Nouvelle-Aquitaine

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Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Nòva Aquitània (Occitan)
Akitania Berria (Basque)
Le chateau de La Roque en Perigord, vue d'ensemble N.E. en automne, commune de Meyrals, Dordogne, France.jpg
Flag Nouvelle Aquitaine.svg
BlasonNouvelleAquitaine.svg
Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France 2016.svg
CountryFlag of France.svg France
Prefecture Bordeaux
Departments
Government
   President of the Regional Council Alain Rousset (PS)
Area
  Total84,036 km2 (32,446 sq mi)
  Rank1st
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [1]
  Total6,010,289
  Density72/km2 (190/sq mi)
Demonym New-aquitanians
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code FR-NAQ
GDP  () Ranked
Total€ billion (US$ bn)
Per capita€ (US$)
Official languages French
Website www.nouvelle-aquitaine.fr OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Nouvelle-Aquitaine (French pronunciation:  [nuvɛl akitɛn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Occitan : Nòva Aquitània [ˈnɔβɔ akiˈtanjɔ] or Novèla Aquitània [nuˈβɛlɔ akiˈtanjɔ] ; Basque : Akitania Berria; [2] Poitevin-Saintongeais: Novéle-Aguiéne) is the largest administrative region in France, spanning the west and southwest of the mainland. The region was created by the territorial reform of French regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine, Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. It covers 84,036 km2 (32,446 sq mi) – or 18 of the country – and has 5,956,978 inhabitants (municipal population on 1 January 2017). [3] The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015. [4]

Contents

It is the largest region in France by area (including overseas regions such as French Guiana), with a territory slightly larger than that of Austria. Its prefecture and largest city, Bordeaux, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the seventh-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants. The region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne (288,000 inhabitants), Limoges (283,000), Poitiers (255,000), Pau (241,000) and La Rochelle (206,000), as well as eleven major clusters.

New Aquitaine has five universities (Bordeaux, La Rochelle, Limoges, Poitiers and Pau) and several Grandes Écoles. It has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast: Arcachon, Biarritz and Royan, as well as several ski resorts (most notably Gourette).

Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture (vineyards of Bordeaux and Cognac), tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design, parachemical and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector (Niort) and industrial ceramics (Limoges). The new region includes major parts of Southern France ("Midi de la France"), marked by Basque, Occitan, Poitevin and Saintongeais cultures. Historically, it is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine; it extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Toponymy

Map of the new region with its twelve departements, colored according to the historical provinces as they existed until 1790.
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Guyenne and Gascony
Poitou
Limousin
Marche
Saintonge
Angoumois
Aunis
Lower Navarre and Bearn
Saumurois [fr]
Others Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes et provinces.svg
Map of the new region with its twelve départements, colored according to the historical provinces as they existed until 1790.
   Guyenne and Gascony
   Poitou
   Limousin
   Marche
   Saintonge
   Angoumois
   Aunis
   Saumurois  [ fr ]
  Others

The region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine , Limousin and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. [5]

In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula  [ fr ], a former vice-president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine". [6] The decision came after the popular favourite, "Aquitaine", [7] faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favourite, "Grande Aquitaine", was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. [8] Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. [9]

On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of 1 July deadline, the Regional Council almost unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. [5] [10] France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. [11]

History

Geography

At 84,061 square kilometres, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France (mainland and overseas alike).

Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions (Pays de la Loire to the north-west, Centre-Val de Loire to the northeast, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes to the east, and Occitania to the south-east), three autonomous communities in Spain to the south (from east to west, Aragon, Navarre, and Basque Country), and the North Atlantic Ocean (the eastern part of Bay of Biscay, Golfe de Gascogne in French) to the west.

Departments

Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Creuse, Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres, Vienne and Haute-Vienne.

Urban centers

Its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of over one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory (population 2011):

In addition, the region has a network of medium-sized towns scattered throughout its territory, including:

Geographical features

The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin (the border between the two being located at the "Seuil du Poitou") and the Limousin plate (part of the Massif Central) and the western part of the Pyrenees. It is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente, Garonne and Dordogne (and their extension, the Gironde estuary) and Adour, giving rivers bordering land dedicated mostly to viticulture and to agriculture.

The Dune of Pilat is the tallest sand dune in Europe. Dune du Pyla 2014 3.JPG
The Dune of Pilat is the tallest sand dune in Europe.

Nouvelle-Aquitaine also relies on the presence of a large open coastline on the Atlantic Ocean, from the National Nature Reserve Aiguillon Bay and the estuary of the Sèvre (north Charron) than Bidasoa (south of Hendaye) and including the islands of the Charentais Archipelago (islands of , Oléron, Aix and Madame) and the wide notch from Arcachon. This diverse area is the area of the oyster (Marennes-Oléron and the Bassin d’Arcachon), mussel (mussels from Baie de l’Aiguillon), and Tourism, evidenced by the presence of famous resorts such Arcachon (Côte d’Argent), Biarritz (Côte Basque) and Royan (Côte de Beauté).

From the Arvert Peninsula  [ fr ] to the coast of Labourd, the coastline, almost straight, is lined with high dunes, rising to the Dune du Pilat, large lakes (Lac d'Hourtin-Carcans, Étang de Lacanau, Étang de Cazaux et de Sanguinet , Lac de Biscarrosse et de Parentis) and wetlands (réserve naturelle nationale des dunes et marais d'Hourtin) above vast pine forests planted in the nineteenth century. The Landes forest, by far the most extensive, covering almost one million hectares (nearly 950,000 of maritimes pins), making it the largest artificial forest of Western Europe. Forming a vast triangle starting from the Pointe de Grave, north of Soulac-sur-Mer to Hossegor in the south and east Nérac, it replaced the thankless, sandy and marshy moorland that characterised the region for centuries. The Landes forest is partially included in the Landes de Gascogne Regional Natural Park, which begins south of Bordeaux.

Further north, in the wake of the Landes forest, on the right bank of the Gironde estuary, the forest of la Coubre presents the same characteristics, forming the main "green lung" of Royan on nearly 8000 hectares. Other important forests cover the region: in the Basque Country, the Irati Forest covers over 17,000 hectares; at the borders of the Charente, Charente-Maritime and Dordogne, the forest of the Double, punctuated by nearly 500 lakes, spans about 50,000 hectares; further north, near Poitiers, Moulière forest  [ fr ] stretches nearly 6,800 hectares. Further east, close to Guéret, the Chabrières forest  [ fr ] reaches 2000 hectares.

Pic du Midi d'Ossau Ossau face est01.jpg
Pic du Midi d'Ossau

The extreme southern region has a mountainous character with the presence of the Pyrenees. If its western part (mountains of Labourd) is made more high green hills generally struggling to reach 1000 meters (La Rhune, near Bayonne, is 905 meters high, but further east, the culmination of French Basque Country, the pic d'Orhy, nevertheless amounts to 2017 m), the Pau region is marked by more mineral landscapes, and is surrounded by high peaks often exceeding 2000 meters. The highlight of the region, the Pic Palas  [ simple ] (2974 m) is located not far away. Other Pyrenean peaks located in the region are also spectacular Pic du Midi d'Ossau (2884 meters), the Pic d'Arriel  [ fr ] (2824 m), the Pic de Ger (2613 m) near the Winter resort Gourette, Pic d'Anie (2504 m), the Latte de Bazen  [ fr ] (2472 m), the Pic d'Ansabère  [ eu ] (2377 m), the Pic de l'Arraille  [ fr ] (2147 m) or the Pic d'Arlas  [ ru ] (2044 m).

This hilly region is traversed many mountain streams, called gaves: among these include the Gave de Pau, the Gave de Bious  [ fr ] the Gave d'Ossau or the Gaves réunis, on the border of Landes and Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Ossau Valley, one of the three valleys of Béarn, extends from the suburbs of Pau to Col du Pourtalet to the Spanish border. Glacial lakes, its fauna and flora exceptional explain its integration into the Pyrénées National Park.

Belonging to the Massif Central, Limousin also has a marked relief, with its high plateaux and some hedgerow eroded peaks that dominate green valleys and forests of oak and chestnut trees. Limousin plateau, cut by the valleys of the Vienne (who waters his capital, Limoges) Isle, Vézère or the picturesque Corrèze, with its cashed reliefs, hardly exceeds 500 meters. It marks the watershed line between the Loire basin to the north (the sources of the Briance, the Aixette  [ de ], the Grêne  [ de ] or the Gorre), the basin south of the Dordogne (sources of Dronne, of Isle and of Auvézère) and maritime watershed of the Charente, in the west.

Typical landscape in Correze Sedieres 1 110.jpg
Typical landscape in Corrèze

The mountains of Limousin, which include a series of small mountains (Mont Fayat, Monedières Hills, Mont de Châlus) peak at Mont Bessou (976 m), in Corrèze. Further north, the mountains of Marche, which are divided into mountains of monts de Guéret, mont d'Ambazac and monts de Blond, are more like high wooded hills dotted with pastures, as real peaks. They culminate in Signal de Sauvagnac (701 m), in Haute-Vienne. Southwest of Limousin and Périgord northwest since 1998 are integrated to the Parc naturel régional Périgord Limousin.

The northern part of the region, which corresponds to the Haut-Poitou history, is organised around a tray agricultural and viticultural (vineyard of Haut-Poitou) irrigated by the Vienne, Clain or the Gartempe, which form so little valleys, often lined with oak forests. Further south, the Niortais this open landscapes (openfields) in grain dominant, but also rich wetland areas such as the Marais Poitevin, a legacy of an old marine gulf filled with alluvium, which is divided into wet marshes (we speaks more readily of "Green Venice") and marshes dried up, converted into mixed farming. Niort, on the Sèvre Niortaise, main town of the Haut-Poitou outside Poitiers, is like a door of this "Green Venice" much of which belongs to the parc naturel régional du Marais poitevin, established in 1979, classified "Grand site de France".

Further south lie the Charentes, which correspond to the former provinces of Aunis, Angoumois and Saintonge. Aunis is not unlike the landscape of Niortais, with large marshes that extend from either side of La Rochelle and Rochefort (Baie d'Yves, marais de Rochefort, Broue and Brouage) but also the islands of and Aix, with varied landscapes where pine forests mingle, sandy beaches or the curious lagoon of Fier d'Ars, the sands in constant motion, which houses a bird sanctuary. The interior of the territory is marked by the presence of a rich plain cereal evoking the Beauce by its open relief on the horizon. At the center of this space, the city of Surgères remained a pastureland where dairy farming has retained its importance: the small city is thus a production centers butter, Beurre de Charentes-Poitou.

Between Poitou and Charente-Maritime, the Marais Poitevin Le Vanneau-Passerelle.jpg
Between Poitou and Charente-Maritime, the Marais Poitevin

The Angoumois forms a transitional space between the coastal plains of Aunis, large "champagne" of Saintonge and Limousin plateau. Dotted with small hills, he seems to live to the rhythm of the Charente, real artery watering its major cities, Angoulême, Cognac and Jarnac. Great wine region, internationally renowned alcohol is produced there, cognac, and a water spirits called Pineau des Charentes. The western quarter of Charentes consists of Saintonge, organised territory around the towns of Saintes, the first capital of Aquitaine in Roman times, and Royan.

In continuation of the Angoumois, the Dordogne approximately corresponds to the former province of Périgord. Taking its name from the river of the same name, which flows Bergerac but not its prefecture, Périgueux (the edge of the Isle), the area with varied landscapes has a large afforestation rate (45%) making it the third most wooded department France. The great forests of oak and chestnut trees of green Périgord, organised around Nontron, meet the great grain fields of the White Périgord, nicknamed "the breadbasket of the Périgord", the oak, walnut and black Périgord truffle, around Sarlat-la-Caneda and vineyards of Bergerac or purple Périgord, which produces Bergerac, monbazillac or pécharmant.

The Gironde estuary is the largest estuary in Western Europe. Roseliere de Pauillac et carrelets sur l'estuaire de la Gironde, France.jpg
The Gironde estuary is the largest estuary in Western Europe.

The Gironde estuary, which acts as a link between Saintonge, Blayais  [ oc ], Médoc and western Guyenne, is in itself a world apart. Wild largest estuary in Europe, being classified in the marine park with the "Pertuis charentais", it is lined with large marshes ("Petite Camargue" and hillsides which produces most of the great Bordeaux wines from the Côtes-de-Bordeaux and Côtes-de-Bourg on the right bank to the great wines of the left bank Médoc (Pauillac, Margaux, Saint-Estèphe, Saint-Julien. The vineyards of Bordeaux, with international reputation, has done for centuries the reputation of the region. His productions are exported worldwide.

Farther south lies the vast plain Landes (south of Gironde and Landes), which begins near Bordeaux and go to the Pyrénées. Largely occupied by the Landes forest, it is also a major agricultural area (maize farming) and hosts a spa of international reputation, Dax, also the capital of Chalosse, important breeding ground.

"Cabanes tchanquees" in Arcachon Bay Bassin d'Arcachon - Cabanes tchanquees.jpg
"Cabanes tchanquées" in Arcachon Bay

The coastline subject to severe erosion, remained very wild. Some resorts have been built in the dunes from Soulac-sur-Mer in the north of the Gironde, via Lacanau, Hourtin, Biscarrosse, Mimizan and Capbreton, without forgetting those bordering the Bay of Arcachon: Arcachon, Andernos-les-Bains, Lège-Cap-Ferret, Pyla-sur-Mer  [ es ]. This vast lagoon, wide open ocean, houses since 2014 the marine natural park of Arcachon basin.

Eastern Guyenne corresponds in part to the department of Lot-et-Garonne. Rich agricultural and farming area watered by both the Lot and the Garonne, it is famous for its "pruneaux", who took the name of its capital, Agen (nearly 8000 hectares of land are dedicated to Ente plum orchards) while Marmande is famous for its tomatoes. The mild climate explains that also cultivated tobacco, as well as strawberries ("gariguettes") and vines, used to produce the Côtes du marmandais the buzet or Côte de Brulhois, that relate to the broad vineyard of the Southwest. But the real glory of this land is Armagnac, a famous brandy, exported around the world. Its vineyards cover some of the departments of Lot-et-Garonne, Landes but also the Gers (in the neighbouring region of Occitania). It also produces the floc de Gascogne, with delicate floral accents.

The extreme south of the region consists of two territories in strong identity, the Basque Country (Northern Basque Country or "Iparralde") and Béarn. The first, which is organised around Bayonne, Biarritz, Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Labourd) Mauléon-Licharre (Soule) and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (Lower Navarre) has its warm and humid climate its green side, the Atlantic rains from butter against the Pyrenean barrier. The coast, with both high-end and family resorts, is a popular holiday resort. The interior is more rural and retains a strong agricultural tradition, and is a solid wine region, symbolised by the vineyard Irouléguy but also by traditional liquors such as izarra and patxaran, eau-de-vie characteristic of Navarre .

Anchored in the heart of the Pyrenees, the Béarn opposes its Gascon traditions. It has a succession of gently accented hills and valleys (that of Pau river, where the capital is located, Pau, and others named Orthez and Navarrenx, being the most populated), it comprises the Aspe, the Barétous  [ fr ] and Ossau valleys along with the Col du Soulor. Agriculture will always be prominent, as viticulture (jurançon, Madiran) even if the aeronautical and petrochemical sectors are also represented. The main ski resorts in the area, such as Artouste  [ fr ], Gourette, Issarbe  [ fr ], La Pierre Saint-Martin  [ fr ] and Le Somport  [ fr ] are concentrated in the Béarn area.

Languages

In 2008, the region Aquitaine made a survey on the languages in the region, and gave the following results. [12]

Languages in Aquitaine, 2008
LanguageFirst languagesTotal languages
French86.1%91.8%
English8.7%58.7%
Spanish2.8%44.1%
Occitan and other regional languages0.6%16.1%
German0.4%8.3%
Italian0.3%5.1%
Arabic0.3%2.9%
Basque0.1%1.7%
Other languages0.7%7.6%
Total100.0%236.3%

Climate

The region Nouvelle-Aquitaine essentially has a more or less altered oceanic climate. We distinguish the Aquitaine oceanic climate, which concerns most of the territory (Charentes to Landes), the Paris oceanic climate (Poitou), Limousin oceanic climate, tinged with semi-continental influences (Limousin) and basque microclimate, wetter (western half of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques and southern Landes). The Pyrenees has a specific climate that varies with altitude: the Pyrenean climate, which is a variation of mountain climate.

Wave at Saint-Clement-des-Baleines, on the Ile de Re (Charente-Maritime). Une Vague - A wave.jpg
Wave at Saint-Clément-des-Baleines, on the Île de Ré (Charente-Maritime).

In the north of the region, the Paris oceanic climate is marked by moderate rainfall, warm summers and cool winters, but moderately so. The Seuil du Poitou acts as a relative climatic barrier and regions further south belong to the Aquitaine oceanic climate area. Coastal areas are wetter overall, with moderate rainfall spread throughout the year, except for the summer months, where droughts are not uncommon. Summer, which is relatively warm, is tempered by sea breezes, and winters are cool-mild. Frosts and snow are unusual. Sunshine is quite high, with around 2,000 to 2,200 hours per year, which is comparable to some Mediterranean regions (Perpignan). Summer precipitation often take the form of thunderstorms, possibly violent, while winter is sometimes marked by storms, some of which have marked the area with their exceptional: Martin in 1999 (record of 198 km / h in Saint-Denis-d'Oléron), Klaus in 2009 (172 km / h to Biscarrosse) and Xynthia in 2010 (160 km / h on the Île de Ré).

The climate in Angoumois and Limousin is wetter and cooler, remains temperate with warm spring and has relatively warm summers, with variations due to altitude. The annual sunshine averages at 1850 hours. The climate of the Basque country and southern Landes is marked by its warm summers, mild winters but especially by its high rainfall, with Atlantic depressions that hit the Pyrenean foothills. This Microclimate explains the presence of lush vegetation and the green aspect of the region. Fogs are not rare, but usually dissipate very quickly.

As for the Pyrenean climate, suboceanic trend Béarn, it is subject to frequent "cap effect" when the north-west of disturbances abut against the Pyrenean mountains. Valley bottoms, true "funnels clouds" are particularly watered. The winter snow is important above 1200 meters. Pau valley has a microclimate, however, marked by strong sunlight (about 1900 hours a year) but high rainfall (1100 mm per year) and a near absence of frost in winter. Rainfall is usually brief there, but regular, and spread throughout the year.

Transport

Nouvelle-Aquitaine is a region of transit between the Paris Basin (including Île-de-France) and the Iberian Peninsula, but also between the Rhône Valley and the Atlantic and Mediterranean regions (noon Toulouse). This situation implies several years developing roads and major highways, especially in the context of the road Estuaries, but also the high-speed Paris-Bordeaux-Toulouse-Spain, which should help significantly shorten rail journeys.

Roads and highways

Many roads and highways in the region radiate from Bordeaux and just attach to its peripheral belt (Bordeaux ring road or A630). The main lines used for reinforcing roads and highways are in addition some terminal bonds designed to streamline access to two major resorts in the area, Arcachon (via Highway A660) and Royan (by via the N150, partly making 2X2 routes).

The ring road of Bordeaux supports a particularly heavy traffic. Ringbordeaux.jpg
The ring road of Bordeaux supports a particularly heavy traffic.

The A10 autoroute (the "Aquitaine") is the major artery between Bordeaux and Paris, commissioned in 1981. It is part of to the network of "autoroutes du Sud de la France" and provides access to several cities: Saintes, Niort or Poitiers. From Saintes, highway A837 allows drivers to reach the town of Rochefort. Further north, in Niort, an interchange provides access to the A83 motorway, the Vendée and Nantes (Pays de la Loire). The N10 is the main road of the Charente and an important road for connecting between Bordeaux and Poitiers including Angoulême.

Connecting the east of Bordeaux (Libourne) to Greater Lyon, the A89 motorway (called "La transversale") irrigates the eastern part of the region, facilitating travel between the cities of Bordeaux and Périgueux, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Tulle and Ussel. A little further south, the D936, which roughly follows the course of the Dordogne, is grafted on the Bordeaux ring road via an interchange at the municipalities of Cenon and Floirac. It gives access to the towns of Branne, Castillon-la-Bataille and Sainte-Foy-la-Grande (Gironde) and Bergerac (Dordogne).

Southwest of Bordeaux, the A63 is a major focus of the regional motorway network. Forming a large artery almost straight through the vast expanses of flat Landes de Gascogne, it crosses the south of Gironde and Landes (passes near Dax but avoids the prefecture, Mont-de-Marsan) before joining Bayonne and the Basque Country, to Irun, on the Spanish border, the main border crossing. The other border crossings, less frequented but less direct, are the Somport tunnel and Col du Pourtalet.

The Basque Country and Béarn are also served by a road parallel to the Pyrenees, which facilitates access to Toulouse and the Mediterranean regions: the A64, called "La Pyrénéenne". It starts from Briscous (in the outskirts of Bayonne), continues to Pau before reaching Tarbes in the neighbouring region of Occitania) and the Toulouse ring road.

The eastern region is well served by the A20 north–south axis between Paris and Toulouse and opens up Limousin. It thus goes through La Souterraine, Limoges and Brive-la-Gaillarde. Another important way, the European route E603 connects Limoges to Angoulême and Saintes. It represents one of the key elements of the road Central Europe Atlantic important channel of communication between the Rhône Valley and the Atlantic coast, which is divided into multiple plots at Angoulême and Saintes (Bordeaux, Royan and La Rochelle).

Rail network

The regional rail network is organised around the main towns: Bordeaux, Limoges, Poitiers, La Rochelle and Bayonne. The main line is the one between Paris and Madrid via Poitiers, Bordeaux and Hendaye; then comes the line Lille-Brive-la-Gaillarde, which serves Limoges, both served by TGV trains. Other lines are served mostly by the TER network of TER Nouvelle-Aquitaine.

With 10 million passengers a year, the Bordeaux-Saint-Jean station is the largest station in the region. Bordeaux Gare StJean R03.jpg
With 10 million passengers a year, the Bordeaux-Saint-Jean station is the largest station in the region.

The largest station in the region is Bordeaux-Saint-Jean, which accommodates 10 million passengers per year; then comes Limoges-Bénédictins station and its 2.5 million passengers. Poitiers has two stations: Poitiers station and Futuroscope station which serves the technology park Futuroscope. Angoulême station sees around 1.45 million passengers per year; Agen station links the Occitania region; Pau station, Dax station.

The implementation of the LGV Sud Europe Atlantique, which is part of a priority program initiated by the state.

Another important project for the region, the LGV Bordeaux–Spain extends of the South Europe Atlantic TGV line to connect with the Basque Y (high-speed line linking the Spanish cities of Bilbao, Vitoria, San Sebastian and Irun). It is part of the great South West Rail project and should facilitate regional connections between Bordeaux, Mont-de-Marsan, Dax, Bayonne, long-distance connections between the south of the region and Île-de-France, as well as international links to Spain (including Madrid).

The LGV Bar project between Poitiers and Limoges is part of this context, and should significantly shorten travel between the two cities (from just over an hour and a half to 45 minutes), facilitate interregional connections and access to Île-de-France. This project is one of the links of "Transline project" (Transversal Auvergne Atlantic Alpes), still under study.

Airports

The region benefits from the presence of several airport infrastructure. The main airport is Bordeaux-Merignac, world class, which hosts nearly four and a half million passengers per year and offers flights to many destinations; It is the seventh metropolitan France Airport (fifth if we except the Paris airports).

The terminal of the Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne Airport, which has the second greatest attendance in the region. Biarritz Aeroport (1).jpg
The terminal of the Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne Airport, which has the second greatest attendance in the region.

The second airport is Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne, third is Pau Pyrénées Airport, then Limoges-Bellegarde, and Bergerac Dordogne Périgord Airport.

The airport of La Rochelle - Île de Ré offers flights to several French and European cities. Smaller, airports Poitiers-Biard, Brive Dordogne, Agen-La Garenne and Périgueux-Bassillac offer mainly domestic flights. Airports Angoulême-Cognac and Rochefort-Charente-Maritime are only turned to business flights in the absence of regular commercial lines.

Harbours

Cruise ships mostly dock in the ports of La Rochelle (terminal La Pallice), Verdon-sur-Mer (shuttles for Royan), Pauillac, Bordeaux and Bayonne.

Royan harbour by night. Port de Royan de Nuit (2).jpg
Royan harbour by night.

Many marinas are open to smaller boats. The main ones are those of La Rochelle (4800 rings), Arcachon (2600 rings), Port-Médoc (1200 rings), Royan (1000 rings), of Capbreton (950 rings), Hendaye (800 rings), Saint-Denis-d'Oléron (750 rings) and Anglet-Biarritz (425 rings).

River transport is active on several rivers in the region: Charente (mainly between Rochefort and Angoulême), Gironde estuary, Garonne, Dordogne, Lot, Baise and Adour.

Landmark river tourism, the Canal de Garonne is an extension of the Canal du Midi (which together form the "Canal des Deux-Mers" between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean). It passes including Agen (Agen aqueduct) and continues until Castets-en-Dorthe (Gironde).

The entire watershed of the Dordogne is classified as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO since 11 July 2012 with the co-ordination structure Institution of regional public Dordogne basin. The basin of the Dordogne is one of the few places in France where the presence of eight migratory fish species proved with Atlantic salmon, sea trout, river lamprey, sea lamprey, Allis shad, shad feigned, eel, and sturgeon in Europe. Other species associated with water, such as the common otter and the European mink, or the penny whistle swimming, are also present.

Two water agencies (Adour-Garonne and Loire-Bretagne) are involved in water management in the region.

Economy

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the region was 177.0 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 7.5% of French economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 26,500 euros or 88% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 101% of the EU average. [13]

The economy of the region is based on several pillars: diversified agriculture, a set of famous vineyards (Bordeaux wine, brandies of Cognac and Armagnac), but also a decisive role in the industry sectors aerospace, defence, biotechnology, chemistry and more generally for scientific research, relying on a network of universities and Grandes Ecoles.

The business district of Meriadeck at Bordeaux, remained on a human scale. Bordeaux Meriadeck R02.jpg
The business district of Mériadeck at Bordeaux, remained on a human scale.

Nouvelle-Aquitaine can also count on a large image and digital sector ("Campus de l'Image" of Angoulême, future "Cité Numérique" of Bègles), a dense network of small and medium enterprises, the presence in its territory of large agribusiness as well as a port network including three major commercial ports being balanced due to their geographical position (Grand Port maritime de La Rochelle in the north, Grand Port maritime de Bordeaux and port of Bayonne in the south).

Agricultural and wine sectors

An important rural Region, Nouvelle-Aquitaine has a varied agriculture. Cattle breeding (regional races: Limousin, Bordelais, Parthenais, Blonde d'Aquitaine, Gasconne, Bazadais and Béarnais) is predominant in the Bressuirais and Confolentais grove and in the Aunisienne plain, on the high Limousin plateau, in the Bazadaises and Chalossiennes Hills and is used both in the production of meat to milk production. There are also two other bovine regional breeds do not belong to the list of official French breeds (Marinelandaise and Betizu) endangered. The area has many quality labels ("Veau fermier élevé sous la mère", Limousin beef ...).

Blonde d'Aquitaine in the Pyrenees. Blonde Aquitaine.jpg
Blonde d'Aquitaine in the Pyrenees.

Goats (regional breeds: Poitevine, Pyrenees and Massif Central) are mainly concentrated in the north of the region (Charente, Charente-Maritime, Deux-Sèvres and Vienne) and are used for cheese production (chabichou, mothais sur feuille, jonchée). Some departments complement this area (Corrèze and Dordogne with a part of the production of Rocamadour AOC). Sheep farming (regional races: Basque-béarnaise, Landes, limousine, manech black head, red head and Xaxi Ardia) is well represented in the Limousin (Limousin lamb) the Charentes (lamb Poitou-Charentes), the Médoc (Pauillac lamb) and the Basque and Bearn Pyrenees.

Pig farming, which represents a significant part of the agri-food sector is distributed throughout the region (regional races: black ass Limousin, Gascon pork pie black Basque) and is guaranteed by the label "porc du Sud-Ouest ". The pigs in the region are used to produce many meat products, starting with the famous Bayonne ham. Many farms have also specialised in poultry production including yellow chicken Saint-Sever and poultry of Sèvres val (regional races Barbezieux, Limousin, Gascony, Landes and Marans) and fat waterfowl (mule ducks and geese), primarily designed for the production of foie gras and confit. Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the first European region for foie gras (more than half the French production). The label "Canard à foie gras du Sud-Ouest" occupies a large part of the region.

The region is the birthplace of many other breeds (regional donkey breeds: the Pyrenees and Poitou, regional equine: Poitevin mule, Landais and Pottock).

The area is also an important oyster production center, with oysters " de Claires" from Marennes-Oléron (in the estuary of the Seudre) and those of Arcachon and Cap Ferret and a stronghold of the mussel with mussels from Aiguillon Bay (near La Rochelle) and mussel Boyardville and Port-des-Barques.

Cognac, one of two regional famous brandies with Armagnac. Remy Martin XO - Louis XIII - Hennessy Paradis.jpg
Cognac, one of two regional famous brandies with Armagnac.

Viticulture is a key sector of the local economy, the region with the presence of some of the most prestigious French vineyards: vineyards of Bordeaux, Bergerac, Cognac (production of Cognac and Pineau des Charentes) and partially, Armagnac (production of Armagnac and Floc de Gascogne), Southwest vineyards in the valleys of the Garonne and Lot, vineyard slopes of the Pyrenees (jurançon, irouléguy) and vineyards of Haut-Poitou. The vineyards of the Limousin, formerly prolific now confidential, but continues to provide quality wines (vineyards Verneuil-sur-Vienne and Correze vineyard, including giving the wine country and the Correze "vin paillé" of Queyssac-les-Vignes).

The region plays a vital role for cereal crops (wheat), herbage and oil (corn, sunflower), which bloom in the valleys of the Adour, Charente and the Garonne. Large agricultural cooperatives are located in the area: Lur Berri, Maïsadour, or Natea Charentes Alliance.

Tobacco production remains important in Langon area around La Réole, Auros, Monségur and Bazas (Gironde) in Bergerac, in Dordogne and in the Lot-et-Garonne. Mixed farming has led to the establishment of more localised cultures, but nevertheless considered: Périgord walnuts, Limousin apples, strawberries valleys of the Dordogne and Lot, Charentais melons hillsides, beans ("mojhettes") of val d'Arnoult and the Marais Poitevin, the Marmande tomatoes, peppers from Landes and the Basque Country, the Espelette pepper.

The agri-food sector is characterised by the presence of several national brands and international production sites, including Madrange (Limoges), Blédina (Brive-la-Gaillarde), Marie (Airvault and Mirebeau) Senoble (Aytré, near La Rochelle ), Lu (Cestas, near Bordeaux) Cémoi (Bègles, near Bordeaux), Charal (Égletons, in Corrèze), Valade Group (Lubersac, in Corrèze) or Lindt & Sprüngli (Oloron-Sainte-Marie). Labeyrie headquartered in Came in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Delpeyrat in Mont-de-Marsan, in the Landes.

Forest resources

The region has significant forest resources.

The timber industry consists of two main types of activities that mainly use the wood of the Landes forest and secondarily of the Dordogne, Creuse, Corrèze and Haute-Vienne. The primary processing industries (pulp, sawing, slicing, etc.) are very often the result of large companies to perform operations that require large investments. The secondary processing industries (paper / cardboard, furniture, woodwork and plywood, etc.) do not require as many resources. They are more dispersed geographically and in the hands of smaller-scale undertakings or craft.

Industries

The region is a major international center in the field of aeronautics and space industry. Together with the neighbouring region Occitania, it belongs to the Aerospace Valley world-class industry cluster. The regional aerospace sector is closely linked to the defence sector, leading to talk of industry "ASD" (aeronautics, space and defence).

The regional aircraft industry is a world leader for business aircraft, high-tech batteries, high performance composite materials, landing gear systems and turbines for helicopters, the European leader for military aircraft, cockpit equipment and systems, ground tests and flight, launchers, solid propulsion, airborne radars and systems, weapons systems deterrence, atmospheric re-entry technology and national leader in the interior design of 'business aircraft, aircraft maintenance, UAV systems.

Many "Rafales" are assembled in Merignac, in the Bordeaux metropolis. Rafale 070412-N-8157C-542.JPEG
Many "Rafales" are assembled in Mérignac, in the Bordeaux metropolis.

The main sites are located in the city of Bordeaux, but also in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques and in Vienne. Of these, Dassault Aviation has five establishments in Mérignac (final assembly and commissioning flight Rafale and Falcon), Martignas-sur-Jalle (wing civilian and military aircraft), Biarritz (composites and assembly of structures), Cazaux (integration and armament test) and Poitiers (production of military aircraft canopy). Thales Group has two sites near Bordeaux: Pessac (aircraft embedded systems: mission computers, airborne radars combat and surveillance, unmanned aerial systems) and Hailsham (design and development of cockpit systems for major aircraft manufacturers in the world ). Airbus Defence and Space (development and production of Ariane launchers and of ballistic missiles for the French nuclear force) is located in Saint-Médard-en-Jalles. Safran has two major production facilities in the region: Turbomeca (world leader in helicopter turbines) near Pau and Snecma (maintenance and repair of military engines) in Châtellerault.

The region is also home to several military airbases, including a command center of the French Air Force. It also hosts major defence-related facilities such as the Megajoule laser and the main rocket testing facility of the Direction générale de l'armement.

The Turbomeca Arriel turboshaft engine, manufactured in Bordes (Pyrenees-Atlantiques). Turbomeca Arriel cutaway.jpg
The Turbomeca Arriel turboshaft engine, manufactured in Bordes (Pyrénées-Atlantiques).

The pharmaceutical and parachemical industry is particularly well represented in the city of Bordeaux: Sanofi has three sites on the outskirts of Bordeaux, Ambarès-et-Lagrave (production) Floirac (IT) and Saint-Loubès (logistics); Meda Pharma Group is located in Mérignac; The Merck Group operates a production unit in Martillac. Finally, CEVA Animal Health in Libourne.

In Agen, there is the UPSA Company (scientific pharmacology Union applied), sold to the US group Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) in 1994. Two factories and a logistics platform allow the market to deliver the full range of analgesics from aspirin and paracetamol to morphine. Since 1994, the US group has invested regularly in its two Agenais units that deliver half of their export production.

Limoges, long specialised in manufacturing and luxury (shoes, porcelain ...), is now a major cluster in the field of ceramics research (European Ceramics Pole). Legrand, French industrial group historically based in Limoges in the Limousin, is a world leader in products and systems for electrical installations and information networks. Ester Technology Park, is a business and research center that develops north of the city on several areas: ceramics; materials and surface treatments; electronics, optics and telecommunications; Health biotechnology; water and environment; Engineering in association with the University of Limoges.

Niort has developed over many years a financial sector based economy (insurance).

The oil and gas industry is also represented in the region, with the Lacq gas field near Pau, which was France's main source of natural gas in the 1970s.

Tourism

A view of the Castle of Fayrac in Castelnaud-la-Chapelle View of castle of Fayrac from castle of Beynac.jpg
A view of the Castle of Fayrac in Castelnaud-la-Chapelle

Tourism is an important sector in a region with significant assets, starting with a mild and sunny climate, famous vineyards (wine tourism) and many heritage sites, some of international renown. Its wide ocean frontage, stormed by thousands of vacationers - and surfers - every summer is characterised by sandy beaches that often stretch to the horizon. Indirect consequence of increasingly popular for water sports, many surf-related brands (mainly clothing and equipment) are present in the region, earning him the nickname "Glissicon Valley" in reference to Silicon Valley: Rip Curl, Billabong, Quiksilver, O'Neill.

The "Surf culture" very present on the coast, here in Lacanau, is the reason of the establishment in the area of brands related to this sector (Rip Curl, Billabong) Lacanau Pro 2009.jpg
The "Surf culture" very present on the coast, here in Lacanau, is the reason of the establishment in the area of brands related to this sector (Rip Curl, Billabong)

In the northern part of the coast, the Charente archipelago consists mainly islands of , Oléron and Aix, where alternate sheltered coves and beaches opening onto the open sea. The aunisiennes coast, near La Rochelle, greet some family seaside resorts such as Châtelaillon-Plage or Fouras. Further south, in the heart of the Côte de Beauté (Coast of Beauty), Royan is one of three major seaside resorts in the region. She has five beaches, not to mention those of neighbouring towns and the Côte Sauvage (Wild Coast) of the peninsula of Arvert, Mecca of surfing and board sports.

Beyond the Gironde estuary begins the Côte d’Argent (Silver Coast), large expanse of almost straight sand bordered by pine trees and large lakes Landes, punctuated by small resorts such as Soulac-sur-Mer, Vendays-Montalivet (famous for its naturist center) Hourtin, Lacanau, Biscarrosse, Mimizan, Hossegor or Capbreton. The Bassin d'Arcachon, which forms an indentation between Gironde and Landes coast, focuses on Arcachon, another seaside resort, nestled in the heart of the pine forest. It faces the Cap Ferret, beaten by the waves of the ocean. In continuation of the Côte d'Argent, the Basque coast is structured around Biarritz, Mecca of seaside tourism, Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Hendaye, and is famous for its eroded cliffs and powerful rollers which make it a favourite spot for surfers.

Winter sports enthusiasts are in the Pyrenean several stations where to practice skiing, snowboarding and snowblade. The main ones are Gourette, Artouste, La Pierre Saint-Martin, Issarbe, Le Somport, Iraty or Somport-Candanchu.

Many spas are located in the region, starting with Dax, but also Eaux-Bonnes, Eugénie-les-Bains, Saint-Paul-lès-Dax, Salies-de-Béarn, Cambo-les-Bains, Jonzac, Saujon, Rochefort, La Roche-Posay or Évaux-les-Bains.

See also

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