|Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León|
Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León(Spanish)
Semper Ascendens(Always Ascending)
|Anthem: Himno de Nuevo León|
State of Nuevo León within Mexico
|Largest Metropolitan Area||Greater Monterrey|
|Admission||May 7, 1824|
|Founded by||Diego de Montemayor|
|• Governor||Jaime Rodríguez Calderón (Independent)|
|• Senators|| Samuel Alejandro García Sepúlveda |
Indira Kempis Martínez
Víctor Oswaldo Fuentes Solís
|• Total||64,156 km2 (24,771 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,710 m (12,170 ft)|
|• Density||90/km2 (230/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||14th|
|• Total||$179.6 billion MXN|
|• Per capita||$35,081 MXN|
| GDP |
|• Total||$197 billion|
|• Per capita||$36,140|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-NLE|
|HDI||0.808 Very High Ranked 3rd of 32|
|Website||Official Web Site|
Nuevo León (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnweβo leˈon] ( listen )), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey.
It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer (9 mi) stretch of the U.S.–Mexico border adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas.
The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, which was itself named after the historic Spanish Kingdom of León.
Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe, Santa Catarina, San Nicolás de los Garza, and San Pedro Garza García, all of which are part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.
Nuevo León was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor the colony became permanent. Nuevo Leon eventually became (along with the provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo Santander and Texas) one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain.
The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico with over four million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, and Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states.
Nuevo León has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,220 square kilometres (24,800 sq mi), and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, javelinas, prairie dogs, foxes, coyotes, and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species.
As of 2020, Nuevo León's population was about 5.784 million. Of these over 90% of the state's population resides within the Monterrey Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 73 years for men and 79 years for women.
Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, and 98% have all utilities (running water, sewer systems and electric power). The remaining 2% is mostly the small indigenous population which is isolated and lives in the mountain regions.
Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic.
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The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an almost perfect record for finished secondary education, and 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree. In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard.
Institutions of higher education include:
Highly industrialized, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland. In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District, which also has a very high per capita), and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2013 GDP per capita (PPP) national average was $15,700).
One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income. It is also home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex (one of the largest construction materials firms in the world), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte (the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), ALFA (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium), i-service (HelpDesk), Vitro SA (glass), FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena).
Nuevo León also boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt", which comprises the municipalities of Allende, Montemorelos, Hualahuises, General Terán and Linares. Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy.
In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo León and the orange belt, the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana, Aramberri, Zaragoza, Doctor Arroyo and Mier y Noriega) remains rural and less productive. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock.
As of 2010, Nuevo León's economy represents 11.4% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or US$165 billion. [ citation needed ] In recent years, the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics, biotechnology, mechatronics, information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica [es]), a technology park oriented in the development, innovation and research of sciences. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey, City of Knowledge program. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca, part of Greater Monterrey at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey's International Airport. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres), half of it already committed to R&D centers. The other 35 Ha (86 acres) are available for research and development centers, and for businesses that meet the Park's objectives.Nuevo León's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 431,551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in Nuevo León was 1,213.1 million USD for 2005.
Gubernatorial Election 2003
|See also: List of political parties in Mexico|
Nuevo León is divided into 51 municipalities (municipios). See municipalities of Nuevo León.
|Guadalupe||678,006||Part of Greater Monterrey|
|San Nicolás de los Garza||443,273|
|San Pedro Garza García||119,017|
Nuevo León has many biomes, which is why it has different climates. Some areas in the mountains are very cold in winter and temperate in summer. In the northern part of the state the climate is arid as a result of the proximity to the Chihuahuan desert. Extreme high temperatures of 47 °C or more occur on the desert areas while winters are short and mild. In Monterrey the climate is hot semi-arid with extreme hot summers and mild winters. There is very little rainfall throughout the year, usually about 500 mm or less. February 2021 North American ice storm sent temperatures in Monterrey below zero celsius.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Flora and fauna of Nuevo León|
|Vulpes macrotis||Ursus americanus||Cardinalis cardinalis||Mephitis macroura||Aquila chrysaetos|
|Cyanocitta stelleri||Pecari tajacu||Agkistrodon taylori||Tachybaptus dominicus||Antilocapra americana|
|Carya illinoinensis||Dioon edule||Cercis canadensis||Aztekium ritteri||Pinus culminicola|
Newspapers and news websites of Nuevo León include: ABC Noticias, Biznews, El Gráfico de Nuevo León, El Norte, El Porvenir, La Última Palabra, Medios Universitarios Diretec, Metro de Monterrey, Milenio Diario de Monterrey, Plataforma Mty. la ciudad que queremos, Publimetro, edición Monterrey, Regio.com, Reporte Indigo, Sòlo Ofertas.
The state has agreements with other states, provinces, regions and autonomous communities.
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP (PPP) of US$123 billion, and the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico with an estimated population of 5,341,171 people as of 2020. According to the 2020 census, the city itself has a population of 1,142,194. Monterrey is one of the most livable cities in Mexico, and a 2018 study found that suburb San Pedro Garza García is the city with the best quality of life in Mexico. It serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations. Its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is considerably higher than the rest of Mexico's at around US$35,500, compared to the country's US$18,800. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico.
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco, is one of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 17 municipalities and its capital city is Villahermosa.
Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa, is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.
Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas, is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.
San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí, is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.
San Pedro Garza García(also known as San Pedro or Garza García) is a city-municipality of the Mexican state of Nuevo León and part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It is a contemporary commercial suburb of the larger metropolitan city of Monterrey between Puente de la Unidad and the Alfa Planetarium, including areas surrounding Calzada del Valle/Calzada San Pedro. Nowadays It is considered the area with the best quality of life in México as well as one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Latin America. It has luxury shopping malls, large green areas, as well as important colleges and hospitals Cerro de Chipinque and Chipinque Ecological Park are notable aspects of the city. The city hosts the headquarters of corporations such as ALFA, Cemex, Gamesa, Vitro, Pyosa, Softtek The Home Depot México, and Cydsa.
The governmental structures of Nuevo León, a Mexican state, are organized according to article 30 of the state constitution, which provides for a republican, representative and popular government, divided into three independent branches that cannot be joined together in a single person or institution. Nuevo León's relation with the federal government of Mexico places it in a similar relation to that federal government as any other Mexican state, but it retains certain aspects of sovereignty with respect to other Mexican states and even toward foreign countries, especially with reference to its own internal affairs.
San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León that is part of the Monterrey metropolitan area. It has become primarily a city for residences and family houses, although it still has several factories that tend to relocate to the periphery of the metropolitan area. It is the third-largest city in the state, behind Monterrey and Guadalupe.
Nuevo León is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 51 municipalities. According to the 2020 Mexican Census, it is the seventh most populated state with 5,784,442 inhabitants and the 13th largest by land area spanning 64,156.2 square kilometres (24,770.8 sq mi).
José Natividad González Parás is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party. He is a former federal deputy and former governor of Nuevo León (2003–2009) He is also married to Cristina Maiz
Mexicali Municipality is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its municipal seat is located in the city of Mexicali. As of 2020, the municipality had a total population of 1,049,792. The municipality has an area of 13,700 km2 (5,300 sq mi). This includes many smaller outlying communities as well as the city of Mexicali. Also, the islands of Baja California located in the Gulf of California are part of the municipality, among them the mudflat islands at the mouth of the Colorado River, Isla Ángel de la Guarda and the islands of the San Lorenzo Marine Archipelago National Park. Mexicali is the northernmost municipality of Latin America.
Tecate is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its municipal seat is located in the city of Tecate. According to the 2020 census, it had a population of 108,440 inhabitants. The municipality has an area of 3,079.0 km².
The University of Monterrey is a private Catholic-inspired educational institution, open to all creeds and conditions, founded in 1969. The UDEM Campus is located in the municipality of San Pedro Garza García, belonging to the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.
The Bajío (lowlands) is a region of Central Mexico that includes parts of the states of Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Guanajuato, and Querétaro.
Laredo–Nuevo Laredo is one of six transborder agglomerations along the U.S.-Mexican border. The city of Laredo is situated in the U.S. state of Texas on the northern bank of the Rio Grande and Nuevo Laredo is located in the Mexican State of Tamaulipas in the southern bank of the river. This area is also known as the Two Laredos or the Laredo Borderplex. The area is made up of one county: Webb County in Texas and three municipalities: Nuevo Laredo Municipality in Tamaulipas, Hidalgo Municipality in Coahuila, Anáhuac Municipality in Nuevo León in Mexico. Two urban areas: the Laredo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Zona Metropolitana Nuevo Laredo three cities and 12 towns make the Laredo–Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan area which has a total of 636,516 inhabitants according to the INEGI Census of 2010 and the United States Census estimate of 2010. The Laredo–Nuevo Laredo is connected by four International Bridges and an International Railway Bridge. According to World Gazetteer this urban agglomeration ranked 157th largest in North and South America in 2010 with an estimated population of 775,481. This area ranks 66th in the United States and 23rd in Mexico.
Aramberri is a municipality in the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León, it is located at southeastern corner of the state. It was founded as Santa María de los Angeles de Río Blanco Mission in 1626 in the jurisdiction of Río Blanco, in the former New Kingdom of León. Its current name honors Jose Silvestri Aramberri, a general involved in the Mexican war of reform. It borders the municipalities of Galeana and Iturbide to north, Doctor Arroyo to west and southwest, General Zaragoza to south and with state of Tamaulipas to east.
Jaime Heliodoro Rodríguez Calderón, sometimes referred to by his nickname "El Bronco," is a Mexican politician. He is the Governor of the northern state of Nuevo León. He is the first independent candidate to have won a governorship in Mexico. He served as mayor of García, Nuevo León (2009–2012) as a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and was best known for his hard-line stance against organized crime. Rodríguez won the 2015 race for Governor as an independent candidate on June 7, 2015, winning half the votes of the election compared to his traditional party competitors, who split the remainder of the votes. He served as governor from 4 October 2015 until 31 December 2017, when he formally became candidate in the 2018 presidential race. He lost, only attaining 5% of the popular vote and resumed his term as governor.
San Quintín is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its municipal seat is located in the city of San Quintín, Baja California. According to the 2020 census, it had a population of 117,568 inhabitants. The municipality has an area of 32,883.93 km2. There are a few National Parks and a World Heritage Site at Bahia de Los Angeles.
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