleton 136 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Milfield 243 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Mitford 431 Castle Morpeth
Morpeth 13,833 Castle Morpeth
Netherton 194 Alnwick
Netherwitton 272 Castle Morpeth
Newton-by-the-Sea 242 Alnwick
Newton on the Moor and Swarland 822 Alnwick
Norham 536 Berwick-upon-Tweed
North Sunderland 1,803 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Nunnykirk 138 Alnwick
Ord, Northumberland 1,365 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Pegswood 3,174 Castle Morpeth
Ponteland 10,871 Castle Morpeth
Prudhoe 11,500 Tynedale
Rennington 305 Alnwick
Roddam 77 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Rothbury 1,740 Alnwick
Rothley 136 Alnwick
Shilbottle 1,349 Alnwick
Shoreswood 163 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Snitter 114 Alnwick
Stamfordham 1,047 Castle Morpeth
Stannington 1,219 Castle Morpeth
Thirston 510 Castle Morpeth
Thropton 409 Alnwick
Togston 340 Alnwick
Tritlington and West Chevington 218 Castle Morpeth
Ulgham 365 Castle Morpeth
Wallington Demesne 361 Castle Morpeth
Warkworth 1,493 Alnwick
Whalton 427 Castle Morpeth
Whittingham 406 Alnwick
Whitton and Tosson 223 Alnwick
Widdrington 158 Castle Morpeth
Widdrington Station and Stobswood 2,386 Castle Morpeth
Wooler 1,857 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Although not on this list, the population of Cramlington is estimated at 39,000.

Historic areas

Some settlements that is part historic county of Northumberland now fall under the county of Tyne and Wear:

Tyne and Wear Killingworth, Longbenton, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay

See also

Notes and references

  1. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. "Northumberland definition and meaning - Collins English Dictionary". Collinsdictionary.com.
  3. "Northumberland Coast Path – LDWA Long Distance Paths". Ldwa.org.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  4. "Alnwick". Northumberland County Council. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  5. Northumberland County Hall moved from Newcastle upon Tyne to Morpeth on 21 April 1981 (see notice in "No. 48579". The London Gazette . 10 April 1981. p. 5337.)
  6. "History of Newcastle upon Tyne" (PDF). Local Studies Factsheet No. 6. Newcastle City Council. 2009. p. 2. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  7. Daniell, Christopher (2013). "Tudor Expansion of the County of Northumberland". Atlas of Early Modern Britain, 1485–1715. London: Routledge. p. 5. ISBN   978-0415729246.
  8. "The palatinate of Durham". Durham University Library Special Collections Catalogue. Durham University. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  9. Place Name Meanings: "K to O" [ permanent dead link ], England's Northeast
  10. Long, B. (1967). Castles of Northumberland. Newcastle, UK: Harold Hill.
  11. Adams, Sharon; Goodare, Julian (2014). Scotland in the Age of Two Revolutions. Woodbridge: Boydell. pp. 38–39. ISBN   9781843839392.
  12. McDermott, Alicia. "Heavy Hitters: 2,000-Year-Old Boxing Gloves Suggest Roman Soldiers Used to Duke It Out". www.ancient-origins.net. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  13. Alberge, Dalya (19 February 2018). "Rare Roman boxing gloves found near Hadrian's Wall". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  14. Traverso, Vittoria (20 February 2018). "Found: A Pair of Boxing Gloves From 2,000 Years Ago". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  15. EST, Sydney Pereira on 2/20/18 at 3:04 PM (20 February 2018). "2,000-year-old Roman boxing gloves were discovered in England". Newsweek. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  16. "1,900-Year-Old Boxing 'Gloves' Unearthed at Vindolanda | Archaeology | Sci-News.com". Breaking Science News | Sci-News.com. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  17. Taylor, Tom (20 February 2018). "PHOTO | Beautifully preserved Ancient Roman boxing gloves unearthed in UK | BJPenn.com". | BJPenn.com. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  18. Gibbons, Duncan (20 February 2018). ""Astonishing" Roman boxing gloves found near Hadrian's Wall". coventrytelegraph. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  19. "Pair of ancient Roman boxing gloves unearthed - Unexplained Mysteries". www.unexplained-mysteries.com. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  20. Henderson, Tony (20 February 2018). "Knock out as Roman boxing gloves are discovered in North East". nechronicle. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  21. Met Office, 2000. "Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom."
  22. "National Character Area profiles: data for local decision making". Gov.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  23. Northumberland National Park Authority, n.d. "The topology and climate of Northumberland National Park."
  24. "The leading companies shaping Northumberland's business landscape". Arch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  25. Hexham Courant 10 January 2014 'Villagers admit defeat after 15 years battling opencast'
  26. "Major Hexham employer Egger UK". Chroniclelive.co.uk.
  27. "Hexham employer Egger UK posts rise". Chroniclelive.co.uk.
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