Noureddin Kianouri

Last updated
Noureddin Kianouri
Noureddin Kianouri 1.jpg
Born1915
Died5 November 1999(1999-11-05) (aged 84)
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Other namesSilvio Macetti (N.K.)
Alma mater University of Tehran
Aachen University
Political party Tudeh Party of Iran
Spouse(s) Maryam Farman Farmaian

Dr. Noureddin Kianouri (Persian : نورالدین کیانوری) (1915 Nour, Tehran – 5 November 1999 from Kia'i dynasty of Tabaristan) was an Iranian architect and political leader. He was an influential member of the Central Committee for the communist Tudeh Party. [1] He acted as the party's General Secretary from 1979 to 1984. [2]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Tabaristan Historical region of Iran

Tabaristan, also known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period.

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.

Contents

History

Kianouri was son of Agha Mirza Mehdi Nouri & Zahra Khanoum Soltani Nouri, and grandson of Sheikh Fazlollah Noori & Sakineh Nouri Tabrasi (Daughter of Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi). Kianouri was educated in Germany, receiving a Phd in Construction Engineering from Aachen University in 1939. After returning to Iran Together with several other architects he founded the Association of Iranian Architects in 1945 [ citation needed ], whose members were put in charge of the design and planning of large-scale housing projects, first in Tehran and later in other cities. These housing projects became a test ground for the new socialist way of life.[ citation needed ] He taught at Tehran University.

Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri was a prominent Shia Muslim cleric in Qajar Iran during the late 19th and early 20th century and founder of political Islam in Iran. Despite his sympathy with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the beginning for its opposition to tyranny and rule of law, he soon turned against it upon realizing that the movement established a Western-style government with secular law rather than a government with Islamic law. He was executed for treason by Constitutionalists as a result. Today he is considered a martyr (shahid) in the fight against democracy by Islamic conservatives in Iran.

Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi Iranian scientist

Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi popularly known as Muhaddis Noori / Al-Mohaddith Al-Noori, was a top Shi'a Islamic cleric and father of Islamic Shi'a Renaissance.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

In the early 1940s, he married feminist and communist activist Maryam Firouz. On 4 February 1949, the Tudeh Party was accused of an assassination attempt on the Shah during an annual ceremony to commemorate the founding of the University of Tehran. The party subsequently was banned and most of its leaders were imprisoned. Following the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the subsequent banning of the Tudeh Party, Kianuori After two years in jail Kianouri escaped from prison and fled first to Iraq and then to Italy. There, with the help of the Italian Communist Party, he received a new identity as Dr. Silvio Macetti (N.K.), a professor of architecture, whose works and writings are still valid references for the theory of socialist architecture. [ citation needed ] Later he lived with his wife Maryam Firouz in exile in East Germany.

1953 Iranian coup détat overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iran

The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom and the United States, and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

In 1955 Macetti moved to East Berlin and was later appointed as one of the research directors of the Bauakademie der DDR  [ de ] (DBA) developing theories of socialist architecture and urban planning in close cooperation with his Russian partner Georgy A. Gradov (Russian : Градов, Георгий Александрович). In their[ who? ] absence, they were tried by the regime of Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and sentenced to hard labour for life. [3] He stayed there till 1977 when he was selected as the Secretary General of the Iranian Communist Party.

East Berlin Soviet sector of Berlin between 1949 and 1990

East Berlin was the capital city of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1990. Formally, it was the Soviet sector of Berlin, established in 1945. The American, British, and French sectors were known as West Berlin. From 13 August 1961 until 9 November 1989, East Berlin was separated from West Berlin by the Berlin Wall. The Western Allied powers did not recognise East Berlin as the GDR's capital, nor the GDR's authority to govern East Berlin.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

The couple returned to Iran following the 1979 Islamic Revolution and the deposition of the Shah. The Tudeh party was reinstituted with Kianouri as General Secretary. Leaving his double identity behind, [4] he returned to Iran in support of the 1979 Revolution, but a few years after, he was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment, accused of working for the Soviet Union as a spy. However, Kianouri's (aka. Silvio Macetti N.K.) theories of the socialist architecture and city indirectly found their ways to the Iranian architectural scene. "Macetti's" work was widely referred to by others, many of whom were members of the Association of Iranian Architects.[ citation needed ] His legacy has essentially turned the domestic architecture of Iranian cities into spaces of resistance.[ citation needed ] When public spaces of cities are policed and controlled, the interiors become crucial stages for political manifestation.

Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch. It may be done by coup, impeachment, invasion, or forced abdication. The term may also refer to the official removal of a clergyman, especially a bishop, from ecclesiastical office.

In 1983, the Tudeh Party was again banned following accusations of espionage for the Soviet Union. [5] Kianouri was imprisoned and later forced to publicly confess on a televised broadcast. [6] After his release to house arrest in the mid 90s, Kianouri wrote an open letter detailing the torture of himself and his wife while in prison. [2] [7]

He died on 5 November 1999, [8] in his home confinement.

Some articles and Architecture books of Noureddin Kianouri (Silvio Macetti)

Related Research Articles

Bozorg Alavi writer, novelist and activist

Bozorg Alavi was an influential Iranian writer, novelist, and political intellectual. He was a founding member of the communist Tudeh Party of Iran in the 1940s and – following the 1953 coup against Premier Mohammad Mossadegh – spent the rest of his life in exile in Germany, first during the Pahlavi regime, then returning to Germany once more following the 1979 revolution. Cheshm'hā'yash, which was published in Iran in 1952 and was subsequently banned, is considered his finest novel. Alavi was also a very close friend of Iran's famous writer Sadegh Hedayat; these two created a literary group when they were residing in Paris called "sab'e group". Although Her Eyes is considered his masterpiece, Alavi also wrote many other books, such as the novel chemdan which was written under the influence of Freudian psychology. His other novels mirza,53 nafar and gilemard are used in Iranian high-school textbooks. He did return to Tehran after the revolution but did not stay too long and decided to head back to Germany. Bozorg Alavi's contribution to Iranian Literature was profound and shall not be forgotten.

Volkseigener Betrieb former main legal form of industrial enterprise in East Germany

The Publicly Owned Enterprise was the main legal form of industrial enterprise in East Germany. They were all publicly owned and were formed after mass nationalisation between 1945 and the early 1960s, and the handing back in 1954 of some 33 enterprises previously taken by the Soviet Union as reparations.

Tudeh Party of Iran Iranian communist party

The Tudeh Party of Iran is an Iranian communist party. Formed in 1941, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as its head, it had considerable influence in its early years and played an important role during Mohammad Mosaddegh's campaign to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Company and his term as prime minister. The crackdown that followed the 1953 coup against Mosaddegh is said to have "destroyed" the party, although a remnant persisted. The party still exists, but has remained much weaker as a result of its banning in Iran and mass arrests by the Islamic Republic in 1982, as well as the executions of political prisoners in 1988.

SUMKA

The National Socialist Workers Party of Iran, better known by its abbreviation SUMKA, was a neo-Nazi party in Iran.

Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III Qajar prince and Iranian politician

Prince Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, GCMG (1919) was the eldest son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma and Princess Ezzat-ed-Dowleh Qajar. He was born around 1889 and died in April 1937. He was the grandson of his namesake, Nosrat Dowleh Firouz Mirza, and of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah Qajar through his mother, Princess Ezzat-Dowleh.

Maryam Farman Farmaian Qajar princess

Maryam Firouz or Princess Maryam Farman Farmaian was a daughter of Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and Batoul Khanoum. She founded the women's section of the Tudeh (communist) party of Iran.

Friedrich Achleitner Austrian poet and architecture critic

Friedrich Achleitner was an Austrian poet and architecture critic. As a member of the Wiener Gruppe, he wrote concrete poems and experimental literature. His magnum opus is a multi-volume documentation of 20th-century Austrian architecture. Written over several decades, Achleitner made a personal visit to each building described. He was a professor of the history and theory of architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna.

Mohammad Nouri was one of the foremost folk and pop singers in Iran. Before the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Nouri was relatively unknown among Iranian pop music lovers mainly because his was string orchestral pop tunes hardly fit for disco and party entertainment, not to mention little exposure and publicity efforts on his part. Not surprisingly, other than a few folk tunes, such as "Jaan-e Maryam" and "Gol-e Maryam," he was mostly played on the state run radio shows, such as the Army Hour or during odd hours or ibetween. Later when the Islamic regime overhauled the entire state run mass media and most pop artists flew out of the country and later continued their career overseas for their fellow exiled Iranian concert audiences, Nouri's career flourished. He had stayed behind since he was considered one of the "people's artists" and his work, especially the lyrics were indigenous directly from native northern folk tradition. To the post revolutionary youth Nouri's and a host of other traditional musicians' work embodied true art unaffected by the western commercialism and its loose trappings. After years of having been side-staged by disco and popular entertainers, Nouri began to enjoy renewed fame and reputation as his fan base grew wider and wider. By this time he had turned full circle to folk orchestral music and almost abandoned the old string orchestral style.

Abdollah Shahbazi Iranian researcher

Abdollah Shahbazi is an Iranian historian.

Haroun Yashayaei is the chairman of the board of the Tehran Jewish Committee and leader of Iran's Jewish community. On January 26, 2006, Yashayaei's letter to the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, concerning his Holocaust denial comments, brought about worldwide media attention, including an interview with Der Spiegel.

Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani is an architect, architectural theorist and architectural historian as well as a professor emeritus for the History of Urban Design at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. He practices and promotes a formally disciplined, site- specific, and aesthetically sustainable form of architecture, one without modernist or postmodernist extravagances. As an author and editor of several acclaimed works of architectural history and theory, his ideas are widely cited.

Iraj Eskandari Iranian politician and translator

Iraj Eskandari was an Iranian communist-Marxist politician. He was one of the founders and prominent leaders of the Tudeh Party of Iran who, from its founding in 1941 throughout the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and later its prohibition in Iran in 1982, acted as the party's head and its secretary.

Siavash Kasrai Iranian poet

Siavash Kasrai was an Iranian poet, literary critic, and novelist. An active supporter of the Communist Tudeh Party of Iran from the late 1940s to the mid 1980s, he distanced himself from its leadership in 1988-90, and turned into an outspoken critic in the mid 1990s.

Edmund Collein German politician

Edmund Collein was an East German architect and urban planner. He is also known for his photography while studying at the Bauhaus art school.

Richard Lucae German architect

Richard Lucae was a German architect and from 1873 director of the Berliner Bauakademie.

Socialism in Iran

Socialism in Iran or Iranian socialism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century and encompasses various political parties in the country. Iran experienced a short Third World Socialism period at the zenith of the Tudeh Party after the abdication of Reza Shah and his replacement by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After failing to reach power, this form of third world socialism was replaced by Mosaddegh's populist, non-aligned Iranian nationalism of the National Front party as the main anti-monarchy force in Iran, reaching power (1949–1953), and it remained with that strength even in opposition until the rise of Islamism and the Iranian Revolution. The Tudehs have moved towards basic socialist communism since then.

Noureddin Alamouti politician

Noureddin Alamouti was an Iranian judge and politician. He served as the justice minister under cabinet of Ali Amini, during which he was noted for forming a powerful anti-corruption division that led to "the last serious attempt to realize the rule of law" in Pahlavi dynasty.

Christa Luft German politician and economist

Christa Luft is a German economist and politician of the SED/PDS. Luft joined the SED in 1958. From 18 November 1989 to 18 March 1990 she was economy minister in the Modrow government. From 1994 to 2002 she was member of the Bundestag for the PDS.

Kurt Liebknecht German architect and politician

Kurt Liebknecht was a German architect. After 1937 he pursued his career as a Soviet architect, except during a hiatus of eighteen months spent in a Soviet jail as a suspected spy.

References

  1. Maziar Behrooz, "Tudeh Factionalism and the 1953 Coup in Iran", International Journal of Middle East Studies (2001), 33:3:363–382 Cambridge University Press
  2. 1 2 Haleh Afshar, "Maryam Firouz", Obituary, The Guardian , 31 March 2008
  3. Dr.ir. Hamed Khosravi : The Double Life of N.K. collections and events at IISH. (Dr.ir. Hamed Khosravi is an architect, writer and educator. He was a research fellow at the IISG and a lecturer at the TU Delft Faculty of Architecture.)
  4. In alten und neuen Städten, Silvio Macetti (N.K.), gewidmet Georg Piltz.
  5. Cameron Hume, The United Nations, Iran, and Iraq: How Peacemaking Changed, Indiana University Press (May 1, 1994), pg. 62
  6. Ali Gheissari, Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, Democracy in Iran: History and the Quest for Liberty, Oxford University Press, (2006), pg. 96
  7. Maziar Behrooz, Rebels with a Cause, (2000), p.129
  8. "Death of Noureddin Kianouri", The Guardian (Communist Party of Australia), Issue No: 980, November 17, 1999
  9. Grosswoheinheiten (VEB Verlag), Silvio Macetti N.K.
Party political offices
Preceded by
Iraj Eskandari
First-Secretary of the Tudeh Party of Iran
1979–1984
Succeeded by
Ali Khavari
Preceded by
Unknown
Second-Secretary of the Tudeh Party of Iran
Unknown–1979
Succeeded by
Farajollah Mizani