Nuevo León

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Nuevo León Semper

Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León
Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León
Coat of arms of Nuevo Leon.svg
Seal
Motto(s): 
Semper Ascendens
(Always Ascending)
Anthem: Himno de Nuevo León
Nuevo Leon in Mexico (location map scheme).svg
State of Nuevo León within Mexico
Coordinates: 25°34′N99°58′W / 25.567°N 99.967°W / 25.567; -99.967 Coordinates: 25°34′N99°58′W / 25.567°N 99.967°W / 25.567; -99.967
Country Mexico
Capital Monterrey
Largest City Monterrey
Largest Metropolitan Area Greater Monterrey
Admission May 7, 1824 [1]
Order 15th
Government
   Governor Jaime Rodríguez Calderón (independent)
   Senators [2] Samuel Alejandro García Sepúlveda MC Party (Mexico).svg
Indira Kempis Martínez MC Party (Mexico).svg
Víctor Oswaldo Fuentes Solís PAN Party (Mexico).svg
   Deputies [3]
Area
[4]
  Total64,156 km2 (24,771 sq mi)
  Ranked 13th
Highest elevation
[5]
3,710 m (12,170 ft)
Population
(2015) [6]
  Total5,119,504
  Rank 8th
  Density80/km2 (210/sq mi)
  Density rank 14th
Demonym(s) Neoleonés
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
64–67
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-NLE
HDI Increase2.svg 0.808 Very High Ranked 3rd of 32
GDP US$ 132,655 mil [a]
percapita US$ 28,509.00
Website Official Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was 666,898,103 thousand of pesos in 2008, [7] amount corresponding to 52,101,414.296 thousand dollars, a dollar being worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). [8]

Nuevo León (Spanish pronunciation:  [ˈnweβo leˈon] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Municipalities of Nuevo León Mexican state with 51 municipalities

Nuevo León is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 51 municipalities.

Contents

It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer (9 mi) stretch of the U.S.–Mexico border adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas.

Tamaulipas State of Mexico

Tamaulipas, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.

San Luis Potosí State of Mexico

San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.

Coahuila State of Mexico

Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, which was itself named after the historic Spanish Kingdom of León.

New Kingdom of León

The New Kingdom of León, was an administrative territory of the Spanish Empire, politically ruled by the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was located in an area corresponding generally to the present-day northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León.

Kingdom of León Former country, from 910-1230 CE

The Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo to the city of León. The County of Castile separated in 931, the County of Portugal separated to become the independent Kingdom of Portugal in 1139 and the eastern, inland part of León was joined to the Kingdom of Castile in 1230.

Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe, Santa Catarina, San Nicolás de los Garza, and San Pedro Garza García, all of which are part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.

Guadalupe, Nuevo León Place in Nuevo León, Mexico

Guadalupe is a city and surrounding municipality located in the state of Nuevo León, in northern Mexico. It is part of the Greater Monterrey Metropolitan area.

Santa Catarina is a city in Santa Catarina Municipality in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.

San Nicolás de los Garza Place in Nuevo León, Mexico

San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It has become primarily a city for residencies and family houses, although it still has several factories that tend to relocate to the periphery of the metropolitan area. It is the third-largest city in the state, behind Monterrey and Guadalupe.

History

The original Government Palace (State House) of Nuevo Leon Monterrey Palacio de Gobierno.jpg
The original Government Palace (State House) of Nuevo León

Nuevo León was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor the colony became permanent. Nuevo Leon eventually became (along with the provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo Santander and Texas) one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain. [9] [10]

Alberto del Canto formally Alberto Vieira do Canto, was a Portuguese conquistador of northern New Spain.

Chichimeca ethnic group

Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples who were established in present-day Bajio region of Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term "barbarian" to describe Germanic tribes. The name, with its pejorative sense, was adopted by the Spanish Empire. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, "the Chichimecas were a wild, nomadic people who lived north of the Valley of Mexico. They had no fixed dwelling places, lived by hunting, wore little clothes and fiercely resisted foreign intrusion into their territory, which happened to contain silver mines the Spanish wished to exploit."

Nuevo Santander was a region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, covering the modern Mexican state of Tamaulipas and extending into modern-day southern Texas in the United States. A history of Texas, commissioned by the U.S. government's Federal Writers' Project in 1934, noted that "The borders of New Santander did not stop at the Rio Bravo" ; and added that the borders "went north to the Nueces, near Corpus Christi, then west and north to the Medina, then south again on a line along Laredo to the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madres, deep in Mexico."

The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico with over four million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, and Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states.

Monterrey City in Nuevo León, Mexico

Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP (PPP) of US$ 123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is considerably higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is often regarded as its most "Americanized".

Geography

La Huasteca State Park San Nicolas Nuevo Leon.jpg
La Huasteca State Park
Trace of petroglyphs engraved on rocks at Boca de Potrerillos. Mina piedra.jpg
Trace of petroglyphs engraved on rocks at Boca de Potrerillos.

Nuevo León has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,220 square kilometres (24,800 sq mi), and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, javelinas, prairie dogs, foxes, coyotes, and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species.

Demography

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895 [11] 311,665    
1900 327,937+5.2%
1910 365,150+11.3%
1921 336,412−7.9%
1930 417,491+24.1%
1940 541,147+29.6%
1950 740,191+36.8%
1960 1,078,848+45.8%
1970 1,694,689+57.1%
1980 2,513,044+48.3%
1990 3,098,736+23.3%
1995 3,550,114+14.6%
2000 3,834,141+8.0%
2005 4,199,292+9.5%
2010 4,653,458+10.8%
2015 [12] 5,119,504+10.0%

As of 2015, Nuevo León's population was about 5.119 million. Of these over 90%, or about 4.7 million, of the state's population resides within the Monterrey Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 73 years for men and 79 years for women.

Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, and 98% have all utilities (running water, sewer systems and electric power). The remaining 2% is mostly the small indigenous population which is isolated and lives in the mountain regions.

Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic, but it has a sizable Protestant population.

Education

Biotechnology center of the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey. ITESM Femsa Biotechnology Center Aulas I.jpg
Biotechnology center of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.

The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an almost perfect record for finished secondary education, and 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree.[ citation needed ] In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard.[ citation needed ]

Institutions of higher education include:

Economy

Wind turbines at the Parques Eolicos Ventika located in General Bravo. The wind-power complex has the capacity to produce 252 megawatts per hour and can meet the electricity demand of some 630,000 homes. Parques Ventika.jpg
Wind turbines at the Parques Eólicos Ventika located in General Bravo. The wind-power complex has the capacity to produce 252 megawatts per hour and can meet the electricity demand of some 630,000 homes.

Highly industrialized, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland. In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District, which also has a very high per capita), and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2013 GDP per capita (PPP) national average was $15,700). [13] [14]

One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income. It is also home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex (one of the largest construction materials firms in the world), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte (the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), ALFA (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium), i-service (HelpDesk), Vitro SA (glass), FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena).

The facilities of the Cerveceria Cuauhtemoc Moctezuma brewery in Nuevo Leon are the single largest producer of alcoholic beverages in the world. Cerveceria.cuahotemoc.monterrey.ncs.jpg
The facilities of the Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma brewery in Nuevo Leon are the single largest producer of alcoholic beverages in the world.

Nuevo León also boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt", which comprises the municipalities of Allende, Montemorelos, Hualahuises, General Terán and Linares. Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy.

In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo León and the orange belt, the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana, Aramberri, Zaragoza, Doctor Arroyo and Mier y Noriega) remains rural and less productive. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock.

As of 2010, Nuevo León's economy represents 11.4% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or US$165 billion. [15] Nuevo León's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 431,551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. [16] Foreign direct investment in Nuevo León was 1,213.1 million USD for 2005.[ citation needed ] In recent years, the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics, biotechnology, mechatronics, information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica), a technology park oriented in the development, innovation and research of sciences. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey, City of Knowledge program. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca, part of Greater Monterrey at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey's International Airport. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres), half of it already committed to R&D centers. The other 35 Ha (86 acres) are available for research and development centers, and for businesses that meet the Park's objectives. [17] [18]

Government

Nuevo León
Gubernatorial Election 2003
PRI/PVEM24,567
PAN491,973
PT72,620
PRD14,934
NL Collections851,250
See also: List of political parties in Mexico
Official name
Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León (Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León).
Official motto
Latin: Semper Ascendens (Always Ascending).
Type of government
Republican and representative according to 30th article of the local constitution.
Executive
In 6 July 2003 gubernatorial election, Alianza Ciudadana – an electoral alliance between the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Green Ecological Party of Mexico (PVEM) – regained control of the state from President Fox's party National Action Party (PAN). The new governor, Natividad González Parás of the PRI, was sworn in on 4 October 2003 for a period of six years.
Cabinet
Chosen directly by the Governor except for the General Comptroller and the State General Attorney, which are elected by Congress from a list of names provided by the Governor.
Legislative
The State has a unicameral chamber. The LXXI Congress of Nuevo León is composed of 42 deputies, 26 of them chosen by first-past-the-post electoral districts and 16 of them by proportional representation on a party-list basis. The parties represented are the PRI with 15 deputies, the PAN with 22 deputies, the Partido del Trabajo (PT) with two deputies, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) with one, and the New Alliance party (PANAL) with two deputies.
Judiciary
Judicial power rests in the Superior Court of Justice of Nuevo León, led by Minister Gustavo Adolfo Guerrero Gutiérrez.
Political parties
Official recognition is given by the State Electoral Commission to those parties getting more than 1.5% of the votes in the last election (Art.40 of the State Electoral Law), which are the ones represented in Congress.

Municipalities

Nuevo León is divided into 51 municipalities (municipios). See municipalities of Nuevo León.

Largest cities

CityCity
Population [19]
Metropolitan
Population [20]
Metropolitan
area type
Monterrey 1,135,5504,570,577 Municipality
Guadalupe 678,006 Part of Greater Monterrey
Apodaca 523,270
San Nicolás de los Garza 443,273
General Escobedo 357,256
Santa Catarina 270,790
Juarez 256,454
García 143,668
San Pedro Garza García 119,017

Climate

Nuevo León has many biomes, which is why it has different climates. Some areas in the mountains are very cold in winter and temperate in summer. In the northern part of the state the climate is arid as a result of the proximity to the Chihuahuan desert. Extreme high temperatures of 47 °C or more occur on the desert areas while winters are short and mild. In Monterrey the climate is hot semi-arid with extreme hot summers and mild winters. There is very little rainfall throughout the year, usually about 500 mm or less.

Monterrey
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: MSN Weather UK (2009-01-07), INEGI, 2006 report
Anáhuac
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: MSN Weather UK (2009-01-07), INEGI, 2006 report

Flora and fauna

Flora and fauna of Nuevo León
San-joaquin-kit-fox.jpg Schwarzbar-Omega Park.jpg Cardinal.jpg Hooded Skunk side (Gelsenkirchen).jpg Aquila chrysaetos Flickr.jpg
Vulpes macrotis Ursus americanus Cardinalis cardinalis Mephitis macroura Aquila chrysaetos
Stellers jay - natures pics.jpg Javelina.jpg Agkistrodon taylori2.jpg Least Grebe - breeding plumage.jpg Gabelbock fws 1b.jpg
Cyanocitta stelleri Pecari tajacu Agkistrodon taylori Tachybaptus dominicus Antilocapra americana
Starr 070205-4086 Carya pecan.jpg Dioon edule03.jpg Redbud against sky.JPG Aztekium ritteri0056.jpg Pinus culminicola.jpg
Carya illinoinensis Dioon edule Cercis canadensis Aztekium ritteri Pinus culminicola

Twinning and covenants

The state has agreements with other states, provinces, regions and autonomous communities. [21]

See also

Sources

Related Research Articles

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Aramberri is a municipality in the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León, it is located at southeastern corner of the state. It was founded as Santa María de los Angeles de Río Blanco Mission in 1626 in the jurisdiction of Río Blanco, in the former New Kingdom of León. Its current name honors Jose Silvestri Aramberri, a general involved in the Mexican war of reform. It borders the municipalities of Galeana and Iturbide to north, Doctor Arroyo to west and southwest, General Zaragoza to south and with state of Tamaulipas to east.

Jaime Rodríguez Calderón Mexican politician

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History of Monterrey

The history of the Mexican city of Monterrey is closely linked with the history of the state of Nuevo León. When the New Kingdom of León was founded, it included Monterrey, Monclova, Saltillo and Cerralvo. The founding families formed a group of about thirty people in each locality. Gradually, Nuevo León was populated with families of nomadic herders of Spanish origin who fought and displaced the native indigenous groups in the region. The city was a step away from the border with the United States and it began to be a strategic location for industry and trade between the two countries. Originally isolated by the Sierra Madre and far from the center of New Spain and independent Mexico, in the late 19th century and throughout the twentieth century various demographic, social, political, and economic issues began to unfold.

References

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  7. "Jalisco". 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  8. "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
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  10. En los albores de la independencia: Las Provincias Internas de Oriente durante la insurrección de don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, 1810–1811. by Isidro Vizcaya Canales
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