Noureddin Kianouri

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Noureddin Kianouri
Noureddin Kianouri 1.jpg
Died5 November 1999(1999-11-05) (aged 84)
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Other namesSilvio Macetti (N.K.)
Alma mater University of Tehran
Aachen University
Political party Tudeh Party of Iran
Spouse(s) Maryam Farman Farmaian

Dr. Noureddin Kianouri (Persian : نورالدین کیانوری) (1915 Nour, Tehran – 5 November 1999 from Kia'i dynasty of Tabaristan) was an Iranian architect and political leader. He was an influential member of the Central Committee for the communist Tudeh Party. [1] He acted as the party's General Secretary from 1979 to 1984. [2]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Tabaristan Historical region of Iran

Tabaristan, also known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period.

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.



Kianouri was son of Agha Mirza Mehdi Nouri & Zahra Khanoum Soltani Nouri, and grandson of Sheikh Fazlollah Noori & Sakineh Nouri Tabrasi (Daughter of Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi). Kianouri was educated in Germany, receiving a Phd in Construction Engineering from Aachen University in 1939. After returning to Iran Together with several other architects he founded the Association of Iranian Architects in 1945 [ citation needed ], whose members were put in charge of the design and planning of large-scale housing projects, first in Tehran and later in other cities. These housing projects became a test ground for the new socialist way of life.[ citation needed ] He taught at Tehran University.

Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri was a prominent Shia Muslim cleric in Qajar Iran during the late 19th and early 20th century and founder of political Islam in Iran. Despite his sympathy with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the beginning for its opposition to tyranny and rule of law, he soon turned against it upon realizing that the movement established a Western-style government with secular law rather than a government with Islamic law. He was executed for treason by Constitutionalists as a result. Today he is considered a martyr (shahid) in the fight against democracy by Islamic conservatives in Iran.

Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi Iranian scientist

Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi popularly known as Muhaddis Noori / Al-Mohaddith Al-Noori, was a top Shi'a Islamic cleric and father of Islamic Shi'a Renaissance.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

In the early 1940s, he married feminist and communist activist Maryam Firouz. On 4 February 1949, the Tudeh Party was accused of an assassination attempt on the Shah during an annual ceremony to commemorate the founding of the University of Tehran. The party subsequently was banned and most of its leaders were imprisoned. Following the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the subsequent banning of the Tudeh Party, Kianuori After two years in jail Kianouri escaped from prison and fled first to Iraq and then to Italy. There, with the help of the Italian Communist Party, he received a new identity as Dr. Silvio Macetti (N.K.), a professor of architecture, whose works and writings are still valid references for the theory of socialist architecture. [ citation needed ] Later he lived with his wife Maryam Firouz in exile in East Germany.

1953 Iranian coup détat overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iran

The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom and the United States, and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

In 1955 Macetti moved to East Berlin and was later appointed as one of the research directors of the Bauakademie der DDR  [ de ] (DBA) developing theories of socialist architecture and urban planning in close cooperation with his Russian partner Georgy A. Gradov (Russian : Градов, Георгий Александрович). In their[ who? ] absence, they were tried by the regime of Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and sentenced to hard labour for life. [3] He stayed there till 1977 when he was selected as the Secretary General of the Iranian Communist Party.

East Berlin Soviet sector of Berlin between 1949 and 1990

East Berlin was the capital city of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1990. Formally, it was the Soviet sector of Berlin, established in 1945. The American, British, and French sectors were known as West Berlin. From 13 August 1961 until 9 November 1989, East Berlin was separated from West Berlin by the Berlin Wall. The Western Allied powers did not recognise East Berlin as the GDR's capital, nor the GDR's authority to govern East Berlin.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

The couple returned to Iran following the 1979 Islamic Revolution and the deposition of the Shah. The Tudeh party was reinstituted with Kianouri as General Secretary. Leaving his double identity behind, [4] he returned to Iran in support of the 1979 Revolution, but a few years after, he was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment, accused of working for the Soviet Union as a spy. However, Kianouri's (aka. Silvio Macetti N.K.) theories of the socialist architecture and city indirectly found their ways to the Iranian architectural scene. "Macetti's" work was widely referred to by others, many of whom were members of the Association of Iranian Architects.[ citation needed ] His legacy has essentially turned the domestic architecture of Iranian cities into spaces of resistance.[ citation needed ] When public spaces of cities are policed and controlled, the interiors become crucial stages for political manifestation.

Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch. It may be done by coup, impeachment, invasion, or forced abdication. The term may also refer to the official removal of a clergyman, especially a bishop, from ecclesiastical office.

In 1983, the Tudeh Party was again banned following accusations of espionage for the Soviet Union. [5] Kianouri was imprisoned and later forced to publicly confess on a televised broadcast. [6] After his release to house arrest in the mid 90s, Kianouri wrote an open letter detailing the torture of himself and his wife while in prison. [2] [7]

He died on 5 November 1999, [8] in his home confinement.

Some articles and Architecture books of Noureddin Kianouri (Silvio Macetti)

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  1. Maziar Behrooz, "Tudeh Factionalism and the 1953 Coup in Iran", International Journal of Middle East Studies (2001), 33:3:363–382 Cambridge University Press
  2. 1 2 Haleh Afshar, "Maryam Firouz", Obituary, The Guardian , 31 March 2008
  3. Hamed Khosravi : The Double Life of N.K. collections and events at IISH. ( Hamed Khosravi is an architect, writer and educator. He was a research fellow at the IISG and a lecturer at the TU Delft Faculty of Architecture.)
  4. In alten und neuen Städten, Silvio Macetti (N.K.), gewidmet Georg Piltz.
  5. Cameron Hume, The United Nations, Iran, and Iraq: How Peacemaking Changed, Indiana University Press (May 1, 1994), pg. 62
  6. Ali Gheissari, Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, Democracy in Iran: History and the Quest for Liberty, Oxford University Press, (2006), pg. 96
  7. Maziar Behrooz, Rebels with a Cause, (2000), p.129
  8. "Death of Noureddin Kianouri", The Guardian (Communist Party of Australia), Issue No: 980, November 17, 1999
  9. Grosswoheinheiten (VEB Verlag), Silvio Macetti N.K.
Party political offices
Preceded by
Iraj Eskandari
First-Secretary of the Tudeh Party of Iran
Succeeded by
Ali Khavari
Preceded by
Second-Secretary of the Tudeh Party of Iran
Succeeded by
Farajollah Mizani