Last updated
Franz Gareis - Novalis.jpg
Novalis in a 1799 portrait
BornGeorg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg
(1772-05-02)2 May 1772
Wiederstedt, Electorate of Saxony
Died25 March 1801(1801-03-25) (aged 28)
Weissenfels, Electorate of Saxony
Pen nameNovalis
OccupationProse writer, poet, mystic, philosopher, civil engineer, mineralogist
Alma mater University of Jena
Leipzig University
University of Wittenberg
Mining Academy of Freiberg
  • philosophy
  • natural science
  • religion
  • politics
Literary movement Jena Romanticism [1]
Signature Novalis Signature.png

Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (2 May 1772 – 25 March 1801), better known by his pen name Novalis (German pronunciation: [noˈvaːlɪs] ), was an 18th-century German aristocrat, poet, author, mystic and philosopher of Early German Romanticism.


Novalis was born into a minor aristocratic family in Electoral Saxony. He was the second of eleven children; his early household observed a strict Pietist faith. He studied law at the University of Jena, the University of Leipzig,and the University of Wittenberg. While at Jena he published his first poem and befriended the playwright and poet Friedrich Schiller. In Leipzig, he met Friedrich Schlegel, becoming lifetime friends. Novalis completed his law degree in 1794 at the age of 22. He then worked as a legal assistant in Tennstedt immediately after graduating. There, he met Sophie von Kühn. The following year Novalis and Sophie became secretly engaged. Sophie became severely ill soon after the engagement and died just after her 15th birthday. Sophie's early death had a life-long impact on Novalis and his writing.

Novalis enrolled at the Mining Academy of Freiberg in 1797, where he studied a wide number of disciplines including electricity, medicine, chemistry, physics, mathematics, mineralogy, and natural philosophy. He also met many of the formative figures of Early Germanic Romanticism at this time, including Goethe, Friedrich Schelling, Jean Paul, and August Schlegel. After finishing his studies, Novalis served as a director of salt mines in Saxony and later in Thuringia. During this time, Novalis also wrote his major poetic and literary works, including Hymns to the Night , which was published in Friedrich Schlegel's Athenaeum . In 1800, Novalis began showing signs of illness, which is thought have been either tuberculosis or cystic fibrosis. He died on 25 March 1801 at the age of 28.

Novalis's early reputation as a romantic poet was primarily based on his literary works, which were published by his friends Friedrich Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck shortly after his death, in 1802. These works include the collection of poems, Hymns to the Night and Spiritual Hymns, and his unfinished novels, Heinrich von Ofterdingen and The Novices at Sais. Schlegel and Tieck published only a small sample of his philosophical and scientific writings.

The depth of Novalis's knowledge in fields like philosophy and natural science has only come to be more broadly appreciated with the more extensive publication of his notebooks in the twentieth century. These notebooks show that Novalis was not only well read in these disciplines, he also sought to integrate this knowledge with his art. This goal can be seen in Novalis's use of the fragment, an literary form that he developed in collaboration with Friedrich Schlegel. The fragment allowed him to synthesize poetry, philosophy, and science into a single artform that could be used to address a wide variety of topics. Just as Novalis's literary works have established his reputation as a poet, the notebooks and fragments have established his intellectual role in the formation of Early German Romanticism.


Birth and early background

Oberwiederstedt castle Schloss Oberwiederstedt.jpg
Oberwiederstedt castle

Novalis, who was baptized as Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr (Baron) von Hardenberg, was born in 1772 at his family estate in the Electorate of Saxony, the Schloss Oberwiederstedt, in the village of Wiederstedt, [2] : 24 which is now located in the present-day town of Arnstein. Hardenberg descended from ancient, Lower Saxon nobility. Novalis' father was Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr (Baron) von Hardenberg (17381814), the estate owner and a salt-mine manager. His mother was Auguste Bernhardine (née von Böltzig) (17491818), who was Heinrich's second wife. Novalis was the second of eleven children. [3] : 5–7 Although Novalis had an aristocratic pedigree, his family was not wealthy. [4]

Novalis's early education was strongly influenced by Pietism. His father was a member of the Herrnhuter Unity of Brethren branch of the Moravian Church [5] and maintained a strict pietist household. Until the age of nine, he was taught by private tutors who were trained in pietist theology; subsequently, he attended a Herrnhut school in Neudietendorf for three years. [3] : 6–7

Coat-of-arms of the Hardenberg family Hardenberg-Ns-Wappen.png
Coat-of-arms of the Hardenberg family

When he was twelve, Novalis was put under the charge of his uncle Gotlob Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Hardenberg (1728-1800), who lived at his rural estate in Lucklum. [2] : 26 Novalis's uncle introduced him to the late Rococo world, where Novalis was exposed to enlightenment ideas as well as the contemporary literature of his time, including the works of the French Encyclopedists, Goethe, Lessing and Shakespeare. [3] : 8 At seventeen, Novalis attended the Martin Luther Gymnasium in Eisleben, near Weissenfels where his family had moved in 1785. At the gymnasium, he learned rhetoric and ancient literature. [2] : 26

Between 1790 and 1794, Novalis went to university to study law. He first attended the University of Jena. While there, he studied Immanuel Kant's philosophy under Karl Reinhold, [1] and it was there that he first became acquainted with Fichte's philosophy. [2] : 27 He also developed a close relationship with playwright and philosopher Schiller. Novalis attended Schiller's lectures on history [3] : 11 and tended to Schiller when he was suffering from a particularly severe flare-up of his chronic tuberculosis. [6] In 1791, he published his first work, a poem dedicated to Schiller, "Klagen eines Jünglings" ("Lament of a Youth"), in the magazine Neue Teutsche Merkur , an act that was partly responsible for Novalis's father withdrawing him from Jena and looking into another university where Novalis would attend more carefully to his studies. [7] In the following year, Novalis's younger brother, Erasmus enrolled at the University of Leipzig, and Novalis went with him to continue his legal studies. It as at this time that he met the literary critic Friedrich Schlegel, the younger brother of August. [3] : 13 Friedrich became one of Novalis' closest lifetime friends. [8] A year later, Novalis matriculated to the University of Wittenberg where he completed his law degree. [9]

Tennstedt: Relationship with Sophie von Kühn

After graduating from Wittenberg, Novalis moved to Tennstedt to work as an actuary for a district administrator, [9] Cölestin August Just, who became both his friend and biographer. [2] While working for Just in 1795, Novalis met the 12-year-old Sophie von Kühn, who at that time was considered old enough to receive suitors. [10] : 17 He became infatuated with her on their first meeting, and the effect of this infatuation appeared to transform his personality. [3] : 19 In 1795, two days before Sophie turned thirteen they got secretly engaged. Later that year Sophie's parents gave their consent for the two to become engaged, [11] : 128 Novalis's brother Erasmus supported the couple, but the rest of Novalis's family resisted agreeing to the engagement due to Sophie's unclear aristocratic pedigree. [10] : 25

Sophie von Kuhn Sophie von Kuhn.jpg
Sophie von Kühn

Novalis remained intellectually active during his employment at Tennstedt. It is possible that Novalis met Fichte, as well as the poet Friedrich Hölderlin, in person while visiting Jena in 1795. [12] Between 1795 and 1796, he created six sets of manuscripts, posthumously collected under the title Fichte Studies, that primarily address Fichte's work but cover a range of philosophical topics. [13] Novalis continued his philosophical studies in 1797, writing notebooks responding to the works of Kant, Frans Hemsterhuis, and Adolph Eschenmayer. [14]

Novalis's ongoing reflections upon Fichte's ideas, particularly those in the Wissenschaftslehre ( Foundations of the Science of Knowledge ) formed part of the foundation for his later philosophical and literary works, [15] Novalis focused on Fichte's argument that the concept of identity assumes a tension between self (i.e., "I") and object (i.e., "not-I") [16] Novalis's critique of Fichte arose from Novalis's literary commitments: [17] Novalis suggests that the tension between self and object that Fichte asserts is actually a tension between language and imagination. [18] Later, Novalis would take his critique further, suggesting that identity is not the separation of subject and object, but a dynamic process of equal partners in mutual communication. Novalis's viewpoint is summarized in his aphorism "Statt Nicht-Ich -- Du!" ("Instead of 'not-I', you"). [16]

In the final months of 1795, Sophie began to suffer declining health due to a liver tumor [19] that was thought to be caused by tuberculosis. [20] As a result, she underwent liver surgery in Jena, which was performed without anesthesia. [10] : 24 In January 1797, Novalis was appointed auditor to the salt works at Weissenfels. To earn a stable income for his intended marriage, he accepted the position and moved to Weissenfels to assume his duties. Sophie, on the other hand, stayed with her family. [2] : 31 Sophie once more became extremely ill, during which time Novalis's parents finally relented and agreed to the couple's engagement. However, two days after her fifteenth birthday, Sophie died, while Novalis was still in Weissenfels. Four months later, Novalis's brother Erasmus, who had been diagnosed with tuberculosis, also died. [20] The death of Sophie, as well as his younger brother, affected Novalis deeply. Their deaths catalyzed his more intensive commitment to poetic expression. [10] : 1–2 Sophie's death also became the central inspiration for one of the few works Novalis published in his lifetime, the Hymnen an die Nacht(Hymns to the Night) [21]

Freiberg: The Mining Academy

At the end of 1797, Novalis entered the Mining Academy of Freiberg in Saxony to become qualified as a member of the staff for the salt works at Weissenfels. His principle mentor at the academy was the geologist, Abraham Werner. [2] : 49 While at the academy, Novalis immersed himself in a wide range of studies, including electricity, galvanism, alchemy, medicine, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and natural philosophy. [22] He was also able to expand his intellectual social circle. On his way to Freiberg, he met Friedrich Schelling, and they later went on an art tour of Dresden together. He visited Goethe and Friedrich Schlegel's older brother, August, in Weimar and met the writer Jean Paul in Leipzig. [3] : 27

Novalis house plaque, Freiberg Novalisplaque.jpg
Novalis house plaque, Freiberg

In December 1798, Novalis became engaged for the second time. His fiancée was Julie von Charpentier, a daughter of Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Toussaint von Charpentier, the chair of mining studies at the University of Leipzig. [2] : 41 Unlike his relationship with Sophie, Novalis's affection for Julie developed more gradually. He initially saw his affection for Julie as a more "earthly" passion compared to his "heavenly" passion for Sophie, though he gradually softened this distinction with time. Eventually his feelings for Julie became the subject of some of his poetry, including the Spiritual Songs written in the last years of his life. [23] Novalis and Julie remained engaged until Novalis's death in 1801, and she tended him during his final illness. [2] : 43

In Freiberg, he remained active with his literary work. It was at this time that he began a collection of notes for a project to unite the separate sciences into a universal whole. [24] In this collection, Das allgemeine Brouillon (Notes for a General Encyclopedia), Novalis began integrating his knowledge of natural science into his literary work. This integration can be seen in an unfinished novel he composed during this time, Die Lehrlinge zu Sais (The Novices at Sais), which incorporated natural history from his studies as well as ideas from his Fichte studies into a meditation on poetry and love as keys to understanding nature. [25] More specifically, he began thinking about how to incorporate his recently acquired knowledge of mining to his philosophical and poetic worldview. In this respect, he shared a commonality with other German authors of the Romantic age by connecting his studies in the mining industry, which was undergoing then the first steps to industrialization, with his literary work. [26] This connection between his scientific interest in mining, philosophy and literature came to fruition later when he began composing his second unfinished novel, Heinrich von Ofterdingen. [27]

Novalis's grave in Weissenfels Weissenfels Hardenberg Novalis.jpg
Novalis's grave in Weissenfels

Novalis also began to be noticed as a published author at this time. In 1798, Novalis's "fragments" appeared in the Schlegel brother's magazine, Athenaeum . These works included Blüthenstaub (Pollen), Glauben und Liebe oder Der König und die Königin (Faith and Love or the King and the Queen), and Blumen (Flowers). [5] The publication of Pollen saw the first appearance of his pen name, "Novalis". His choice of pen name was taken from his 12th-century ancestors who named themselves de Novali, after their settlement Grossenrode, which is called magna Novalis in Latin. [28] Novalis can also be interpreted as "one who cultivates new land", which connotes the metaphoric role that Novalis saw for himself. [10] : 7 This metaphoric sense of his pen name can be seen in the epigraph of Pollen, the first work he published as Novalis: "Friends, the soil is poor, we must scatter seed abundantly for even a moderate harvest". [29]

Weissenfels: The final years

In early 1799, Novalis had completed his studies at Leipzig and returned to the management of salt mines in Weissenfels. [3] : 29–30 By December, he became an assessor of the salt mines and a director, and at the end of 1800, the 28-year-old Novalis was appointed an Amtmann for the district of Thuringia, [2] : 42 a position comparable to a contemporary magistrate.

While on a trip to Jena in the summer of 1799, Novalis met Ludwig Tieck, who became one of his closest friends and greatest intellectual influences in the last two years of his life. [3] : 30–34 They became part of an informal social circle that formed around the Schlegel brothers, which has been come to be known as the Jena Romantics or Frühromantiker ("early romantics"). [30] The interests of the Jena Romantics extended to philosophy as well as literature and aesthetics, [31] and has been considered as a philosophical movement in its own right. [32] Under the influence of Tieck, Novalis studied the works of the seventeenth-century mystic, Jakob Böhme, with whom he felt a strong affinity. [33] He also became deeply engaged with the Platonic aesthetics of Hemsterhuis, [34] as well as the writings of the theologian and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher. [3] : 32 Schleiermacher's work inspired Novalis to write his essay, Christenheit oder Europe (Christianity or Europe), [35] a call to return Europe to a cultural and social unity whose interpretation continues to be a source of controversy. [36] During this time, he also wrote his poems known as Geistliche Lieder (Spiritual Songs) [5] and began his novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen. [11]

From August 1800, Novalis began to cough up blood. At the time, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. However, recent research suggests that he may have suffered from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that may have been responsible for the early death of many of his siblings, including his brother Erasmus. [20] After a severe hemorrhage in November, he was temporarily moved to Dresden for medical reasons. In January, he requested to be with his parents in Weissenfels. He died there on 25 March 1801 at the age of twenty-eight. [11] He was buried in Weissenfels's Alter Friedhof (Old Cemetery).


Philipp Otto Runge's pen-and-ink drawing Night (1803). Runge's Romantic use of allegorical symbolism was influenced by his reading of Novalis. Brooklyn Museum - Night (Die Nacht) - Philipp Otto Runge.jpg
Philipp Otto Runge's pen-and-ink drawing Night (1803). Runge's Romantic use of allegorical symbolism was influenced by his reading of Novalis.

As romantic poet

When he died, Novalis had only published Pollen, Faith and Love, Blumen, and Hymns to the Night. Most of Novalis's writings, including his novels and philosophical works, were neither completed nor published in his lifetime. This problem continues to obscure a full appreciation of his work. [38] His unfinished novels Heinrich von Ofterdingen and The Novices at Sais and numerous other poems and fragments were published posthumously by Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel. However, their publication of Novalis's more philosophical fragments was disorganized and incomplete. A systematic and more comprehensive collection of Novalis's fragments from his notebooks was not available until the twentieth century. [19]

During the nineteenth century, Novalis was primarily seen as a passionate love-struck poet who mourned the death of his beloved and yearned for the hereafter. [39] He was known as the poet of the blue flower , a symbol of romantic yearning from Novalis's unfinished Novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen that became an key emblem for German Romanticism. [40] His fellow Jena Romantics, such as Friedrich Schlegel, Tieck, and Schleiermacher, also describe him as a poet who dreamt of a spiritual world beyond this one. [41] Novalis's diagnosis of tuberculosis, which was known as the white plague , contributed to his romantic reputation. [40] Because Sophie von Kühn was also thought to have died from tuberculosis, Novalis became the poet of the blue flower who was reunited with his beloved through the death of the white plague. [20]

The image of Novalis as romantic poet became enormously popular. When Novalis's biography by his long-time friend August Cölestin Just was published in 1815, Just was criticized for misrepresenting Novalis's poetic nature because he had written that Novalis was also a hard-working mine inspector and magistrate. [10] Even the literary critic Thomas Carlyle, whose essay on Novalis played a major role in introducing him to the English-speaking world and took Novalis's philosophical relationship to Fichte and Kant seriously, [42] emphasized Novalis as a mystic poet in the style of Dante. [43] The author and theologian George MacDonald, who translated Novalis's Hymns to the Night in 1897 into English, [44] also understood him as a poet of mystic desire. [45]

As philosophical thinker

In the twentieth century, Novalis's writings were more thoroughly and systematically collected than previously. The availability of these works provide further evidence that his interests went beyond poetry and novels and has led to a reassessment of Novalis's literary and intellectual goals. [46] He was deeply read in science, law, philosophy, politics and political economy and left an abundance of notes on these topics. His early work displays his ease and familiarity with these diverse fields. His later works also include topics from his professional duties. In his notebooks, Novalis also reflected on the scientific, aesthetic, and philosophical significance of his interests. In his Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia, he worked out connections between the different fields he studied as he sought to integrate them into a unified worldview. [47]

Novalis's philosophical writings are often grounded in nature. His works explore how personal freedom and creativity emerge in the affective understanding of the world and others. He suggests that this can only be accomplished if people are not estranged from the earth. [48] : 55 In Pollen, Novalis writes "We are on a mission: Our calling is the cultivation of the earth", [29] arguing that human beings come to know themselves through experiencing and enlivening nature. [48] : 55 Novalis's personal commitment to understanding one's self and the world through nature can be seen in Novalis's unfinished novel, Heinrich von Ofterdingen, in which he uses his knowledge of natural science derived from his work overseeing salt mining to understand the human condition. [27] Novalis's commitment to cultivating nature has even been considered as a potential source of insight for a deeper understanding of the environmental crisis. [49]

Magical idealism

Philipp Otto Runge's Der kleine Morgen (Little Morning) (1808) was also inspired by Novalis's ideas. Philipp Otto Runge 001.jpg
Philipp Otto Runge's Der kleine Morgen (Little Morning) (1808) was also inspired by Novalis's ideas.

Novalis's personal worldview- informed by his education, philosophy, professional knowledge, and pietistic background- has become known as magical idealism, a name derived from Novalis's reference in his 1798 notebooks to a type of literary prophet, the magischer Idealist (magical idealist). [51] In this worldview, philosophy and poetry are united. [24] Magical idealism is Novalis's synthesis of the German idealism of Fichte and Schelling with the creative imagination. [52] The goal of the creative imagination is to break down the barriers between language and world, as well as the subject and object. [51] The magic is the enlivening of nature as it responds to our will. [24]

Another element of Novalis's magical idealism is his concept of love. In Novalis's view, love is a sense of relationship and sympathy between all beings in the world, [52] which is considered both the basis of magic and its goal. [24] From one perspective, Novalis's emphasis on the term magic represents a challenge to what he perceived as the disenchantment that came with modern rationalistic thinking. [53] : 88 From another perspective, however, Novalis's use of magic and love in his writing is a performative act that enacts a key aspect of his philosophical and literary goals. These words are meant to startle readers into attentiveness, making them aware of his use of the arts, particularly poetry with its metaphor and symbolism, to explore and unify various understandings of nature in his all-embracing investigations. [54]

Magical idealism also addresses the idea of health. [52] Novalis derived his theory of health from the Scottish physician John Brown's Brunonian system of medicine, which sees illness as a mismatch between sensory stimulation and internal state. [55] Novalis extends this idea by suggesting that illness arises from a disharmony between the self and the world of nature. [52] This understanding of health is immanent: the "magic" is not otherworldly, it is based on the body and mind's relationship to the environment. [56] According to Novalis, health is maintained when we use our bodies as means to sensitively perceive the world rather than to control the world: the ideal is where the individual and the world interplay harmoniously. [32]   David Krell argues, however, that there is an anxiety in Novalis's sense of magical idealism. In Krell's view, its mutuality denies actual touch, which is seen by Novalis to inevitably lead to death. Krell suggests that magic he sees in Novalis is that of "distant touch", which Krell calls thaumaturgic idealism. [57]

Religious views

Caspar David Friedrich's Monk by the Sea (ca. 1808). Friedrich was also influenced by Novalis's and the Jena Romantics' aesthetic theories. Caspar David Friedrich - Der Monch am Meer - Google Art Project.jpg
Caspar David Friedrich's Monk by the Sea (ca. 1808). Friedrich was also influenced by Novalis's and the Jena Romantics' aesthetic theories.

Novalis's religious perspective remains a subject of debate. Novalis's early rearing in a Pietist household affected him through this life. [2] : 25 The impact of his religious background on his writings are particularly clear in his two major poetic works. Hymns to the Night contains many Christian symbols and themes. [3] : 68–78 And, Novalis's Spiritual Songs, which were posthumously published in 1802 were incorporated into Lutheran hymnals; Novalis called the poems "Christian Songs", and they were intended to be published in the Athenaeum under the title Specimens From a New Devotional Hymn Book. [3] : 78 One of his final works, which was posthumously named Die Christenheit oder Europa (Christianity or Europe) when it was first published in full in 1826, has generated a great deal of controversy regarding Novalis's religious views. [36] This essay, which Novalis himself had simply entitled Europa, called for European unity in Novalis's time by poetically referencing a mythical Medieval golden age when Europe was unified under the Catholic Church. [59]

One view of Novalis's work is that it maintains a traditional Christian outlook. The early biography of Novalis by his friend and employer Just describes Novalis as a person who kept the Pietist faith of his childhood until his death. [2] : 46–47 Novalis's brother Karl writes that during his final illness, Novalis would read the works of the theologians Nicolaus Zinzendorf and Johann Kaspar Lavater, as well as the Bible. [8] On the other hand, during the decades following Novalis's death, German intellectuals, such as the author Karl Hillebrand and the literary critic Hermann Theodor Hettner thought that Novalis was essentially a Catholic in his thinking. [41] In the twentieth century, this view of Novalis has sometimes led to negative assessments of his work. Hymns to the Night has described as an attempt by Novalis to use religion to avoid the challenges of modernity, [60] and Christianity or Europe has been described variously as desperate prayer, a reactionary manifesto or a theocratic dream. [36]

Another view of Novalis's work is that it reflects a Christian mysticism. [3] After Novalis died, the Jena Romantics wrote of him as a seer who would bring forth a new gospel: [41] one who lived his life as one aiming toward the spiritual while looking at death as a means of overcoming human limitation [61] in a revolutionary movement toward God. [21] In this more romantic view, Novalis was a visionary who saw contemporary Christianity as a stage to an even higher expression of religion [62] where earthly love rises to a heavenly love [63] as death itself is defeated by that love. [64] At the end of the nineteenth century, the playwright and poet Maurice Maeterlinck also described Novalis as a mystic. However, Maeterlinck acknowledged the impact of Novalis's intellectual interests on his religious views, describing Novalis as a "scientific mystic" and comparing him to the physicist and philosopher Blaise Pascal. [65]

More recently, Novalis's religious outlook has been analysed from the point of view of his philosophical and aesthetic commitments. [66] In this view, Novalis's religious thought was based on his attempts to reconcile Fichte's idealism, in which the sense of self arises in the distinction of subject and object, with Baruch Spinoza's naturalistic philosophy, in which all being is one substance. Novalis sought a single principle through which the division between ego and nature becomes mere appearance. [66] As Novalis's philosophical thinking on religion developed, it became influenced by the Platonism of Hemsterhuis, as well as the Neoplatonism of Plotinus. Accordingly, Novalis aimed to synthesize naturalism and theism into a "religion of the visible cosmos". [67] Novalis believed that individuals could obtain mystic insight, but religion can remain rational: God could be a Neoplatonic object of intellectual intuition and rational perception, the logos that structures the universe. [66] In Novalis's view, this vision of the logos is not merely intellectual, but moral too, as Novalis states "god is virtue itself". [48] : 78 This vision includes Novalis's idea of love, in which self and nature united in a mutually supportive existence. [68] This understanding of Novalis's religious project is illustrated by a quote from one of his notes in his Fichte-Studien (Fichte Studies): "Spinoza ascended as far as nature- Fichte to the 'I', or the person, I ascend to the thesis of God". [67]

According to this Neoplatonic reading of Novalis, his religious language can be understood using the "magic wand of analogy", [69] a phrase Novalis used in Europe and Christianity to clarify how he meant to use history in that essay. [70] This use of analogy was partly inspired by Schiller, who argued that analogy allows facts to be connected into a harmonious whole, [52] and by his relationship with Friedrich Schlegel, who sought to explore the revelations of religion through the union of philosophy and poetry. [71] The "magic wand of analogy" allowed Novalis to use metaphor, analogy and symbolism to bring together the arts, science, and philosophy in his search for truth. [54] This view of Novalis's writing suggests that his literary language must be read carefully. His metaphors and images- even in works like Hymns to the Night- are not only mystical utterances, [72] they also express philosophical arguments. [73] Read in this perspective, a work like Novalis's Christianity or Europe is not a call to return to a lost golden age. Rather, it is an argument in poetic language, phrased in the mode of a myth, [59] for a cosmopolitan vision of a unity [36] that brings together past and future, ideal and real, to engage the listener in an unfinished historical process. [35]



Posthumous Romantic portrait of Novalis from 1845 by Friedrich Eduard Eichens (based on Franz Gareis's 1799 painting) Novalis.jpg
Posthumous Romantic portrait of Novalis from 1845 by Friedrich Eduard Eichens (based on Franz Gareis's 1799 painting)

Novalis is best known as a German Romantic poet. [24] His two sets of poems, Hymns to the Night and Spiritual Songs are considered his major lyrical achievements. [19] Hymns to the Night were begun in 1797 after the death of Sophie von Kühn. About eight months after they were completed, a revised edition of the poems was published in the Athenaeum. The Spiritual Songs, which were written in 1799, were posthumously published in 1802. Novalis called the poems Christian Songs, and they were intended to be entitled Specimens From a New Devotional Hymn Book. After his death many of the poems were incorporated into Lutheran hymn-books. [3] : 78–87 Novalis also wrote a number of other occasional poems, which can be found in his collected works. [19] Translations of poems into English include:

Unfinished Novels

Novalis wrote two unfinished novel fragments, Heinrich von Ofterdingen and Die Lehrlinge zu Sais (The Novices at Sais), both of which were published posthumously by Tieck and Schlegel in 1802. The novels both aim to describe a universal world harmony with the help of poetry. The Novices at Sais contains the fairy tale "Hyacinth and Rose Petal". Heinrich von Ofterdingen is the work in which Novalis introduced the image of the blue flower . Heinrich von Ofterdingen was conceived as a response to Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship , a work that Novalis had read with enthusiasm but judged as being highly unpoetical. [65] He disliked Goethe making the economical victorious over the poetic in the narrative, so Novalis focused on making Heinrich von Ofterdingen triumphantly poetic. [74] Both of Novalis's novels also reflect human experience through metaphors related to his studies in natural history from Freiburg. [25] Translations of Novels into English include:

Novalis's handwriting (excerpt from Heinrich von Ofterdingen) Novalis ms.jpg
Novalis's handwriting (excerpt from Heinrich von Ofterdingen)


Together with Friedrich Schlegel, Novalis developed the fragment as a literary artform in German. For Schlegel, the fragment served as a literary vehicle that mediated apparent oppositions. Its model was the fragment from classical sculpture, whose part evoked the whole, or whose finitude evoked infinite possibility, via the imagination. [76] The use of the fragment allowed Novalis to easily address any issue of intellectual life he wanted to address, [34] and it served as a means of expressing Schlegel's ideal of a universal "progressive universal poesy”, that fused "poetry and prose into an art that expressed the totality of both art and nature". [77] This genre particularly suited Novalis as it allowed him to express himself in a way that kept both philosophy and poetry in a continuous relationship. [54] His first major use of the fragment as a literary form, Pollen, was published in the Athenaeum in 1798. [34] English translations include:

Political writings

During his lifetime, Novalis wrote two works on political themes, Faith and Love or the King and Queen and his speech Europa, which was posthumously named Christianity or Europe. In addition to their political focus, both works share a common theme of poetically arguing for the importance of "faith and love" to achieve human and communal unification. [36] Because these works poetically address political concerns, their meaning continues to be the subject of disagreement. Their interpretation have ranged from being seen as reactionary manifestos celebrating hierarchies to utopian dreams of human solidarity. [79]

Faith and Love or the King and the Queen was published in Yearbooks of the Prussian Monarchy in 1798 just after King Wilhelm Frederick III and his popular wife Queen Louise ascended to the throne of Prussia. [34] In this work, Novalis addresses the king and queen, emphasizing their importance as role models for creating an enduring state of interconnectedness both on the individual and collective level. [80] Though a substantial portion of the essay was published, Frederick Wilhelm III censored the publication of additional installments as he felt it held the monarchy to impossibly high standards. The work is also notable in that Novalis extensively used the literary fragment to make his points. [36]

Europa was written and originally delivered to a private group of friends in 1799. It was intended for the Athenaeum; after it was presented, Schlegel decided not to publish it. It was not published in full until 1826. [36] It is a poetical, cultural-historical speech with a focus on a political utopia with regard to the Middle Ages. In this text Novalis tries to develop a new Europe which is based on a new poetical Christendom which shall lead to unity and freedom. He got the inspiration for this text from a book written by Schleiermacher, Über die Religion ( On Religion ). The work was a response to the French Revolution and its implications for the French enlightenment, which Novalis saw as catastrophic. It anticipated, then, the growing German and Romantic critiques of the then-current enlightenment ideologies in the search for a new European spirituality and unity. [3] : 87–98 Below are some available English translations, as well as two excerpts that illustrate how Europa has variously been interpreted.

Collected and miscellaneous works in English

Additional works that have been translated into English are listed below. Most of the works reflect Novalis's more philosophical and scientific sides, most of which were not systematically collected, published, and translated until the 20th century. Their publication has called for a reassessment of Novalis and his role as a thinker as well as an artist. [78]

Novalis Museum at Weissenfels Weissenfels, Klosterstrasse 24-20151105-001.jpg
Novalis Museum at Weissenfels


Collected works (in German)

Novalis' works were originally issued in two volumes by his friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel (2 vols. 1802; a third volume was added in 1846). Editions of Novalis' collected works have since been compiled by C. Meisner and Bruno Wille (1898), by Ernst Heilborn (3 vols., 1901), and by J. Minor (4 vols., 1907). Heinrich von Ofterdingen was published separately by J. Schmidt in 1876. The most current version of Novalis's collected works is German-language, six-volume edition of Novalis works Historische-Kritische Ausgabe - Novalis Schriften (HKA) is edited by Richard Samuel, Hans-Joachim Mähl & Gerhard Schulz. It is published by Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1960–2006.

Novalis's Correspondence was edited by J. M. Raich in 1880. See R. Haym Die romantische Schule (Berlin, 1870); A. Schubart, Novalis' Leben, Dichten und Denken (1887); C. Busse, Novalis' Lyrik (1898); J. Bing, Friedrich von Hardenberg (Hamburg, 1899), E. Heilborn, Friedrich von Hardenberg (Berlin, 1901).


The political philosopher Karl Marx's metaphorical argument that religion was the opium of the people was prefigured by Novalis's statement in Pollen where he describes "philistines" with the following analogy, "Their so-called religion works just like an opiate: stimulating, sedating, stilling pain through innervation". [23] : 145

The musical composer Richard Wagner's libretto for the opera Tristan und Isolde contains strong allusions to Novalis' symbolic language, [82] especially the dichotomy between the Night and the Day that animates his Hymns to the Night. [83]

The literary critic Walter Pater includes Novalis's quote, "Philosophiren ist dephlegmatisiren, vivificiren" ("to philosophize is to throw off apathy, to become revived") [17] in his conclusion to Studies in the History of the Renaissance.

The esotericist and philosopher Rudolf Steiner spoke in various lectures (now published) about Novalis and his influence on anthroposophy. [84]

The literary critic, philosopher and photographer's Franz Roh term magischer Realismus that he coined in his 1925 book Nach-Expressionismus, Magischer Realismus: Probleme der neuesten europäischen Malerei (Post-expressionism, Magic Realism: Problems in Recent European Painting) may have been inspired by Novalis's term magischer Realist. [55]

The 20th-century philosopher Martin Heidegger uses a Novalis fragment, "Philosophy is really homesickness, an urge to be at home everywhere" in the opening pages of The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics. [85]

The author Hermann Hesse's writing was influenced by Novalis' poetry, [86] and Hesse's last full-length novel Glasperlenspiel ( The Glass Bead Game ) contains a passage that appears to restate one of the fragments in Novalis's Pollen. [87]

The artist and activist Joseph Beuys's aphorism "Everyone is an artist" was inspired by Novalis, [88] who wrote "Every person should be an artist" in Faith and Love or the King and the Queen.

The author Jorge Luis Borges refers often to Novalis in his work. [51]

The krautrock band Novalis took their name from Novalis and used his poems for lyrics on their albums.

Novalis records, which are produced by AVC Audio Visual Communications AG, Switzerland, was named in tribute to Novalis's writings.

The avant-garde filmmaker Stan Brakhage made the short film First Hymn to the Night – Novalis in 1994. The film, which visually incorporates the text of Novalis's poem, was issued on Blu-ray and DVD in an anthology of Brakhage's films by Criterion Collection.

The artist and animator Chris Powell created the award-winning animated film Novalis. The title character is a robot named after Novalis.

The composer, guitarist, and electronic music artist Erik Wøllo titled one of his songs "Novalis".

Related Research Articles

Johann Gottlieb Fichte German philosopher

Johann Gottlieb Fichte was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Recently, philosophers and scholars have begun to appreciate Fichte as an important philosopher in his own right due to his original insights into the nature of self-consciousness or self-awareness. Fichte was also the originator of thesis–antithesis–synthesis, an idea that is often erroneously attributed to Hegel. Like Descartes and Kant before him, Fichte was motivated by the problem of subjectivity and consciousness. Fichte also wrote works of political philosophy; he has a reputation as one of the fathers of German nationalism.

German philosophy Specialty in philosophy, focussed to German language origin

German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers. Søren Kierkegaard is frequently included in surveys of German philosophy due to his extensive engagement with German thinkers.

German Romanticism

German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism. Compared to English Romanticism, the German variety developed relatively early, and, in the opening years, coincided with Weimar Classicism (1772–1805). In contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety of Romanticism notably valued wit, humour, and beauty.

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling German philosopher

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his one-time university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its evolving nature.

August Wilhelm Schlegel German poet, translator, critic, and writer

August WilhelmSchlegel, usually cited as August Schlegel, was a German poet, translator and critic, and with his brother Friedrich Schlegel the leading influence within Jena Romanticism. His translations of Shakespeare turned the English dramatist's works into German classics. Schlegel was also the professor of Sanskrit in Continental Europe and produced a translation of the Bhagavad Gita.

Friedrich Schlegel German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist, and Indologist

Karl Wilhelm FriedrichSchlegel was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist, and Indologist. With his older brother, August Wilhelm Schlegel, he was one of the main figures of Jena Romanticism.

German idealism Philosophical movement

German idealism was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It developed out of the work of Immanuel Kant in the 1780s and 1790s, and was closely linked both with Romanticism and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment. The best-known thinkers in the movement, besides Kant, were Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the proponents of Jena Romanticism. August Ludwig Hülsen, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Salomon Maimon and Friedrich Schleiermacher also made major contributions.


Naturphilosophie is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century. German speakers use the clearer term Romantische Naturphilosophie, the philosophy of nature developed at the time of the founding of German Romanticism. It is particularly associated with the philosophical work of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel—though it has some clear precursors also. More particularly it is identified with some of the initial works of Schelling during the period 1797–9, in reaction to the views of Fichte, and subsequent developments from Schelling's position. Always controversial, some of Schelling's ideas in this direction are still considered of philosophical interest, even if the subsequent development of experimental natural science had a destructive impact on the credibility of the theories of his followers in Naturphilosophie.

Heinrich von Ofterdingen

Heinrich von Ofterdingen is a fabled, quasi-fictional Middle High German lyric poet and Minnesinger mentioned in the 13th century epic of the Sängerkrieg on the Wartburg. The legend was revived by Novalis in the eponymous fragmentary novel written in 1800 and by E. T. A. Hoffmann in his 1818 novella Der Kampf der Sänger.

John Weiss

John Weiss was an American author and clergyman, an advocate of women's rights, as well as a noted abolitionist.

Sophie von Kühn German noblewoman

Christiane Wilhelmine Sophie von Kühn was the love interest and eventual fiancée of the German Romantic poet and philosopher Friedrich von Hardenberg, known simply as Novalis. Her image famously appears in Novalis’ Hymns to the Night, a foundational text of the literary movement known as German Romanticism.

<i>The Blue Flower</i> 1995 novel by Penelope Fitzgerald

The Blue Flower is a 1995 novel by the British author Penelope Fitzgerald. It is a fictional treatment of the early life of Friedrich von Hardenberg who, under the pseudonym Novalis, later became a practitioner of German Romanticism.

The Athenaeum was a literary magazine established in 1798 by August Wilhelm and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel. It is considered to be the founding publication of German Romanticism.

Cyril J. O'Regan is an Irish Catholic intellectual and the Catherine F. Huisking Professor of Theology at the University of Notre Dame. O'Regan studied at University College Dublin gaining a BA and MA. He studied at Yale University earning an MA, MLitt and PhD.

Jena Romanticism is the first phase of Romanticism in German literature represented by the work of a group centred in Jena from about 1798 to 1804. The movement is considered to have contributed to the development of German idealism in late modern philosophy.

Andrew S. Bowie is Professor of Philosophy and German at Royal Holloway, University of London and Founding Director of the Humanities and Arts Research Centre (HARC).

August Ludwig Hülsen, also known by the pseudonym Hegekern, was a German philosopher, writer and pedagogue of early German Romanticism. His thought played a role in the development of German Idealism.

Transcendental poetry is a term related to the theory of poetry and literature and, more precisely, to the fields of aesthetics and romantic philosophy. The expression "transcendental poetry" was created by the German critic and philosopher Friedrich Schlegel (1772-1829) and also used by the poet and philosopher Friedrich von Hardenberg (1772-1801), also known as Novalis. Transcendental poetry links the literary field to the philosophical one, poetry to thinking, and the critical reflection to the artistic creation.

Hymns to the Night is a set of six poems written by the German Romantic poet Novalis between 1797 and 1800, often considered to be the climax of Novalis’ lyrical works and among the most important poetry of early German Romanticism. A revised version of the poems was published in the Athenaeum by Friedrich Schlegel in 1800.

The philosophical ideas and thoughts of Edmund Burke, Thomas Carlyle, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer and Richard Wagner have been frequently described as Romantic.


  1. 1 2 Redfield, Marc (2012). "Philosophy- Early German Romanticism: Schlegel, Novalis, Hölderlin". In Faflak, Joel; Wright, Julia M. (eds.). A Handbook of Romanticism Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 334.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Just,Cölestin August (1891) [1805]. "Life of Novalis". Novalis: His Life, Thoughts, and Works. Translated by Hope, Margaret Jane. Chicago: A. C. McClurg. pp. 23–50. Lock-green.svg
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hiebel, Frederick (1954). Novalis:German Poet—European Thinker—Christian Mystic. 10. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. doi:10.5149/9781469657554_hiebel. ISBN   9781469657554. JSTOR   10.5149/9781469657554_hiebel. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  4. Kermode, Frank (2009) [5 October 1995]. "Dark Fates [Review of The Blue Flower by Penelope Fitzgerald]". Bury Place Papers:Essays from the London Review of Books . London: London Review of Books. ISBN   9781873092040.
  5. 1 2 3 Pick, Bernhard (1910). Introduction. Devotional Songs of Novalis. By Novalis. Pick, Bernard (ed.). Chicago: Open Court. pp. 3–18. Lock-green.svg
  6. Snell, Robert (2012). "Psychoanalysis and Mysticism". Uncertainties, Mysteries, Doubts: Romanticism and the Analytic Attitude. New York: Routledge. p. 31.
  7. Saul, Nicholas (1982). "Novalis's "Geistige Gegenwart" and His Essay "Die Christenheit Oder Europa"". The Modern Language Review. 77 (2): 361–377. doi:10.2307/3726818. JSTOR   3726818.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  8. 1 2 von Hardenberg, Karl (2007) [1802]. "Karl von Hardenberg: Biography of His Brother Novalis". In Donehower, Bruce (ed.). The Birth of Novalis: Friedrich Von Hardenberg's Journal of 1797, with Selected Letters and Documents. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 106. ISBN   9780791480687.
  9. 1 2 Kneller, Jane (2003). "Chronology". Fichte Studies. By Novalis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521643924.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Donehower, Bruce (2007) [1802]. "Introduction". In Donehower, Bruce (ed.). The Birth of Novalis: Friedrich von Hardenberg's Journal of 1797, with Selected Letters and Documents. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 1–34. ISBN   9780791480687.
  11. 1 2 3 Tieck, Ludwig (2007) [1815]. "Ludwig Tieck "Biography of Novalis, 1815". In Donehower, Bruce (ed.). The Birth of Novalis: Friedrich Von Hardenberg's Journal of 1797, with Selected Letters and Documents. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 126–136. ISBN   9780791480687.
  12. Gjesdal, Kristin (2020), "Georg Friedrich Philipp von Hardenberg [Novalis]", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2020 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, archived from the original on 6 September 2020, retrieved 22 October 2020 Lock-green.svg
  13. Waibel, Violetta L. (2004). "Review of Jane Kneller (Ed.) Novalis Studies". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews: An Electronic Journal. Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020. Lock-green.svg
  14. Mason, Eudo C. (1967). "New Light on the Thought of Novalis: Volume 2 of the Stuttgart Edition". The Modern Language Review. 62 (1): 86–91. doi:10.2307/3724113. JSTOR   3724113.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  15. Newman, Gail (1989). "The Status of the Subject in Novalis's Heinrich von Ofterdingen and Kleist's Die Marquise von O...". The German Quarterly. 62 (1): 59–71. doi:10.2307/407036. JSTOR   407036.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  16. 1 2 Seyhan, Azade (2012). "Representation and Criticism". Representation and Its Discontents: The Critical Legacy of German Romanticism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 90–92. Lock-green.svg
  17. 1 2 Laman, Barbara (2004). "German Romantic Theory and Joyce's Early Works". James Joyce and German Theory: The Romantic School and All That. Madison,NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 37. ISBN   9781611472844.
  18. Aldouri, Hamman (2019). "Before Hegel: Schiller, Novalis and Aufhebung". Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy. 15 (1): 10–30. Lock-green.svg
  19. 1 2 3 4 Mason, Eudo C. (1961). "Novalis Re-Edited and Reassessed". The Modern Language Review. 56 (4): 538–552. doi:10.2307/3721616. JSTOR   3721616.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  20. 1 2 3 4 Barroso, Maria Do Sameiro (2019). "Insights on the History of Tuberculosis: Novalis and the Romantic Idealization". Antropologia Portuguesa. 36 (36): 7–25. ResearchGate:  337898914 Lock-green.svg
  21. 1 2 Wessell, Leonard P., Jr. (1975). "Novalis' Revolutionary Religion of Death". Studies in Romanticism. 14 (4): 425–452. doi:10.2307/25599987. JSTOR   25599987.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  22. Johnson, Laurie (1998). ""Wozu überhaupt ein Anfang?" Memory and History in "Heinrich von Ofterdingen"". Colloquia Germanica. 31 (1): 33. JSTOR   23981057.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  23. 1 2 O'Brien, William Arctander (1995). "After Sophie: Julie von Charpentier". Novalis, Signs of Revolution, Literature. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 66–70. ISBN   9780822315193.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 Wood, David D. (2007). "Introduction: The Unknown Novalis" (PDF). Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia: Die Allgemeine Brouillon. By Novalis. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. ix–xxx. ISBN   9780791469736. Lock-green.svg
  25. 1 2 Mahoney, Dennis F. (1992). "Human History as Natural History in "The Novices of Sais" and "Heinrich von Ofterdingen"". Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques. 18 (3): 111–124. JSTOR   41292842.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  26. Ziolkowski, Theodore (1992). "The Mind: Image of the Soul". German Romanticism And Its Institutions. Princeton,NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 18–26.
  27. 1 2 Erlin, Matt (2014). "Products of the Imagination: Mining, Luxury, and the Romantic Artist in Novalis's Heinrich von Ofterdingen". Necessary Luxuries: Books, Literature, and the Culture of Consumption in Germany, 1770–1815. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 175–202. ISBN   9780801453045. JSTOR   10.7591/j.ctt5hh26b.11 .
  28. Mahoney, Dennis F. (7 September 2004). "Novalis". In Knapp, Gerhard P. (ed.). The Literary Encyclopedia. United Kingdom: The Literary Dictionary Company.
  29. 1 2 Gelley, Alexander (1991). "Novalis, Miscellaneous Remarks [Original Version of Pollen]". New Literary History. 22 (2): 383–406. doi:10.2307/469045. JSTOR   469045.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  30. Redding, Paul (2009). "The Jena Romanticism of Friedrich Schlegel and Friedrich Schelling". Continental Idealism: Leibniz to Nietzsche. New York: Routledge. pp. 116–134. doi:10.4324/9780203876954. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Closed Access logo transparent.svg
  31. Rush, Fred (2005). "Review of The Romantic Imperative: The Concept of Early German Romanticism". Mind. 114 (455): 709–713. JSTOR   3489014.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  32. 1 2 Beiser, Frederick C. (2003). The Romantic Imperative: The Concept of Early German Romanticism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN   9780674011809.
  33. Mayer, Paola (1999). "An Interrupted Reception: Novalis". Jena Romanticism and Its Appropriation of Jakob Böhme: Theosophy, Hagiography, Literature. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 82. ISBN   9780773518520.
  34. 1 2 3 4 Stoljar, Margaret Mahoney (1997). Introduction. Novalis: Philosophical Writings. By Novalis. New York: Routledge. pp. 1–22.
  35. 1 2 Smith, John H. (2011). "Living Religion as Vanishing Mediator: Schleiermacher, Early Romanticism, and Idealism". The German Quarterly. 84 (2): 143. JSTOR   41237070.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Kleingeld, Paula (2008). "Romantic Cosmopolitanism: Novalis's "Christianity or Europe"". Journal of the History of Philosophy. 46 (2). Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Lock-green.svg
  37. Littlejohns, Richard (2003). "Philipp Otto Runge's "Tageszeiten" and Their Relationship to Romantic Nature Philosophy". Studies in Romanticism. 42 (1): 55–74. doi:10.2307/25601603. JSTOR   25601603.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  38. Wood, David D. (2002). "Novalis: Kant Studies (1797)". The Philosophical Forum. 32 (4): 328–338. doi:10.1111/0031-806X.00072. Closed Access logo transparent.svg
  39. Haase, Donald (1979). "Romantic Facts and Critical Myths: Novalis' Early Reception in France". The Comparist. 3: 23–31. JSTOR   44366652.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  40. 1 2 Robles, Nicolas Roberto (2020). "Novalis: The White Plague and the Blue Flower". Hektoen International: A Journal of Medical Humanities [Online]. 12 (3). ISSN   2155-3017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Lock-green.svg
  41. 1 2 3 Haussmann, J. F. (1912). "German Estimates of Novalis from 1800-1850". Modern Philology. 9 (2): 399–415. doi:10.1086/386867. JSTOR   432442. S2CID   161077351.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  42. Harrold, F. (1930). "Carlyle and Novalis". Studies in Philology. 27 (21): 47–63. JSTOR   4172052.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  43. Carlyle, Thomas (1852) [1829]. "Novalis". In Emerson, Ralph Waldo (ed.). Critical and Miscellaneous essays. Philadelphia, PA: A. Hart. pp. 167–186. Lock-green.svg
  44. Novalis (1897) [1800], translated by MacDonald, George, "Novalis-Hymns to the Night: Translated by George MacDonald and found in Rampolli (1897)", The George MacDonald WWW Page: Home to the George MacDonald Society, archived from the original on 10 April 2020, retrieved 18 October 2020 Lock-green.svg
  45. Partridge, Michael (2014). "George MacDonald & Novalis". The George MacDonald WWW Page: Home to the George MacDonald Society. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020. Lock-green.svg
  46. Ziolkowski, Theodore (1996). "Novalis: Signs of Revolution by Wm. Arctander O'Brien [Book Review]". Modern Philology. 94 (2): 240–246. JSTOR   437966.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  47. Kneller, Jane (5 September 2008). "Review of Novalis, David Wood (Ed., Tr.) Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia: Das Allgemeine Brouillon". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. 9. ISSN   1538-1617. Lock-green.svg
  48. 1 2 3 Nassar, Dalia (2013). "Romanticizing Nature and Self". The Romantic Absolute: Being and Knowing in Early German Romantic Philosophy, 1795-1804. University of Chicago Press. p. 55. ISBN   9780226084237.
  49. Becker, Christian; Manstetten, Reiner (2004). "Nature as a You: Novalis' Philosophical Thought and the Modern Ecological Crisis". Environmental Values. 13 (1): 101–118. JSTOR   30301971.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  50. "Philipp Otto Runge, Small Morning (1808)". German History in Documents and Images. 2003. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Lock-green.svg
  51. 1 2 3 Warnes, Christopher (2006). "Magical Realism and the Legacy of German Idealism". The Modern Language Review. 101 (2): 488–498. doi:10.2307/20466796. JSTOR   20466796.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  52. 1 2 3 4 5 Cahen-Maurel, Laure (2019). "Novalis's Magical Idealism: A Threefold Philosophy of the Imagination, Love and Medicine" (PDF). Symphilosophie: International Journal of Philosophical Romanticism. 1: 129–165. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2020. Lock-green.svg
  53. Josephson-Storm, Jason A. (2017). The Myth of Disenchantment: Magic, Modernity, and the Birth of the Human Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN   978-0-226-40336-6.
  54. 1 2 3 Kneller, Jane (2010). "Early German romanticism: The Challenge of Philosophizing". In Moyar, Dean (ed.). The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 295–327. ISBN   9781135151119.
  55. 1 2 Warnes, Christopher (2009). Magical Realism and the Postcolonial Novel: Between Faith and Irreverence. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 19. ISBN   978-0-230-23443-7.
  56. Neubauer, John (1971). "The Anthropology and Physiology of Magic". Bifocal Vision: Novalis' Philosophy of Nature and Disease. 68. Durham, NC: University of Carolina Press. pp. 57–75. doi:10.5149/9781469658070_neubauer. ISBN   9781469658063. JSTOR   10.5149/9781469658070_neubauer.7. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  57. Krell, David Farrell (1998). Contagion: Sexuality, Disease and Death in German Idealism and Romanticism. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana State University. pp. 21–22.
  58. Miller, Phillip B. (1974). "Anxiety and Abstraction: Kleist and Brentano on Caspar David Friedrich". Art Journal. 33 (3): 205–210. JSTOR   775783.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  59. 1 2 Littlejohns, Richard (2007). "Everlasting Peace and Medieval Europe: Romantic Myth-Making in Novalis's Europa". Myths of Europe. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. pp. 176–182.
  60. Monroe, Jonathan (1983). "Novalis' "Hymnen an die Nacht" and the Prose Poem "avant la lettre"". Studies in Romanticism. 22 (1): 93–110. doi:10.2307/25600414. JSTOR   25600414.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  61. Wernaer, Robert M. (1910). "Novalis and His Hymns to the Night". Romanticism and the Romantic School in Germany. New York: D. Appleton. p. 212. Lock-green.svg
  62. Willoughby, L. A. (1938). "German Affinities with the Oxford Movement". The Modern Language Review. 29 (1): 52–56. doi:10.2307/3716061. JSTOR   3716061.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  63. Toy, Walter D. (1918). "The Mysticism of Novalis". Studies in Philology. 15 (1): 14–22. JSTOR   4171721.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  64. Rehder, Helmut (1948). "Novalis and Shakespeare". PMLA. 63 (2): 604–624. doi:10.2307/459430. JSTOR   459430.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  65. 1 2 Maeterlinck, Maurice (1912). "Novalis". On Emerson and Other Essays. Translated by Moses, Montrose J. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 51–88. Lock-green.svg
  66. 1 2 3 Beiser, Frederick C. (2003). "Novalis' Magic Idealism". German Idealism: The Struggle Against Subjectivism, 1781–1801. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN   0674007697.
  67. 1 2 Crowe, Benjamin D. (2008). "On 'The Religion of the Visible Universe': Novalis and the Pantheism Controversy" (PDF). British Journal for the History of Philosophy. 16 (1): 125–146. doi:10.1080/09608780701789335. S2CID   170382946. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2020. Lock-green.svg
  68. O'Meara, John (2014). The Way of Novalis: An Exposition on the Process of His Achievement. Ottawa, Canada: HcP. p. 94. Lock-green.svg
  69. Dieckmann, Liselotte (1955). "The Metaphor of Hieroglyphics in German Romanticism". Compariative Literature. 7 (4): 306–312. doi:10.2307/1769042. JSTOR   1769042.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  70. Novalis (1799). ""Christendom or Europe"[Die Christenheit oder Europa]" (PDF). German History in Documents and Images. Lock-green.svg
  71. Weltman, J. (1975). "The Religion of Friedrich Schlegel". Modern Language Review. 31 (4): 539–544. doi:10.2307/3716141. JSTOR   3716141.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  72. Freeman, Veronica. The Poetization of Mystical Constructs in the Work of Novalis (PhD). University of Florida. Lock-green.svg
  73. Gwee, S. L. (2011). "Night in Novalis, Schelling, and Hegel". Studies in Romanticism. 50 (1): 105–124. JSTOR   23056008.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  74. Hahn, Hans-Joachim (2004). "Heinrich Von Ofterdingen 1802: Novel by Novalis". Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850. Oxfordshire, England: Taylor & Francis. pp. 485–486.
  75. Crocker, Samuel R., ed. (1873). "Notes and Queries". The Literary World, Vols 3-4. p. 137,154. Lock-green.svg
  76. Tanehisa, Otabe (1918). "Friedrich Schlegel and the Idea of the Fragment: A Contribution to Romantic Aesthetics" (PDF). Aesthetics. 13 (1): 59–68. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2018. Lock-green.svg
  77. Schlegel, Friedrich (1798). "Athenaeum Fragments". German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved 30 October 2018. Lock-green.svg
  78. 1 2 Gelley, Alexander (1991). "Novalis, Miscellaneous Remarks: Introduction". New Literary History. 22 (2): 377–381. doi:10.2307/469044. JSTOR   469044.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  79. Rosellini, Jay Julian (2000). "Predecessors and Predilections: A Problematic Legacy". Literary Skinheads? Writing from the Right in a Reunified Germany. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 3–26. ISBN   9781557532060. Lock-green.svg
  80. Matala de Mazza, Ethel (2009). "Romantic Politics and Society". In Saul, Nicholas (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to German Romanticism (PDF). pp. 191–207. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2017. Lock-green.svg
  81. Schaber, Steven C. (1974). "Novalis' "Monolog" and Hofmannsthal's "Ein Brief": Two Poets in Search of a Language". The German Quarterly. 47 (2): 204–214. doi:10.2307/403360. JSTOR   403360.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  82. Scott, Jill (1998). "Night and Light in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde and Novalis's Hymnen an die Nacht: Inversion and Transfiguration". University of Toronto Quarterly. 67 (4): 774–780. doi:10.3138/utq.67.4.774. S2CID   170123721. Closed Access logo transparent.svg
  83. Hutcheon, Linda; Hutcheon, Michael (1999). "Death Drive: Eros and Thanatos in Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde"". Cambridge Opera Journal. 11 (3): 267–293. doi:10.1017/S0954586700005073. JSTOR   823612.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  84. Steiner, Rudolf (2015) [1908-1909], Novalis: On his Hymns to the Night, translated by von Maltitz, Hannah, archived from the original on 18 July 2018, retrieved 29 November 2018 Lock-green.svg
  85. Heidegger, Martin (2001) [1929]. The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics: World, Finitude, Solitude. Translated by McNeill, William; Walker, Nicholas (Reprint ed.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 5. ISBN   9780253214294.
  86. Mileck, Joseph (1983). "Hermann Hesse and German Romanticism: An Evolving Relationship". The Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 82 (2): 168–185. JSTOR   27709146.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  87. Ziolkowski, Theodore (1996). "Hermann Hesse's Chiliastic Vision". Monateshefte. 53 (4): 199–210. JSTOR   30161816.Lock-gray-alt-2.svg(registration required)
  88. Adamopoulos, Konstantin (2015). "Everyone is an Artist: The Participative Anthroposophy of the Artist Joseph Bueys". Fikrun Wa Fann: A Publication of the Goethe-Institut. Translated by Collins, Charlotte. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Lock-green.svg

Further reading