Northumberland

Last updated

Northumberland
Northumberland UK locator map 2010.svg
Coordinates: 55°10′N2°00′W / 55.167°N 2.000°W / 55.167; -2.000 Coordinates: 55°10′N2°00′W / 55.167°N 2.000°W / 55.167; -2.000
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North East
Established Ancient
12th century
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Northumbria Police
Largest town Blyth
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland
High Sheriff Colonel James Royds [1] (2022-23)
Area5,013 km2 (1,936 sq mi)
  Ranked 6th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)320,274
  Ranked 44th of 48
Density64/km2 (170/sq mi)
Ethnicity95.4% White British

At the 2001 UK Census Northumberland registered a population of 307,190, [26] estimated to be 309,237 in 2003, [27] The 2011 UK Census gave a population of 316,028. [28]

In 2001, there were 130,780 households, 10% of the population were retired, and one-third rented their homes. Northumberland has an ethnic minority population at 0.985% of the population, far lower compared to the average of 9.1% for England as a whole. In the 2001 UK Census, 81% of the population reported their religion as Christianity, 0.8% as "other religion", and 12% as having no religion. [29]

Being primarily rural with significant areas of upland, the population density of Northumberland is only 62 persons per square kilometre, giving it the lowest population density in England.

Politics

County town

The historic county town was Alnwick, assizes were mainly held in Newcastle with the county gaol in Morpeth. [30] Newcastle became a city in 1400, with county corporate status, with both areas having joint assizes.

From the county council's forming in 1889 until 1981, Newcastle was the county town, being the temporary county town of two counties when the city became a part of the Tyne and Wear metropolitan county in 1974. [31] The county council has been governed from Morpeth since 1981. in 2009 the administration restructured into a unitary authority called Northumberland Council. Since 2019, North of Tyne Combined Authority and its elected mayor recreated Newcastle's overall governance of the historic county area; North Tyneside, Newcastle and the Northumberland district.

Council

The county hall County Hall, Morpeth (geograph 4464710).jpg
The county hall

Unitary authority of Northumberland Council, reformed in April 2009, had a two-tier council system for the county and its six districts, both responsible for different aspects of local government. These districts were Blyth Valley, Wansbeck, Castle Morpeth, Tynedale, Alnwick and Berwick-upon-Tweed.

Elections for the, then to be reformed, unitary authority council first took place on 1 May 2008. The latest elections in 2021 returned the following results:

County Council Election 2021: Northumberland
ConservativesLabourLiberal DemocratsIndependentsUKIPGreenTurnout
47,64531,0388,5499,063N/A5,285104,188
Overall Council seats as of 2021
ConservativeLabourIndependentsLibDemUKIPGreenTotal
34 (Increase2.svg1)21 (Decrease2.svg3)7 (Increase2.svg0)3 (Decrease2.svg0)0 (Steady2.svg)2 (Steady2.svg)47

Constituencies

Northumberland is represented by four UK Parliamentary constituencies: Berwick-upon-Tweed, Blyth Valley, Wansbeck and Hexham. The 2019 General Election produced the following results:

General Election 2019 : Northumberland
Liberal DemocratsLabourConservativeChristian Peoples AllianceGreenBrexitTurnout
17018

+ 855

57567
- 16665
83663
+ 6764
178

did not stand in 2017 election

3,673
- 3,167
6535

new party

103677
Overall numbers of seats as of 2019
LabourConservative
1

Ian Lavery

3

Anne-Marie Trevelyan

Guy Opperman

Ian Levy

2016 European Union Referendum

On 23 June 2016, Northumberland took part in the UK-wide referendum on the UK's membership of the EU. In Northumberland a majority voted to leave the European Union. At Westminster constituency level the only area in Northumberland to vote Remain was Hexham.

EU Referendum 2016 : Northumberland
LeaveRemainMajorityTurnout
96,699

54.11%

82,022

45.89%

14,677

8.22%

178,721

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results (North East England).svg

Culture

Northumberland has traditions not found elsewhere in England. These include the rapper sword dance, the clog dance and the Northumbrian smallpipe, a sweet chamber instrument, quite unlike the Scottish bagpipe. Northumberland also has its own tartan or check, sometimes referred to in Scotland as the Shepherd's Tartan. Traditional Northumbrian music has more similarity to Lowland Scottish and Irish music than it does to that of other parts of England, reflecting the strong historical links between Northumbria and the Lowlands of Scotland, and the large Irish population on Tyneside.

The border ballads of the region have been famous since late mediaeval times. Thomas Percy, whose celebrated Reliques of Ancient English Poetry appeared in 1765, states that most of the minstrels who sang the border ballads in London and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries belonged to the North. The activities of Sir Walter Scott and others in the 19th century gave the ballads an even wider popularity. William Morris considered them to be the greatest poems in the language, while Algernon Charles Swinburne knew virtually all of them by heart.

One of the best-known is the stirring "Chevy Chase", which tells of the Earl of Northumberland's vow to hunt for three days across the Border "maugre the doughty Douglas". Of it, the Elizabethan courtier, soldier and poet Sir Philip Sidney famously said, "I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet". Ben Jonson said that he would give all his works to have written "Chevy Chase".

Overall the culture of Northumberland, as with the North East of England in general, has much more in common with Scottish Lowland culture than with that of Southern England. One reason is that both regions have their cultural origins in the old Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, a fact borne out by the linguistic links between the two regions. These include many Old English words not found in other forms of Modern English, such as bairn for child (see Scots language and Northumbrian dialect). [32] [33]

Whatever the case, the lands just north or south of the border have long shared certain aspects of history and heritage; it is thus thought by some that the Anglo-Scottish border is largely political rather than cultural. [33] [34]

Attempts to raise the level of awareness of Northumberland culture have also started, with the formation of a Northumbrian Language Society to preserve the unique dialects (Pitmatic and other Northumbrian dialects) of this region, as well as to promote home-grown talent. [32] [33]

Northumberland's county flower is the bloody cranesbill ( Geranium sanguineum ) and its affiliated Royal Navy ship is its namesake, HMS Northumberland.

Flag

Northumberland flag Flag of Northumberland.svg
Northumberland flag

Northumberland has its own flag, which is a banner of the arms of Northumberland County Council. The shield of arms is in turn based on the arms medieval heralds had attributed to the Kingdom of Bernicia (which the first County Council used until it was granted its own arms). The Bernician arms were fictional but inspired by Bede's brief description of a flag used on the tomb of St Oswald in the 7th century. [35]

The current arms were granted to the county council in 1951, and adopted as the flag of Northumberland in 1995. [36]

Sport

Football

A precursor of modern football is still seen in the region at some annual Shrove Tuesday games at Alnwick. [37] In 1280 at Ulgham near Morpeth Northumberland, records show that Henry of Ellington was killed playing football when David Le Keu's knife went into Henry's belly and killed him. [38] [39] Organised football teams as we know today did not appear until the 1870s. Newcastle United Football Club was formed in 1892 by uniting Newcastle West End FC with Newcastle East End. [40]

Newcastle United were first division champions three times in the early 20th century, reaching the FA Cup Final three times before winning it at the fourth attempt in 1910. [41] Today top quality professional football remains in Northumberland. In 2017 - 18 season Newcastle United is a Premier League team. St James' Park in Newcastle is a first class football venue, often used for international games at all levels. Blyth Spartans A.F.C. have had success and public attention through Football Association Cup runs.

Notable associated footballers

There are many notable footballers from the county, pre Second World War and immediate post war greats were George Camsell and Hughie Gallacher, these were described in the "Clown Prince of Football" by Len Shackleton. The author played for Newcastle United and Northumberland County Cricket Club. Shackleton’s book was controversial when it was first published because chapter 9, named "The Average Director's Knowledge of Football", was produced as a blank page. [42] Notable players after the Second World War included Joe Harvey, Jackie Milburn, [43] Brian Clough [44] and Newcastle's Bobby Moncur who led his team to win the Inter City Fairs Cup in 1969. [45]

Two of Jackie Milburn’s nephews from Ashington, Bobby Charlton and Jackie Charlton are perhaps the two most significant players for England. [46] [47] Bobby joined Manchester United and Jackie Leeds United both contributing much to the success and history of their respective clubs. They both became permanent fixtures in Alf Ramsey's 1966 England World Cup winning team. [48] Malcolm Macdonald was a successful Newcastle player of the 1970s. Great national players who played at Northumberland clubs in the 1980s and 1990s include Peter Beardsley, Paul Gascoigne, Chris Waddle and Alan Shearer. Shearer remains the highest scoring player in Premier League history with 260 goals in 441 appearances. [49]

Horse racing

Early races were held at Newcastle's Killingworth Moor from 1632 before moving to the Town Moor. The 'Pitmen's Derby' or Northumberland Plate was held from 1833 and moved to Gosforth in 1882. [50] Modern day horse racing still takes place at Newcastle Racecourse. [51]

Golf

Golf is a Scottish import to many countries but it is said to have been played in this region by St Cuthbert on the dunes of the Northumberland coast. The oldest club in Northumberland was at Alnmouth, founded in 1869, it is the fourth oldest in the country and is now Alnmouth Village Club and a 9 hole links course. [52]

There is one old links courses at Goswick. It is a James Braid design masterpiece which is widely acknowledged as a classic Northumberland links course [53] so much so, that the Royal and Ancient Golf Club (R&A) chose Goswick as a regional qualifier for the Open Championship for five years from 2008.

During the English Civil War of 1642–1651, King Charles played 'Goff' in the Shield Fields suburb of Pandon during his imprisonment in the town. [54]

Today inland golf courses are abundant in the county, [55]

The county has a professional golfer who has played in many professional golf tour events: Kenny Ferrie from Ashington who has won events on the prestigious European Tour.

Other

A cricket ground in Bamburgh The Cricket Pavilion, Bamburgh, Northumberland - geograph.org.uk - 1945900.jpg
A cricket ground in Bamburgh

The annual Great North Run, one of the best known half marathons in which thousands of participants run from Newcastle to South Shields. In 2013 the 33rd Great North Run had 56,000 participants most of whom were raising money for charity.

Media

Having no large population centres, the county's mainstream media outlets are served from nearby Tyne and Wear, including radio stations and television channels (such as BBC Look North, BBC Radio Newcastle, Tyne Tees Television and Metro Radio), along with the majority of daily newspapers covering the area ( The Journal , Evening Chronicle ). It is worth remembering however that although Northumberland, like many administrative areas in England, has been shorn of its geographical regional centre, that centre—Newcastle upon Tyne—remains an essential element within the entity we know as Northumberland. Newcastle's newspapers are as widely read in its Northumbrian hinterland as any of those of the wider county: the Northumberland Gazette , Morpeth Herald , Berwick Advertiser , Hexham Courant and the News Post Leader .

Lionheart Radio, a community radio station based in Alnwick, has recently[ when? ] been awarded a five-year community broadcasting licence by Ofcom. Radio Borders covers Berwick and the rural north of the county.

Notable people

George Stephenson was born in Northumberland GeorgeStephenson.PNG
George Stephenson was born in Northumberland

Born in Northumberland

Ashington was the birthplace of three famous footballers: Bobby and Jack Charlton, born in 1937 and 1935 respectively, and Jackie Milburn, born in 1924. In 1978 the international cricketer Steve Harmison was born in the same town.

Mickley was the birthplace of Thomas Bewick, an artist, wood engraver and naturalist born in 1753, and Bob Stokoe, a footballer and F.A. Cup-winning manager (with Sunderland in 1973) born in 1930.

Other notable births include:

Linked with Northumberland

Algernon Charles Swinburne, the poet, was raised in Northumberland Algernon Charles Swinburne sketch.jpg
Algernon Charles Swinburne, the poet, was raised in Northumberland

The site contains exhaustive detailed entries for notable deceased Northumbrians.

Settlements

Parishes

NOTE: New parishes have been added since 2001. These are missing from the list, see List of civil parishes in Northumberland.

Parishes of Northumberland [58]
NamePopulation (2001)Former district/borough
Acklington 467 Alnwick
Acomb 1,184 Tynedale
Adderstone with Lucker 195 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Akeld 82 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Allendale 2,120 Tynedale
Alnham 99 Alnwick
Alnmouth 562 Alnwick
Alnwick 7,767 Alnwick
Alwinton 71 Alnwick
Amble 6,044 Alnwick
Ancroft 885 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Bamburgh 454 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Bardon Mill 364 Tynedale
Bavington 99 Tynedale
Beadnell 528 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Belford 1,055 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Belsay 436 Castle Morpeth
Bewick 69 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Biddlestone 88 Alnwick
Bowsden 157 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Branxton 121 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Brinkburn 200 Alnwick
Callaly 150 Alnwick
Capheaton 160 Castle Morpeth
Carham 347 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Cartington 97 Alnwick
Chatton 438 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Choppington  ? Castle Morpeth
Cornhill-on-Tweed 318 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Craster 342 Alnwick
Cresswell 237 Castle Morpeth
Denwick 266 Alnwick
Doddington 146 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Earle 89 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Easington 139 Berwick-upon-Tweed
East Chevington 3,192 Castle Morpeth
Edlingham 196 Alnwick
Eglingham 357 Alnwick
Ellingham 282 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ellington and Linton 2,678 Castle Morpeth
Elsdon 205 Alnwick
Embleton 699 Alnwick
Ewart 72 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Felton 958 Alnwick
Ford 487 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Glanton 222 Alnwick
Harbottle 235 Alnwick
Hartburn 198 Castle Morpeth
Hauxley 220 Alnwick
Haydon 2,184 Tynedale
Hebron 679 Castle Morpeth
Heddon-on-the-Wall 1,518 Castle Morpeth
Hedgeley 322 Alnwick
Hepple 139 Alnwick
Hepscott 898 Castle Morpeth
Hesleyhurst 30 Alnwick
Hexham 11,829 Tynedale
Hollinghill 90 Alnwick
Holy Island 162 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Horncliffe 374 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ilderton 94 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ingram 148 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kilham 131 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kirknewton 108 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kyloe 323 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Lesbury 871 Alnwick
Lilburn 106 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Longframlington 979 Alnwick
Longhirst 446 Castle Morpeth
Longhorsley 798 Castle Morpeth
Longhoughton 1,442 Alnwick
Lowick 559 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Lynemouth 1,832 Castle Morpeth
Matfen 495 Castle Morpeth
Meldon 162 Castle Morpeth
Middleton 136 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Milfield 243 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Mitford 431 Castle Morpeth
Morpeth 13,833 Castle Morpeth
Netherton 194 Alnwick
Netherwitton 272 Castle Morpeth
Newton-by-the-Sea 242 Alnwick
Newton on the Moor and Swarland 822 Alnwick
Norham 536 Berwick-upon-Tweed
North Sunderland 1,803 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Nunnykirk 138 Alnwick
Ord, Northumberland 1,365 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Pegswood 3,174 Castle Morpeth
Ponteland 10,871 Castle Morpeth
Prudhoe 11,500 Tynedale
Rennington 305 Alnwick
Roddam 77 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Rothbury 1,740 Alnwick
Rothley 136 Alnwick
Shilbottle 1,349 Alnwick
Shoreswood 163 Berwick-upon-Tweed
Snitter 114 Alnwick
Stamfordham 1,047 Castle Morpeth
Stannington 1,219 Castle Morpeth
Thirston 510 Castle Morpeth
Thropton 409 Alnwick
Togston 340 Alnwick
Tritlington and West Chevington 218 Castle Morpeth
Ulgham 365 Castle Morpeth
Wallington Demesne 361 Castle Morpeth
Warkworth 1,493 Alnwick
Whalton 427 Castle Morpeth
Whittingham 406 Alnwick
Whitton and Tosson 223 Alnwick
Widdrington 158 Castle Morpeth
Widdrington Station and Stobswood 2,386 Castle Morpeth
Wooler 1,857 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Although not on this list, the population of Cramlington is estimated at 39,000.

Historic areas

Some settlements that is part historic county of Northumberland now fall under the county of Tyne and Wear:

Tyne and Wear Killingworth, Longbenton, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay

See also

Related Research Articles

Morpeth railway station Railway station in Northumberland, England

Morpeth is a railway station on the East Coast Main Line, which runs between London King's Cross and Edinburgh Waverley. The station, situated 16 miles 50 chains north of Newcastle, serves the market town of Morpeth, Northumberland, England. It is owned by Network Rail and managed by Northern Trains.

History of Northumberland

Northumberland, England's northernmost county, is a land where Roman occupiers once guarded a walled frontier, Anglian invaders fought with Celtic natives, and Norman lords built castles to suppress rebellion and defend a contested border with Scotland. The present-day county is a vestige of an independent kingdom that once stretched from Edinburgh to the Humber, hence its name, meaning literally 'north of the Humber'. Reflecting its tumultuous past, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, and the greatest number of recognised battle sites. Once an economically important region that supplied much of the coal that powered the industrial revolution, Northumberland is now a primarily rural county with a small and gradually shrinking population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hedley on the Hill</span> Human settlement in England

Hedley on the Hill is a village in Northumberland, west of Newcastle upon Tyne. It is located between the valley of the River Derwent, and the watershed to the River Tyne.

This timeline summarises significant events in the history of Northumbria and Northumberland.

Widdrington Station and Stobswood is a civil parish in the county of Northumberland, England. It has 2,767 residents and is 5.8 miles (9.3 km) NNE of Morpeth. It includes the settlements of Widdrington Station and Stobswood.

The Blyth and Tyne Railway was a railway company in Northumberland, England. It was incorporated in 1853 to unify several private railways and waggonways that were concerned with bringing coal from the Northumberland coalfield to Blyth and to the River Tyne. Over the years, it expanded its network to include Ashington, Morpeth and Tynemouth. As coal output increased, the company became very prosperous in hauling the mineral to quays for export and, in addition, a residential passenger service based on Newcastle built up.

Ashington Town and parish in Northumberland, England

Ashington is a town and civil parish in Northumberland, England, with a population of 27,864 at the 2011 Census. It was once a centre of the coal mining industry. The town is 15 miles (24 km) north of Newcastle upon Tyne, west of the A189 and bordered to the south by the River Wansbeck. The North Sea coast at Newbiggin-by-the-Sea is 3 miles (5 km) away.

The NE postcode area, also known as the Newcastle upon Tyne postcode area, is a group of 61 postcode districts in north-east England covering 34 post towns. These cover most of Tyne and Wear and Northumberland, plus a very small part of northern County Durham.

Northumberland Football Association County sport governing body in Northern England

The Northumberland Football Association is a governing body in the historic county of Northumberland, England. The association was formed in 1883. It is responsible for the governance and development of football at all levels in the county.

Northumbria (European Parliament constituency) Constituency of the European Parliament

Prior to its uniform adoption of proportional representation in 1999, the United Kingdom used first-past-the-post for the European elections in England, Scotland and Wales. The European Parliament constituencies used under that system were smaller than the later regional constituencies and only had one Member of the European Parliament each.

Founded in 1974 as Radio Wansbeck, Northumberland Hospital Radio (NHR) is a regionally-based hospital broadcasting service covering the county of Northumberland and North Tyneside District. NHR provides a 24-hour service to over 1000 beds across six hospitals: Alnwick Infirmary, Blyth Community Hospital, Hexham General Hospital, North Tyneside General Hospital, Northumbria Specialist Emergency Care Hospital in Cramlington and Wansbeck General Hospital in Ashington - Hospitals within the Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust - one of the largest NHS Trusts in the UK.

The geology of Northumberland in northeast England includes a mix of sedimentary, intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks from the Palaeozoic and Cenozoic eras. Devonian age volcanic rocks and a granite pluton form the Cheviot massif. The geology of the rest of the county is characterised largely by a thick sequence of sedimentary rocks of Carboniferous age. These are intruded by both Permian and Palaeogene dykes and sills and the whole is overlain by unconsolidated sediments from the last ice age and the post-glacial period. The Whin Sill makes a significant impact on Northumberland's character and the former working of the Northumberland Coalfield significantly influenced the development of the county's economy. The county's geology contributes to a series of significant landscape features around which the Northumberland National Park was designated.

The Northumberland Rugby Union is the governing body for rugby union in the historic county of Northumberland, England and one of the constituent bodies of the national Rugby Football Union having been formed in 1880. In addition, the county has won the county championship on two occasions, and finished runners-up on a further five occasions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northumbria (modern)</span> Area in North East England

In modern contexts Northumbria usually refers to the region of England between the Tees and Tweed, including to the historic counties of Northumberland and Durham, but may also be taken to be synonymous with North East England. The area corresponds to the rump lands of the historical Kingdom of Northumbria, which later developed into the late medieval county of Northumberland or Comitatus Northumbriae, whose original southern boundary was the River Tees. A representative provincial flag of Northumbria is registered for the area.

References

  1. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. "Northumberland definition and meaning - Collins English Dictionary". Collinsdictionary.com.
  3. "Northumberland Coast Path – LDWA Long Distance Paths". Ldwa.org.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  4. Bosworth, Joseph (1898). An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary: Based on the Manuscript Collections of the Late Joseph Bosworth. Clarendon Press. p. 725.
  5. Long, B. (1967). Castles of Northumberland. Newcastle, UK: Harold Hill.
  6. Adams, Sharon; Goodare, Julian (2014). Scotland in the Age of Two Revolutions. Woodbridge: Boydell. pp. 38–39. ISBN   9781843839392.
  7. Alberge, Dalya (19 February 2018). "Rare Roman boxing gloves found near Hadrian's Wall". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  8. Met Office, 2000. "Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom."
  9. "National Character Area profiles: data for local decision making". Gov.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  10. Northumberland National Park Authority, n.d. "The topology and climate of Northumberland National Park."
  11. "Northumberland nIV.NW (includes: Ancroft; Ord; Tweedmouth.)". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  12. "Tyne Limestone Formation". BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units. British Geological Survey. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  13. "Geoindex Onshore". British Geological Survey. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  14. "The leading companies shaping Northumberland's business landscape". Arch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  15. Hexham Courant 10 January 2014 'Villagers admit defeat after 15 years battling opencast'
  16. "Major Hexham employer Egger UK". Chroniclelive.co.uk. 4 February 2018.
  17. "Hexham employer Egger UK posts rise". Chroniclelive.co.uk. 27 January 2017.
  18. "Invest in Northumberland: Key sectors". ARCH. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  19. NEPIC Directory 2013 Pharmaceuticals: Manufacturing Creates Value. Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster. May 2013. p. 33.
  20. Farrows. "CDMO for APIs & finished dosage forms". Aesica-pharma.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  21. "Northumberland-based SCM Pharma's trading assets acquired". Thejournal.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 November 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  22. "Sterling Pharma Solutions". Shasun.com. Archived from the original on 28 November 1999.
  23. "Unlicensed Medicines Supplier - Specials Medicines Manufacturing". Specialslab.co.uk.
  24. "Invest in the Northumberland business landscape". Archnorthumberland.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  25. "Pharmaceuticals Brochure" (PDF). Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  26. Office for National Statistics, 2003. "Update on 2001 Census figures Archived 13 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine ."
  27. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2003. "Local Government Finance Settlement 2005/06." (PDF)
  28. "Local Authority population 2011". Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  29. Office for National Statistics, 2001. "KS07 Religion: Census 2001, Key Statistics for local Authorities Archived 21 December 2003 at the Wayback Machine ."
  30. "Alnwick". Northumberland County Council. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
    "Morpeth (St. Mary), A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 345–350". British-history.ac.uk. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
    "Northiam – Nortoft, A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 433–439". British-history.ac.uk. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  31. "History of Newcastle upon Tyne" (PDF). Local Studies Factsheet No. 6. Newcastle City Council. 2009. p. 2. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  32. 1 2 "North East England History Pages". Northeastengland.talktalk.net. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  33. 1 2 3 "Northumbrian Language Society". NorthumbrianLanguageSociety.co.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. "Lowlands-L • a discussion group for people who share an interest in languages and cultures of the Lowlands". Lowlands-l.net. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  35. Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People , Book III, Ch. 11: "And to furnish a lasting memorial of the royal saint, they hung the King's banner of purple and gold over his tomb."
  36. "The Northumberland Flag Northumberland Northumbria England UK GB (page 113)". 24 June 2005. Archived from the original on 24 June 2005. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  37. Hornby, Hugh (2008). Uppies and Downies: The Extraordinary Football Games of Britain. English Heritage. ISBN   9781905624645.
  38. Brown, Janet. "Ulgham Genealogy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  39. Francis Peabody Magoun, 1929, "Football in Medieval England and Middle-English literature" (The American Historical Review, v. 35, No. 1).
  40. Hutchinson, Roger (1997). The Toon: A complete History of Newcastle United Football Club. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN   1851589562.
  41. Simpson, David. "Sport in the North East 1700 to 1999". Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  42. Shackleton, Len (2000). Return of the Clown Prince. GHKN Publishing. ISBN   0953824403.
  43. Milburn, Jack (2003). Jackie Milburn: A Man of Two Halves. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN   1840188049.
  44. Clough, Brian (2002). Cloughie: Walking on Water. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN   0747265674.
  45. Jeffry, Jim (2009). Newcastle United: The 1968–69 Fairs Cup Story. Breedon Books. ISBN   9781859837375.
  46. Charlton, Bobby (2007). The Autobiography, My Manchester United Years . Headline. ISBN   9780755316199.
  47. Charlton, Jack (1996). Jack Charlton The Autobiography . Partridge Press. ISBN   1852252561.
  48. Mckinstry, Leo (2006). Sir Alf . HarperSport. ISBN   9780007193790.
  49. "Player profile: Alan Shearer". Premier League 2013. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  50. Simpson, Dave. "Sport in the North East 1700 to 1999". Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  51. "Racing in the North East". Northeast Racecourse Hospitality. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  52. "History of Alnmouth GC". Alnmouth Golf Club. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  53. "Goswick Links Golf Club". Goswick Links Golf Club. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  54. McKenzie, Eneas. "The suburbs of Pandon". British History Online. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  55. "Golf Courses in England". Golf Today. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  56. England and Wales Birth Registration Index, 1837-2008; Northumberland Central, Northumberland, England: Oct-Nov-Dec, 1937. FamilySearch . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  57. Wilford, N. (1993). The life and work of William Hewson, haematol- ogist and immunologist. In: Medicine in Northumbria; Essays on the History of Medicine in the North East of England (Chapter 8). New- castle-upon-Tyne.: Pybus Society for the History and Bibliography of Medicine. ISBN   978-0952209706.
  58. Neighbourhood Statistics. "Office for National Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2010.

Bibliography