Nueces River

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Map of the Nueces River and associated watershed Nueces Watershed.png
Map of the Nueces River and associated watershed
U.S. Highway 83 crosses the Nueces River in northern Zavala County between La Pryor and Uvalde, Texas. Nueces River between La Pryor and Uvalde, TX IMG 4256.JPG
U.S. Highway 83 crosses the Nueces River in northern Zavala County between La Pryor and Uvalde, Texas.
The Nueces with a low water level through Cotulla, the seat of La Salle County, Texas Nueces River at Cotulla, TX IMG 0452.JPG
The Nueces with a low water level through Cotulla, the seat of La Salle County, Texas

The Nueces River ( /njuˈsɪs/ new-AY-sis; Spanish : Río Nueces, IPA:  [ˈri.o ˈnwe.ses] ) is a river in the U.S. state of Texas, about 315 miles (507 km) long. [1] It drains a region in central and southern Texas southeastward into the Gulf of Mexico. It is the southernmost major river in Texas other than the boundary-setting Rio Grande. Nueces is Spanish for nuts; [2] early settlers named the river after the numerous pecan trees along its banks.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Contents

Location and flow

The Nueces rises northwest of San Antonio in the Edwards Plateau, in Real County, roughly 50 mi (80 km) north of Uvalde. It flows south through the Texas Hill Country, past Barksdale and Crystal City, approaching to within 35 mi (56 km) of the Rio Grande on the border with Mexico. East of Carrizo Springs, it turns to the east, flowing through the scrub plains of South Texas, across rural Dimmit, La Salle, and McMullen Counties. In central Live Oak County, it is joined from the northwest at Three Rivers by the Atascosa River and Frio River, then flows southeast along the coastal plain past Mathis, where it is impounded to form the Lake Corpus Christi reservoir. It enters Corpus Christi Bay on the Gulf of Mexico at Corpus Christi.

San Antonio City in Texas, United States

San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731. The area was still part of the Spanish Empire, and later of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality.

Edwards Plateau

The Edwards Plateau is a region of west-central Texas which is bounded by the Balcones Fault to the south and east, the Llano Uplift and the Llano Estacado to the north, and the Pecos River and Chihuahuan Desert to the west. San Angelo, Austin, San Antonio and Del Rio roughly outline the area. The eastern portion of the plateau is known as the Texas Hill Country.

Real County, Texas County in the United States

Real County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,309. The county seat is Leakey. The county is named for Julius Real (1860–1944), a former member of the Texas State Senate.

History

Called Chotilapacquen by Coahuiltecan-speaking groups, the river was named "Nueces" by Alonso de León referring to the abundant pecan tree groves. One of the first settlers to scout the area was Cpt. Blas María de la Garza Falcón in 1766. [3] From before the end of the Texas Revolution, Mexico recognized that the Nueces River was historically the border of Texas from the rest of the country. However, the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border with Mexico, citing the Treaty of Velasco signed by Mexican President Santa Anna, who agreed to the Rio Grande border after losing the Battle of San Jacinto. This dispute continued after the annexation of Texas, and was one of the causes of the Mexican–American War. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the dispute, with Mexico recognizing, under pressure, the Rio Grande as its northern border.

Coahuiltecan ethnic group in the USA

The Coahuiltecan were various small, autonomous bands of Native Americans who inhabited the Rio Grande valley in what is now southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. The various Coahuiltecan groups were hunter-gatherers. First encountered by Europeans in the sixteenth century, their population shortly declined due to epidemic imported European diseases, slavery, and numerous small-scale wars fought against the Spanish, criollo, Apache, and other Coahuiltecan groups. The survivors were absorbed into the Hispanic and mestizo population of Southern Texas or northern Mexico.

Alonso de León "El Mozo" was explorer and governor, who led several expeditions into the area that is now northeastern Mexico and southern Texas.

Blas María de la Garza Falcón was a Spanish settler of Tamaulipas and South Texas.

On August 10, 1862 pro-Union Germans from the Texas Hill Country trying to flee to Mexico were ambushed and killed by Confederatesthe Nueces massacre.

Texas Hill Country region of Texas

The Texas Hill Country is a geographic region located in the Edwards Plateau at the crossroads of West Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas. Given its location, climate, terrain, and vegetation, the Hill Country can be considered the border between the American Southwest and Southeast.

Nueces massacre

The Nueces Massacre, also known as the Massacre on the Nueces, was a violent confrontation between Confederate soldiers and German Texans on August 10, 1862, in Kinney County, Texas. Many first-generation immigrants from Germany settled in Central Texas in a region known as the Hill Country. They tended to support the Union and were opposed to the institution of slavery. Because of these sentiments, the Confederate States of America imposed martial law on Central Texas. A group of Germans, fleeing from the Hill Country to Mexico and onward after that to Union-controlled New Orleans, was confronted by a company of Confederate soldiers on the banks of the Nueces River. The ensuing German defeat represented an end to overt German resistance to Confederate governance in Texas, but it also fueled outrage among the German-Texan population. Disputes over the confrontation and the efficacy of Confederate actions after the battle, according to historian Stanley McGowen, continue to plague the Hill Country into the 21st century.

Fishing

The Nueces is one of several clear warm-water spring creeks in the Hill Country of Texas. In its upper reaches, the water is clear and cool.

Unlike spring trout creeks in the Rocky Mountains, the Nueces holds largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, and the native Guadalupe bass, along with a variety of panfish such as redbreast sunfish, rock bass, green sunfish, and Rio Grande perch. The American alligator is also abundant in the Nueces River.

Largemouth bass species of fish

The largemouth bass is a carnivorous freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae (sunfish) family, a species of black bass native to eastern and central United States, adjacent southeastern Canada and northern Mexico, but widely introduced elsewhere. It is known by a variety of regional names, such as the widemouth bass, bigmouth bass, black bass, bucketmouth, largies, Potter's fish, Florida bass, Florida largemouth, green bass, Green trout, gilsdorf bass, Oswego bass, southern largemouth and (paradoxically) northern largemouth, LMB. The largemouth bass is the state fish of Georgia, Mississippi, and Indiana, the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama, and the state sport fish of Tennessee.

Smallmouth bass species of fish

The smallmouth bass is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of the order Perciformes. It is the type species of its genus. One of the black basses, it is a popular game fish sought by anglers throughout the temperate zones of North America, and has been spread by stocking—as well as illegal introductions—to many cool-water tributaries and lakes in Canada and more so introduced in the United States. The maximum recorded size is approximately 27 inches and 12 pounds. The smallmouth bass is native to the upper and middle Mississippi River basin, the Saint Lawrence River–Great Lakes system, and up into the Hudson Bay basin. Its common names include smallmouth, bronzeback, brown bass, brownie, smallie, bronze bass, and bareback bass.

Guadalupe bass species of fish

The Guadalupe Bass is a rare species of fish endemic to the U.S. state of Texas, where it also is the official state fish. It is restricted to creeks and rivers, and is listed as Near Threatened. Today, most fly fishermen and anglers practice catch-and-release techniques to improve fish populations. The Guadalupe Bass is often difficult to distinguish from the smallmouth bass or spotted bass, and the fish is known to hybridize.

See also

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Nueces County, Texas County in the United States

Nueces County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 340,223. The county seat is Corpus Christi. The county was formed in 1846 from portions of San Patricio County and organized the following year. It is named for the Nueces River, which flows through the county.

Mathis, Texas City in Texas, United States

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Mustang Island island in the United States of America

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Corpus Christi Bay

Corpus Christi Bay is a scenic semi-tropical bay on the Texas coast found in San Patricio and Nueces counties, next to the major city of Corpus Christi. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by Mustang Island, and is fed by the Nueces River and Oso Creek from its western and southern extensions, Nueces Bay and Oso Bay. The bay is located approximately 136 miles (219 km) south of San Antonio, and 179 miles (288 km) southwest of Houston.

Choke Canyon Reservoir reservoir in South Texas

Choke Canyon Reservoir is a reservoir in South Texas, United States. The lake and the dam that creates it are owned by the United States Bureau of Reclamation and managed by the City of Corpus Christi.

Lake Corpus Christi is a reservoir in coastal southern Texas. The lake was created by impoundment of the Nueces River by the Wesley E. Seale Dam opened in 1958. The lake and the dam that creates it are managed by the City of Corpus Christi. Lake Corpus Christi was originally known as Lake Lovenskiold. It is often referred to as Lake Mathis because of its location.

San Antonio Bay

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Old Bayview Cemetery is a cemetery located on a small hill in downtown Corpus Christi, Texas on Ramirez St. at Padre St., bordered by the I-37 access road. It is the oldest federal military cemetery in Texas. Owned by the City of Corpus Christi, it presently comprises three and a half acres as a Historic Texas Cemetery and a State Archaeological Landmark of the Texas Historical Commission.

Nueces Bay

Nueces Bay is a northwestern extension of Corpus Christi Bay in the San Patricio and Nueces counties of Texas. The bay is fed by the Nueces River, forming a natural estuary, which renders it ecologically and economically vital to the surrounding area. It serves as a habitat for the propagation of fish and shellfish, which sustain diverse species of birds and other wildlife. The bay is threatened by pollution from the heavy industry on its southern shore, which prevents oyster farming. Petrochemical production and oil are important to the surrounding economies of the major settlements of Corpus Christi and Portland, found on the eastern shore and connected by the Nueces Bay Causeway at the bay's confluence with Corpus Christi Bay.

History of Corpus Christi, Texas aspect of history

Corpus Christi is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it also extends into Aransas, Kleberg, and San Patricio counties. The population was 277,454 at the 2000 census; in 2006 the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 285,175, making it the eighth-largest city in the state. It is the principal city of the three-county Corpus Christi Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger Corpus Christi-Kingsville Combined Statistical Area. The translation from Latin of the city's name is Body of Christ, given to the settlement by the Spanish, in honor of the Blessed Sacrament (Eucharist). The city has been nicknamed The Sparkling City by the Sea, or "Corpitos" particularly in literature promoting tourism.

The Nueces Strip or Wild Horse Desert is the area of south Texas between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande. The Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern border; Mexico claimed the Nueces River. The area between the two rivers became known as the Nueces Strip. Both countries invaded it, but neither controlled it nor settled it.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Corpus Christi, Texas, USA.

References

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Nueces River
  2. "Nuez – traductor Ingles–Español". SpanishDict.com.
  3. "Clotilde P. García". The Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
<i>Handbook of Texas</i> encyclopedia of Texas published by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)

The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography, history, and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA).

Coordinates: 27°50′16″N97°29′22″W / 27.83778°N 97.48944°W / 27.83778; -97.48944