Nuevo León Semper
Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León
|Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León|
Semper Ascendens(Always Ascending)
|Anthem: Himno de Nuevo León|
State of Nuevo León within Mexico
|Largest Metropolitan Area||Greater Monterrey|
|Admission||May 7, 1824|
|• Governor||Jaime Rodríguez Calderón (independent)|
|• Senators|| Samuel Alejandro García Sepúlveda |
Indira Kempis Martínez
Víctor Oswaldo Fuentes Solís
|• Total||64,156 km2 (24,771 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,710 m (12,170 ft)|
|• Density||80/km2 (210/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||14th|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-NLE|
|GDP||US$ 132,655 mil [a]|
|Website||Official Web Site|
|^ a. The state's GDP was 666,898,103 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to 52,101,414.296 thousand dollars, a dollar being worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).|
Nuevo León (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnweβo leˈon] (
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
Nuevo León is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 51 municipalities.
It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer (9 mi) stretch of the U.S.–Mexico border adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas.
Tamaulipas, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.
San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, which was itself named after the historic Spanish Kingdom of León.
The New Kingdom of León, was an administrative territory of the Spanish Empire, politically ruled by the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was located in an area corresponding generally to the present-day northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León.
The Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo to the city of León. The County of Castile separated in 931, the County of Portugal separated to become the independent Kingdom of Portugal in 1139 and the eastern, inland part of León was joined to the Kingdom of Castile in 1230.
Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe, Santa Catarina, San Nicolás de los Garza, and San Pedro Garza García, all of which are part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.
Guadalupe is a city and surrounding municipality located in the state of Nuevo León, in northern Mexico. It is part of the Greater Monterrey Metropolitan area.
Santa Catarina is a city in Santa Catarina Municipality in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.
San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It has become primarily a city for residencies and family houses, although it still has several factories that tend to relocate to the periphery of the metropolitan area. It is the third-largest city in the state, behind Monterrey and Guadalupe.
Nuevo León was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor the colony became permanent. Nuevo Leon eventually became (along with the provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo Santander and Texas) one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain.
Alberto del Canto formally Alberto Vieira do Canto, was a Portuguese conquistador of northern New Spain.
Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples who were established in present-day Bajio region of Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term "barbarian" to describe Germanic tribes. The name, with its pejorative sense, was adopted by the Spanish Empire. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, "the Chichimecas were a wild, nomadic people who lived north of the Valley of Mexico. They had no fixed dwelling places, lived by hunting, wore little clothes and fiercely resisted foreign intrusion into their territory, which happened to contain silver mines the Spanish wished to exploit."
Nuevo Santander was a region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, covering the modern Mexican state of Tamaulipas and extending into modern-day southern Texas in the United States. A history of Texas, commissioned by the U.S. government's Federal Writers' Project in 1934, noted that "The borders of New Santander did not stop at the Rio Bravo" ; and added that the borders "went north to the Nueces, near Corpus Christi, then west and north to the Medina, then south again on a line along Laredo to the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madres, deep in Mexico."
The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico with over four million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, and Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states.
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP (PPP) of US$ 123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is considerably higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is often regarded as its most "Americanized".
Nuevo León has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,220 square kilometres (24,800 sq mi), and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, javelinas, prairie dogs, foxes, coyotes, and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species.
As of 2015, Nuevo León's population was about 5.119 million. Of these over 90%, or about 4.7 million, of the state's population resides within the Monterrey Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 73 years for men and 79 years for women.
Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, and 98% have all utilities (running water, sewer systems and electric power). The remaining 2% is mostly the small indigenous population which is isolated and lives in the mountain regions.
Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic, but it has a sizable Protestant population.
The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an almost perfect record for finished secondary education, and 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree.[ citation needed ] In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard.[ citation needed ]
Institutions of higher education include:
Highly industrialized, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland. In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District, which also has a very high per capita), and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2013 GDP per capita (PPP) national average was $15,700).
One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income. It is also home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex (one of the largest construction materials firms in the world), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte (the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), ALFA (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium), i-service (HelpDesk), Vitro SA (glass), FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena).
Nuevo León also boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt", which comprises the municipalities of Allende, Montemorelos, Hualahuises, General Terán and Linares. Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy.
In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo León and the orange belt, the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana, Aramberri, Zaragoza, Doctor Arroyo and Mier y Noriega) remains rural and less productive. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock.
As of 2010, Nuevo León's economy represents 11.4% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or US$165 billion. [ citation needed ] In recent years, the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics, biotechnology, mechatronics, information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica), a technology park oriented in the development, innovation and research of sciences. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey, City of Knowledge program. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca, part of Greater Monterrey at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey's International Airport. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres), half of it already committed to R&D centers. The other 35 Ha (86 acres) are available for research and development centers, and for businesses that meet the Park's objectives.Nuevo León's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 431,551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in Nuevo León was 1,213.1 million USD for 2005.
Gubernatorial Election 2003
|See also: List of political parties in Mexico|
Nuevo León is divided into 51 municipalities (municipios). See municipalities of Nuevo León.
|Guadalupe||678,006||Part of Greater Monterrey|
|San Nicolás de los Garza||443,273|
|San Pedro Garza García||119,017|
Nuevo León has many biomes, which is why it has different climates. Some areas in the mountains are very cold in winter and temperate in summer. In the northern part of the state the climate is arid as a result of the proximity to the Chihuahuan desert. Extreme high temperatures of 47 °C or more occur on the desert areas while winters are short and mild. In Monterrey the climate is hot semi-arid with extreme hot summers and mild winters. There is very little rainfall throughout the year, usually about 500 mm or less.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Flora and fauna of Nuevo León|
|Vulpes macrotis||Ursus americanus||Cardinalis cardinalis||Mephitis macroura||Aquila chrysaetos|
|Cyanocitta stelleri||Pecari tajacu||Agkistrodon taylori||Tachybaptus dominicus||Antilocapra americana|
|Carya illinoinensis||Dioon edule||Cercis canadensis||Aztekium ritteri||Pinus culminicola|
The state has agreements with other states, provinces, regions and autonomous communities.
Torreón is a city and seat of Torreón Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. As of 2015, the city's population was 679,288. The metropolitan population as of 2015 was 1,497,734, making it the ninth-biggest metropolitan area in the country and the largest metropolitan area in state of Coahuila, as well as one of Mexico's most important economic and industrial centers. The cities of Torreón, Gómez Palacio, Lerdo, Matamoros, Francisco I. Madero, San Pedro, Bermejillo, and Tlahualilo form the area of La Laguna or the Comarca Lagunera, a basin within the Chihuahuan Desert.
Coahuila is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 38 municipalities. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Coahuila is the 16th most populous state with 2,954,915 inhabitants and the third largest by land area spanning 151,846.16 square kilometres (58,628.13 sq mi).
Chiapas is a state in Southwest Mexico. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, it is the state that has the seventh largest population with 5,217,908 inhabitants and the 10th largest by land area spanning 73,560.47 square kilometres (28,401.86 sq mi). Chiapas is officially divided into 124 municipalities, although the establishment of municipal authorities in Belisario Domínguez has been suspended since 2015 pending the resolution of a territorial dispute between Chiapas and the neighbouring state of Oaxaca. A 125th municipality called Honduras de la Sierra, consisting of six ejidos currently part of Siltepec, will be incorporated on October 1, 2018.
San Pedro Garza García(also known as San Pedro or Garza García) is a city-municipality of the Mexican state of Nuevo León and part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It is a contemporary commercial suburb of the larger metropolitan city of Monterrey between Puente de la Unidad and the Alfa Planetarium, including areas surrounding Calzada del Valle/Calzada San Pedro. Cerro de Chipinque and Chipinque Ecological Park are notable aspects of the city. The city hosts the headquarters of corporations such as ALFA, Cemex, Gamesa, Vitro, Pyosa, Softtek The Home Depot México, and Cydsa. With a population of 121,977 (city) and 122,009 (municipality) at the 2005 census, it is the seventh-largest city and eighth-largest municipality in Nuevo León.
The Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León was first colonized in the 16th century by immigrants from the Iberian Peninsula. The majority of these were conversos, ethnic Jews converted to Roman Catholicism. Later the state received more arrivals of other Europeans, some Asians and those from North America settled down in the 19th century. Cross-migration of local Mexicans to or from Texas creates strong cultural bonds with the neighboring U.S. The province eventually became a state of Mexico. Today it is one of the most industrialized regions of Latin America and the greater city area of its capital, Monterrey has over 5 million residents.
Galeana is both a municipality and a city in the Mexican state of Nuevo León. It is named after Hermenegildo Galeana, a lieutenant involved in the country's movement towards independence. Galeana shares borders with the states of Coahuila and San Luis Potosí to the west; with the municipalities of Aramberri and Doctor Arroyo to the south; Rayones to the north; and with Linares, Montemorelos, Rayones and Iturbide to the east. Galeana is the largest municipality in the state, totaling 7,154.6 km², however it's scarcely populated with only 38,930 inhabitants resulting in a population density of 0.18 persons per square kilometer. Galeana, the municipal seat, is the best developed town in the region. It has services such as hospitals, accommodations, restaurants, bars and the largest drink distributor in the zone. However it remains as a low per-capita income city.
Apodaca is a city and its surrounding municipality that is part of Monterrey Metropolitan area. It lies in the northeastern part of the metropolitan area. As of the 2005 census, the city had a population of 393,195 and the municipality had a population of 418,784. The municipality has an area of 183.5 km2. The fourth-largest city in the state, Apodaca is one of the fastest-growing cities in Nuevo León and an important industrial center.
The Bajío (lowlands) is a region of West North-Central Mexico that includes parts of the states of Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Guanajuato, and Querétaro.
The Cerro del Topo Chico is a mountain and a protected area in the Escobedo, San Nicolás and Monterrey municipalities; state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The summit reaches 1,178 meters above sea level, and it has 618 meters of prominence. The mountain is about 7.5 km long, is a symbol of Escobedo and San Nicolás, and is completely sorrounded by Monterrey metropolitan area. It is known for being the source of the Topo Chico mineral water.
Aramberri is a municipality in the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León, it is located at southeastern corner of the state. It was founded as Santa María de los Angeles de Río Blanco Mission in 1626 in the jurisdiction of Río Blanco, in the former New Kingdom of León. Its current name honors Jose Silvestri Aramberri, a general involved in the Mexican war of reform. It borders the municipalities of Galeana and Iturbide to north, Doctor Arroyo to west and southwest, General Zaragoza to south and with state of Tamaulipas to east.
Jaime Heliodoro Rodríguez Calderón, sometimes referred to by his nickname "El Bronco," is a Mexican politician. He is the Governor of the northern state of Nuevo León. He is the first independent candidate to have won a governorship in Mexico. He served as mayor of García, Nuevo León (2009–2012) as a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and was best known for his hard-line stance against organized crime. Rodríguez won the 2015 race for Governor as an independent candidate on June 7, 2015, winning half the votes of the election compared to his traditional party competitors, who split the remainder of the votes. He served as governor from 4 October 2015 until 31 December 2017, when he formally became candidate in the 2018 presidential race. He lost, only attaining 5% of the popular vote and resumed his term as governor.
The history of the Mexican city of Monterrey is closely linked with the history of the state of Nuevo León. When the New Kingdom of León was founded, it included Monterrey, Monclova, Saltillo and Cerralvo. The founding families formed a group of about thirty people in each locality. Gradually, Nuevo León was populated with families of nomadic herders of Spanish origin who fought and displaced the native indigenous groups in the region. The city was a step away from the border with the United States and it began to be a strategic location for industry and trade between the two countries. Originally isolated by the Sierra Madre and far from the center of New Spain and independent Mexico, in the late 19th century and throughout the twentieth century various demographic, social, political, and economic issues began to unfold.
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