Novo Mesto with the Krka River from the air
City of Situlas
|Traditional region||Lower Carniola|
|Statistical region||Southeast Slovenia|
|Founded||7 April 1365|
|Founded by||Rudolf IV of Austria|
|• Mayor||Gregor Macedoni|
|• Total||33.3 km2 (12.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||181 m (594 ft)|
|• Density||730/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02 (CEST)|
|Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, census of 2002.|
Novo Mesto (pronounced [ˈnɔːʋɔ ˈmeːstɔ] ( listen ); Slovene : Novo mesto; also known by other alternative names) is a city on a bend of the Krka River in the City Municipality of Novo Mesto in southeastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia. The town is traditionally considered the economic and cultural centre of the historical Lower Carniola region.
Novo Mesto was attested in historical sources in 1365 as Růdolfswerde (and as Rudolfswerd in 1392 and Noua Mesta in 1419).The German name (spelled Rudolfswerth in the modern era) is a compound of the personal name Rudolf and wert 'island, peninsula, land above the water', and refers to Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, who conferred town rights upon the settlement in 1365. The parallel German name Neustadtl was also in use (attested as Newestat in 1365, and probably a translation of the Slovene name). The name used for the settlement before 1365 is unknown. The Slovene name Novo mesto literally means 'new town'; names like this are common in Europe and generally refer to settlements built at a site where an older one was burned or otherwise destroyed. From 1865 to 1918, the town was officially named Rudolfovo in Slovene, based on the German name. Following World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the city became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and was officially renamed Novo mesto.
Novo Mesto has been settled since pre-history. The city is one of the most important archeological sites of the Hallstatt culture (Early Iron Age) in Europe and has been nicknamed the "City of Situlas" after numerous situlas found in the area.Graben Castle on the Krka River, ancestral seat of the noble House of Graben von Stein, was first mentioned in an 1170 deed. The town itself was founded by the Habsburg archduke Rudolf IV of Austria on 7 April 1365 as Rudolfswerth. The Austrian Habsburgs received the Carniolan March from the hands of Louis IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Italy and Duke of Bavaria, in 1335 and in 1364 Rudolf "the Founder" proclaimed himself a Duke of Carniola.
During World War II, the city was controlled by Fascist Italy as part of the Province of Ljubljana until Mussolini's downfall in 1943. It was then occupied by Nazi Germany until the end of the war.
In 1958, the authorities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had a motorway built connecting the Slovenian capital Ljubljana and Zagreb in Croatia, which passed through Novo Mesto. The A2 motorway is today part of the European route E70. With its construction, Novo Mesto became much better connected to the rest of Slovenia and the rest of Yugoslavia, and began to grow as an important regional center.
The population of Novo Mesto is predominantly ethnically Slovene. On the southeast outskirts of the town there is a Roma settlement called Žabjak, also known as Brezje.
Novo Mesto has a humid continental climate, which is influenced by several factors: the Dinaric Alps, the Alps, the Adriatic Sea, and the continental background. Despite the fact that town is close to the 46th parallel north, the climate is much warmer than places at similar latitudes in North America and East Asia. Prevailing western winds bring warm and moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Lying in partial rain shadow, precipitation is much lower than just 20 km to the west, and foehn winds blowing from southwest over the Dinaric alps can bring very warm weather in any month of the year. From the northeast, the town is exposed to cold air originating in eastern Europe and Siberia, which in winter can bring very cold and sometimes snowy weather. The coldest temperature of −25.6 °C was recorded on 17 February 1952, and the highest, 39.9 °C, on 8 August 2013. Precipitation is abundant, most of it failing as rain in warmer months, between May and November. Hail and heavy thunderstorms are very common between May and September, and snow regularly occurs between December and February. Snow is not uncommon in November and March and rare in October and April. Snow fell as early as 21 October 1971 and as late as 20 May 1969. The greatest snow depth was recorded on 17 February 1969, measuring 103 cm. The wettest year on record was 2014, with 1,482 mm of precipitation, and the driest was 2000, with 827 mm.
|Climate data for Novo Mesto|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.1|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||−23.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||54|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||11||10||11||14||14||14||11||11||13||14||14||14||151|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||80||112||147||172||230||240||284||253||186||126||71||60||1,961|
|Source 1: Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO) (data for 1981–2010)|
|Source 2: Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO) (some extreme values for 1951–2014)|
Novo Mesto has been a hub of artistic creation in various fields: music, literature, and visual arts. The turning point is the September 1920 exhibition named Novo Mesto Spring, which brought together artists of different genres and marks the beginning of avant-garde art in Slovenia.
The development of music in Novo Mesto may be traced to the 16th century, with the clergy, e.g. the provost Jurij Slatkonja, the first residential Bishop of Vienna, promulgating the development of vocal music. In 1498 Jurij Slatkonja was appointed the singing master (Singmeister) of the choir later known as the Vienna Boys' Choir.
Accelerated development took place in the 19th century with the establishment of a brass band in 1846, and the establishment of the Lower Carniola Singing Society in 1884. The society laid the foundations of the vocal music in the wider Lower Carniola area. A significant part in the musical development of the town was contributed by students and the teaching staff of the Novo Mesto Grammar School. The school had a quality singing choir led by Hugolin Sattner, Aleš Ottokar and Ignacij Hladnik as well as a student orchestra led by Viktor Parma. In 1886, a male choir was established in the town in the frame of the Catholic Craftsman Assistants Society. Several classical composers were connected to Novo Mesto, the best known of them being Marjan Kozina, after whom the music school of the town is named, and the expressionist composer Marij Kogoj. In the 20th century, particularly after World War II, a number of influential contemporary (jazz, rock, and pop) music groups appeared and created in the town, the most notable of them being Rudolfovo, Dan D and others. In the early 21st century, the most popular pop-rock music group was Dan D, whereas classical music gained two important pieces of work in the frame of the Jurij Slatkonja Vocal Academy, a chamber opera ( The Baptism on the Savica ) and Te Deum , a monumental cantata work.
The central literature personalities of Novo Mesto are the writer Janez Trdina (1830–1905), the poet Dragotin Kette (1876–1899), and the poet and essayist Anton Podbevšek (1898–1981). Trdina, after whom the central cultural venue of the town is named Janez Trdina Cultural Centre, lived in Novo Mesto in exile and wrote primarily short fictional stories about the Gorjanci hill range, which he published under the title Fairytales and Stories about Gorjanci (Bajke in povesti o Gorjancih). Kette, who lived in Novo Mesto in the time of his studies, wrote lyrical poetry, particularly dedicated to Angela Smola whom he met in the town's chapter church. Podbevšek laid the foundations of Slovene lyrical avant-garde poetry. The youngest professional theatre in Slovenia and the first theatre in the town, established in 2005, has been named after him Anton Podbevšek Theatre.
Novo Mesto is the birthplace of the painter and graphic artist Božidar Jakac (1899–1989), who produced one of the most extensive oeuvres of visual arts in Slovenia and was a key organiser of visual arts education and visual arts events in the country. Many of his works as well as of other well-known Slovenian artists are kept at the Jakac House in the town. Other known Novo Mesto visual artists were the painter Vladimir Lamut and the architect Marjan Mušič. Several notable film artists originate from Novo Mesto, besides Jakac also the film editor Jurij Moškon, and the contemporary film directors Rok Biček, Klemen Dvornik, Nejc Gazvoda, and Žiga Virc.
On 7 April 2006 Novo Mesto became the seat for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Novo Mesto, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Ljubljana.
Novo Mesto Cathedral, standing on Kapitelj Hill above the town, is dedicated to Saint Nicholas and is an originally Gothic building that was rebuilt in the Baroque style in the 17th century. The main altar oil painting by Tintoretto, and the side altar paintings by the French 18th century painter Valentin Metzinger, the leading Baroque painter in Slovenia, are on display in the church.
Today, tourism is increasing in Slovenia, and Novo Mesto is feeling some of the effects. The Krka Valley is becoming a place for wine enthusiasts who take tours throughout the Lower Carniola region, tasting locally produced Cviček wine, which is produced by blending several different varieties of local wine.
Major industries include:
Novo Mesto is twinned with:
Notable people that were born or lived in Novo Mesto include:
The Duchy of Carniola was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364. A hereditary land of the Habsburg Monarchy, it became a constituent land of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and part of the Kingdom of Illyria until 1849. A separate crown land from 1849, it was incorporated into the Cisleithanian territories of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until the state's dissolution in 1918. Its capital was Ljubljana.
Upper Carniola is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region. The centre of the region is Kranj, while other urban centers include Jesenice, Tržič, Škofja Loka, Kamnik, and Domžale. It has around 300,000 inhabitants or 14% of the population of Slovenia.
Lower Carniola is a traditional region in Slovenia, the southeastern part of the historical Carniola region.
The Krka is a river in southeastern Slovenia, a right tributary of the Sava. With a length of 94.6 km (58.8 mi), it is the second-longest river flowing in its entirety in Slovenia, following the Savinja.
Kostanjevica na Krki is a small town in the historic Lower Carniola region of southern Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Kostanjevica na Krki. Today it is part of the Lower Sava Statistical Region. It is located in the northern foothills of the Gorjanci Hills near the border with Croatia. The center of the settlement is on an island in the Krka River, and it is also promoted as the "Venice of Lower Carniola" in Slovenian.
Among the modes of expression of the culture of Slovenia, a nation-state in Central Europe, are music and dance, literature, visual arts, film, and theatre. A number of festivals take place, showcasing music and literature.
Dragotin Kette was a Slovene Impressionist and Neo-Romantic poet. Together with Josip Murn, Ivan Cankar, and Oton Župančič, he is considered the founder of modernism in Slovene literature.
The National Museum of Slovenia is located in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. It is situated in the Center district of the city near Tivoli City Park. Along with the Slovenian Museum of Natural History, located in the same building, the National Museum of Slovenia is the country's oldest scientific and cultural institution. The museum has an extensive collection of archaeological artefacts, old coins and banknotes and displays related to the applied arts.
Božidar Jakac was a Slovene Expressionist, Realist and Symbolist painter, printmaker, art teacher, photographer and filmmaker. He produced one of the most extensive oeuvres of pastels and oil paintings, drawings and, above all, prints in Slovenia. He was also one of the key organizers in the establishment of the Ljubljana Academy of Fine Arts and the International Biennal of Graphic Art in Ljubljana. Some of his work is on display in museums in Belgrade.
The Novo Mesto Grammar School is a public secondary school for both, boys and girls, located in Novo Mesto in the region of Lower Carniola, Slovenia. It was founded in 1746 by the Habsburg ruler Maria Theresa of Austria and initially run by Franciscan friars. In 1870, the school became a state school and the current school building was built in 1912.
Anton Podbevšek was a Slovenian avant-garde poet. He was an important influence to the poet Srečko Kosovel. He was one of the participants of the artistic activity known as the Novo Mesto Spring in 1920, which marked the beginning of Slovenian modernism. The poet Miran Jarc portrayed him in the semi-autobiographical novel Novo mesto in the character of Andrej Vrezec.
Janez Trdina was a Slovene writer and historian. The renowned author Ivan Cankar described him as the best Slovene stylist of his period. He was an ardent describer of the Gorjanci Ridge and of the Lower Carniolan region of Slovenia. Trdina Peak, the highest peak of Gorjanci Ridge, situated on the border between southeastern Slovenia and Croatia, was named for him in 1923.
Marjan Kozina was a Slovene composer. He is considered one of the most important Slovene composers of the 20th century. His best known works include a symphony, composed in stages through the late 1940s; the opera Equinox, completed in 1943; two ballets from the early 1950s, and the music for the film On Own Land, which he later arranged into a suite for orchestra.
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Podbočje is a village on the right bank of the Krka River in the foothills of the Gorjanci range in the Municipality of Krško in eastern Slovenia. The area is part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola. It is now included with the rest of the municipality in the Lower Sava Statistical Region.
Dolnji Suhor pri Metliki is a settlement in the Municipality of Metlika in the White Carniola area of southeastern Slovenia. The area is part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola and is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region.
Jurij Slatkonja was a Carniolan choirmaster and the first residential Bishop of Vienna. He was also the first owner of an ex libris among the Slovenes. His crest contained a golden horse, based on a false etymology of his surname.
Soteska is a settlement on the left bank of the Krka River in the Municipality of Dolenjske Toplice in Slovenia. The area is part of the historical region of Lower Carniola. The municipality is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region. Soteska includes the hamlet of Ključ southeast of the main settlement.
Miran Jarc was a Slovene writer, poet, playwright and essayist.
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