View from Square René-Viviani at 19:51 CEST
|Date||15 April 2019|
|Time||18:50 CEST (16:50 UTC)|
|Non-fatal injuries||3; one firefighter and two police officers|
|Property damage||Roof and spire destroyed; windows and vaulted ceilings damaged|
On 15 April 2019, just before 18:50 CEST, a fire broke out beneath the roof of Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris. By the time the fire was extinguished fifteen hours later, the building's spire and roof had collapsed and its interior, upper walls, and windows had been severely damaged; even more extensive damage to the interior was prevented by the stone vaulted ceiling, which largely contained the burning roof as it collapsed. Many works of art and other treasures were evacuated early in the emergency, but many others were damaged or destroyed. The cathedral's two pipe organs, and its three 13th-century rose windows, suffered little or no damage. No person, firefighter or civilian, was killed.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.
Notre-Dame de Paris, often referred to simply as Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, France. The cathedral is consecrated to the Virgin Mary and considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture. Its innovative use of the rib vault and flying buttress, its enormous and colourful rose windows, and the naturalism and abundance of its sculptural decoration set it apart from the earlier Romanesque style.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
President Emmanuel Macron promised the country would restore the cathedral and launched a fundraising campaign which brought in pledges of €800 million within 24 hours. It has been estimated that restoration could require twenty years or more.
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French politician serving as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 2017. He previously was Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016.
Construction of the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris ("Our Lady of Paris") began in the 12th century, using stonework for the walls and vault and wood for the main roofs and spire. The original flèche (spire) lasted until 1383, its replacement was lost in a 1630 fire, and a third was damaged by wind and removed between 1786 and 1791; the spire lost in the fire, made of lead-covered oak and designed by Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, was added in the mid-19th century.The cathedral was listed as part of the "Paris, Banks of the Seine" UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1991.
A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, often a skyscraper or a church tower, similar to a steep tented roof. Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass.
In French architecture, a flèche is a lead-covered timber spire, or spirelet. These are placed on the ridges of church or cathedral roofs and are usually relatively small. However, larger versions can be found on cathedrals such as Amiens Cathedral, Coventry Cathedral, and previously Notre Dame de Paris, before its collapse in a 2019 fire that also destroyed the roof. The highest flèche in the world was built at the end of the 19th century for Rouen Cathedral. Its height is 157 metres (515 ft).
In recent years the cathedral's stonework has decayed significantly, primarily because of environmental pollution. In 2014, the Ministry of Culture estimated the cost of the renovation work needed by the cathedral at €150 million. In 2016, the Archdiocese of Paris launched an appeal to raise €100 million over the following five to ten years to meet the costs of maintenance and restoration. At the time of the fire, the spire was undergoing renovations and scaffolding had been erected around much of the exterior.
The Ministry of Culture is the ministry of the Government of France in charge of national museums and the monuments historiques. Its goal is to maintain the French identity through the promotion and protection of the arts on national soil and abroad. Its budget is mainly dedicated to the management of the Archives Nationales and the regional Maisons de la culture.
The Catholic Archdiocese of Paris is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Catholic Church in France. The original diocese is traditionally thought to have been created in the 3rd century by St. Denis and corresponded with the Civitas Parisiorum; it was elevated to an archdiocese on October 20, 1622.
The Paris prosecutor originally said the fire started in the cathedral's attic at around 18:50 CEST, when the cathedral was open to the public.At about 18:20, security guards first heard the fire alarm and began evacuating the cathedral but did not see a fire until 18:43, when either the alarm sounded again or a second alarm sounded. A Mass was underway since 18:15. The cathedral was evacuated in an orderly manner within minutes.
The Mass, known more fully as the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the bread and wine are consecrated and become the body and blood of Christ. As defined by the Church at the Council of Trent, in the Mass, "The same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross, is present and offered in an unbloody manner." The Church describes the Holy Mass as "the source and summit of the Christian life". It teaches that through consecration by an ordained priest the bread and wine become the sacrificial body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ as the sacrifice on Calvary made truly present once again on the altar. The Catholic Church permits only baptised members in the state of grace to receive Christ in the Eucharist.
According to some of those at the scene, the doors of the cathedral were abruptly closed on them and white smoke began rising from the roof.The smoke turned black before flames appeared from the spire, then yellow.
Police quickly evacuated the Île de la Cité.
The Paris Fire Brigade had drilled regularly in preparation for any fire at the cathedral, including two on-site training exercises in 2018. They also cooperated in the routine thrice-daily fire watch and the alarm system.[ further explanation needed ]
The fire was primarily fought from the inside, in line with common French fire-fighting practice. Attacking the fire from the outside risked damaging the interior by deflecting flames and hot gases (at temperatures up to 800 °C or 1,470 °F) inwards. Twenty firefighters climbed inside the two towers. Deluge guns from ground-based vehicles were carefully used to douse the fire while avoiding further damage to the building. Following the plans the fire department made for such an emergency, boats were rapidly deployed on the Seine river to pump the water. Firefighters shot water at a lower pressure than usual to minimize damage to the cathedral’s art and architecture.
Water dropped from the air was not used, as its impact could have contributed to structural damage and heated stone can crack if suddenly cooled.Helicopters were not used because of dangerous updrafts but drones were used for visual and thermal imaging, and robots were used for visual imaging and directing water streams.
Firefighters focused on saving the cathedral’s towers.More than 400 firefighters were engaged; another hundred worked to evacuate artefacts. Along with the high temperatures of the fire, molten lead falling from the roof also posed a hazard. No one was killed, but one firefighter and two police officers were injured.
Most of the fire was extinguished by 23:30 CEST, and was considered completely extinguished after about twelve hours.The Paris fire chief said the bell towers and other structural elements would have likely failed had the fire burned for another 30 minutes.
Within an hour of flames being seen, the lead-clad timber roof of the cathedral, including its timber central spire, was engulfed, 21 hectares (0.21 km2; 52 acres) of oak trees cut down for the construction of the cathedral; each individual tree contributed a single beam. The older timbers dated from the early 13th century. Approximately 200 tonne s (220 short ton s) of lead sheet sat atop the timber framing to complete the cathedral's roof. This lead mostly melted during the fire.causing it to collapse onto the masonry of the cathedral's ceiling vault. The oak section of the church's roof was destroyed. Much of the timber structure that burned was the cathedral's "forest": wooden roof trusses, made from approximately
There was fear that the collapsing timber roof would damage the stone vaulting that forms the ceiling of the cathedral and supports the walls from the inside (the flying buttresses support them from the outside). If the masonry vault had collapsed, the damage would have been significantly worse;there were fears that the entire structure would be destroyed. Although the vaulting was intended by the medieval designers to protect the interior from roof fires, this is not always effective; similar cathedrals have been completely destroyed by fires in the past. Lead melting down onto the vaults could have unbalanced them, causing collapse. The vaults mostly remained intact and continued to support the burning roof timbers after they collapsed. A few sections fell, leaving holes in the vault, through which the fire could be seen from below. Embers fell through the holes and landed on the marble floor and debris from the collapse.
Around 23:15 CEST, officials reported that the fire had weakened and that both towers were safe.The primary structure, including both of the towers, and one-third of the roof remained standing. Most of the stone vaulted ceiling remained in place, but sections had collapsed, allowing debris to fall through. Inspectors later found some weaknesses in the surviving structure, and evacuated an adjacent row of apartment houses on the Rue du Cloître as a precaution.
All three of the church's 13th-century rose windows survived,although there was damage to some of the 19th-century windows.
The cathedral contained a large number of artworks, religious artifacts, and other irreplaceable treasures.These included a crown of thorns said to be the one Jesus wore prior to his crucifixion, a purported piece of the cross on which Jesus was crucified, the Tunic of St. Louis, a much-rebuilt pipe organ by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, stained-glass windows, the Virgin of Paris statue of Mary and the baby Jesus, and bronze statues of the twelve Apostles. Some contents were evacuated by a human chain of emergency workers and civil servants. Many valuables that were not removed survived, but the state of many remains unknown.
Some of the artwork had been removed prior to the renovations, whilst most of the sacred relics were held in the cathedral's sacristy [ further explanation needed ] and thought to be safe.
Several pews were destroyed and the sculpted arches[ further explanation needed ] were blackened by smoke, though the church's main cross and altar survived, along with the statues surrounding it.
Some paintings, apparently only smoke-damaged,are expected to be transported to the Louvre for restoration.
A number of statues, including those of the twelve Apostles at the base of the spire, had been removed in preparation for renovations.The rooster reliquary atop the spire was found, damaged but not destroyed, among the debris.
Some lead joints in some of the 19th-century stained-glass windows melted,but the three major rose windows, dating to the 12th and 13th centuries, were undamaged; one is unstable and may have to be dismantled for safekeeping.
The two pipe organs were not significantly damaged.
Some of the cathedral bells that hung in the towers during the fire were preserved, including the bourdon.The liturgical treasury of the cathedral and the "grands Mays" monumental tablets were evacuated during the fire.
Within hours, the Paris prosecutor's office had opened an investigation,led by the Paris Region Judicial Police. The investigation most strongly suspected a case of "accidental destruction by fire", but had not ruled anything out. On 16 April, the Paris prosecutor said that nothing his office had learned suggested a deliberate act.
Renovation works increase fire risks, and a police source reported they are looking into whether the renovation works had caused this incident.In general, fires started during renovations of historic buildings can smolder for hours unseen before breaking out. Repairs to the lead roof required welding lead sheets via blowtorch which rested on dry, well-seasoned timber, much of it porous or powdery with age. This is a particularly risky process for historic buildings. Le Bras Frères, the firm carrying out the renovations, said it had followed procedure and that none of its personnel were on-site when the fire broke out.
On 18 April, a judicial police official reported that investigators think a short circuit was the most likely cause.
President Macron postponed a major speech planned for the evening after news of the fire broke.He had been due to give a televised address to outline measures he plans to take following nationwide public debates held in response to the yellow vests movement; instead, he travelled to the site of the blaze, where he gave a brief address to the French people. Multiple groups gathered in vigils for Notre-Dame. The mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, described the fire as "terrible". The fire has been compared to the similar 1992 Windsor Castle fire and the Uppark fire, among others, and has raised old questions about the safety of similar structures and the techniques used to restore them.
Numerous world religious leaders and governments expressed their sorrow and extended condolences to the French people and authorities.The Archbishop of Paris, Michel Aupetit, tweeted on the 15th: "To all the priests of Paris: The firefighters are still fighting to save the towers of Notre-Dame de Paris. The frame, the roof, and the spire are consumed. Let us pray. If you wish, you may ring the bells of your churches as an invitation to prayer." A team of UNESCO experts prepared to conduct a damage assessment, and the international community of craftsmen and experts working in stained glass and stone masonry offered assistance, including the caretakers of York Minster, which is a similar sized and aged cathedral, and which suffered a similarly serious fire in 1984. Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, the president of the Pontifical Council for Culture, offered the use of the expertise of the Vatican Museums in reconstruction.
Through the night of 15 April and into the next day, citizens and visitors to Paris gathered along the Seine to hold vigils, pray, and sing prayers such as the Hail Mary to the damaged cathedral.
During the fire, one of the specialists involved in the restoration work expressed horror at the burning of the cathedral, and the possibility that "In wanting to give her a second youth, we have perhaps destroyed her."
On the night of the fire, President Emmanuel Macron announced that the cathedral, which is owned by the state, would be rebuilt, and launched an international fundraiser the next day.The cathedral itself, as well as several other historical buildings in France, was not insured due to cost constraints, leaving the costs to rebuild to the state. The heritage conservation organisation Fondation du Patrimoine estimated the damage in the hundreds of millions of euros; European art insurers stated the cost would be similar to ongoing renovations of the Palace of Westminster in London, which currently is estimated around €7 billion. This cost does not include damage to any of the artwork or artefacts within the cathedral; art insurers said any pieces on loan from other museums would have likely been insured, but the works owned by the cathedral would not have been insurable. While Macron desired to have the cathedral rebuilt in five years, in time for the 2024 Olympic Games in Paris, architects expect the work could take from twenty to forty years, as any new structure would need to balance restoring the look of the original building, using wood and stone sourced from the same regions used in the original construction, with the structural reinforcement required for preventing a similar disaster in the future.
The Île-de-France region announced it would allocate €10 million, and the City of Paris declared it would make €50 million available.
The form that the reconstruction should take has been debated. In the Middle Ages, when many cathedrals burned down,a fire was commonly seen as a request from God for a better cathedral. Cathedrals were generally rebuilt in a more modern and fireproof style. Past reconstructions of Notre Dame have not been historically-accurate restorations.
There is discussion of whether to rebuild the cathedral in modified form.Rebuilding the roof with titanium sheets and steel trusses has been suggested; other options include rebuilding in the original lead and wood, or a melding of restored old elements and newly-designed ones.
Twelve hours after the fire started, over €900 million had been pledged by a number of people, companies, and institutions for the cathedral's reconstruction.
|List of pledges|
|Arnault family and LVMH||Private||France||€200 million|
|Bettencourt family and L'Oréal||Private||France||€200 million|
|Pinault family and Groupe Artémis||Private||France||€100 million|
|Total SA||Private||France||€100 million|
|Paris city government||Public||France||€50 million|
|BNP Paribas SA||Private||France||€20 million|
|Decaux family and JCDecaux||Private||France||€20 million|
|Bouygues family||Private||France||€10 million|
|De Lacharrière family and FIMALAC||Private||France||€10 million|
|Société Générale||Private||France||€10 million|
|Kravis family||Private||United States||$10 million|
|The Walt Disney Company||Public||United States||$5 million|
|Crédit Agricole||Public||France||€5 million|
|University of Notre Dame||Private||United States||$100,000|
|Apple Inc.||Public||United States||TBD|
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France. It is located about 90 km (56 mi) southwest of Paris. Chartres is famous world-wide for its cathedral. Mostly constructed between 1193 and 1250, this Gothic cathedral is in an exceptional state of preservation. The majority of the original stained glass windows survive intact, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century. Much of the old town, including the library associated with the School of Chartres, was destroyed by bombs in 1944.
Notre Dame may refer to:
The Île de la Cité is one of two remaining natural islands in the Seine within the city of Paris. It is the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded.
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French Gothic architecture is a style which emerged in France in 1140, and was dominant until the mid-16th century. The most notable examples are the great Gothic cathedrals of France, including Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres Cathedral, and Amiens Cathedral. Its main characteristics were the search for verticality, or height, and the innovative use of flying buttresses and other architectural innovations to distribute the weight of the stone structures to supports on the outside, allowing unprecedented height and volume, The new techniques also permitted the addition of larger windows, including enormous stained glass windows, which filled the cathedrals with light. The French style was widely copied in other parts of northern Europe, particularly Germany and England. It was gradually supplanted as the dominant French style in the mid-16th century by French Renaissance architecture.
La République En Marche!, sometimes called En Marche!, is a centrist, liberal and social-liberal political party in France. It was founded on 6 April 2016 by Emmanuel Macron, a former Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs, who was later elected President of the French Republic in the 2017 election with 66.1% of the second-round vote. Macron considers La République En Marche! to be a progressive movement, uniting both the left and the right.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2019 Notre-Dame de Paris fire .|