Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated

Last updated

Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated (NTI; Inuktitut : ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᑐᙵᕕᒃ, Nunavut Tunngavik) is the legal representative of the Inuit of Nunavut for the purposes of native treaty rights and treaty negotiation. The presidents of NTI, Makivik Corporation, Nunatsiavut, and the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, the four regional land claims organizations, govern the national body, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) as its board of directors. [1] NTI continues to play a central role in Nunavut, even after the creation of the Government of Nunavut. As the successor of the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut, which was a signatory of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement on behalf of Inuit, NTI is responsible for ensuring that the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement is implemented fully by the Government of Canada and the Government of Nunavut and that all parties fulfill their obligations.

Contents

NTI is governed by a ten-member board of directors. Three of the directors -the President, the First Vice President and Second Vice President- are elected directly by beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement who are 16 years and older. Six of the directors are the Presidents and Vice Presidents of the three Regional Inuit Associations located in Nunavut. The four member Executive consists of the presidents of NTI and the three RIAs.

Mandate

NTI’s mission is to implement "Inuit economic, social and cultural well-being" through the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. NTI originated as a political activist body. Although it is now an organization with significant responsibilities for administering the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA), it continues as an advocate for the rights of Inuit. NTI plays a lead role in helping Inuit and Inuit organizations understand their rights and obligations under the NLCA. Finding out what the NLCA says is the first step for anyone who wants to use his or her rights or benefits. The Government of Nunavut protects the interests of all residents of Nunavut and NTI protects the rights of Inuit in Nunavut.

History

What is now known as Nunavut was officially separated from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, through the 1993 Nunavut Act [2] and the 1993 Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act . [3]

Board of Directors

In 2021 the Board included Aluki Kotierk, President, James Eetoolook, Vice-President, Stanley Anablak, President of the Kitikmeot Inuit Association (KIA), Clara Evalik, KIA Vice-President, Kono Tattuinee, President of the Kivalliq Inuit Association, Tagak Curley, Vice-President of the Kivalliq Inuit Association, PJ Akeeagok, President of the Qikiqtani Inuit Association, and Olayuk Akesuk, Vice-President of the Qikiqtani Inuit Association.

Departments

The NTI consists of ten departments: Lands & Resources, Wildlife, Claim Implementation, Human Resources, Business & Economic Development, Communications, Legal Services, Finance, Administration, and Social & Cultural Development.

Nunavut Land Claims Agreement

For NTI, the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, signed in May 1993 by Inuit and the Canadian government, is the central structure through which NTI identifies policy priorities and directions. Policy and program priorities are determined by what Claim obligations, either Inuit or government, have yet to be implemented. Priorities can stem from the necessity of meeting ongoing Inuit obligations. Inuit were represented by the Tungavik Federation of Nunavut, which went on to become Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. The Government of Canada and the Government of the Northwest Territories signed the NLCA on behalf of the Queen.

The NLCA will protect this reality by giving special duties to Inuit organizations like NTI with respect to language, culture and social policy. These duties might be handled directly by NTI or by Designated Inuit Organizations. The NLCA brings many rights and benefits to Inuit. The NLCA recognizes the contributions of Inuit to Canada’s history, identity and sovereignty in the Arctic.

Once the NLCA was signed and became law in Canada, Tungavik Federation of Nunavut TFN transformed into NTI. NTI was created to ensure that all 42 Articles of the NLCA were implemented. NTI continues to implement those articles today. NTI also works to protect the rights and benefits of Inuit as outlined in the NLCA.

Organization

NTI has an eight-member Board of Directors that guides the organization. The Board of Directors includes the NTI president, vice-president, and the presidents and vice-presidents of the three Regional Inuit Associations. NTI’s president and vice-president each hold office for a four-year term. NTI also has a five-member executive committee. The president and vice-president of NTI and the presidents of the three RIAs make up the executive committee. Approximately 75 people work for NTI in Cambridge Bay, Rankin Inlet, Iqaluit and Ottawa. Most of NTI’s employees are Inuit. NTI’s executive officers, board of directors and employees all work toward ensuring the NLCA is implemented.

Background

Nunavut "our land" in Inuktut, is a territory with a public government and the homeland of Inuit in Canada's eastern Arctic. In 1993 a Nunavut-wide Inuit vote and the Canadian Parliament ratified the Nunavut Agreement. By April 1, 1999, when the Government of Nunavut and the Nunavut Territory was created, it represented the "largest comprehensive land claim settlement ever reached between a state and its Indigenous Peoples."

By the late 1960s, young Inuit men and women were graduating from high schools and vocational training in Churchill, Manitoba, Whitehorse, Yukon, and Ottawa where they had opportunities to meet with other young people from different regions to discuss common problems and consider political change. [4] [5] As a result these young graduates founded two organizations in 1970. The Committee for Original Peoples’ Entitlement (COPE) was established in the western Arctic in response to exploratory oil seismic work on Banks Island in October, 1970 that threatened the subsistence of local trappers. [6] In the eastern Arctic, the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITK) was founded in 1971. In 1973, the ITK initiated the Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project which used land use mapping or counter-mapping methodologies, resulting in a three volume publication, [7] [8] based on research by a team of experts working closely with Inuit across Canada. According to Milton Freeman who oversaw the project, it "documented the total Inuit land use area of the Northwest Territories, then stretching from the Mackenzie River to east Baffin Island," to provide "information in support of the fact that Inuit have used and occupied this vast northern land since time immemorial and that they still use and occupy it to this day." [8] [9] Hugh Brody worked on the project from 1976–78 as coordinator in the North Baffin region. He also assembled an Arctic-wide account of Inuit perceptions of land occupancy, building a collage of Inuit voices from all the communities of the Northwest Territories. [7]

In the 1979 case Baker Lake v. Minister of Indian Affairs the plaintiffs, the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITK) and the Baker Lake Hunters and Trappers Association from Baker Lake, concerned that "government-licensed exploration companies were interfering with their aboriginal rights, specifically, their right to hunt caribou" took the Minister of Indian Affairs before the Federal Court of Canada. Justice Mahoney recognized the existence of Aboriginal Title in Nunavut. [10] :653

A September 5, 2018 report "Raising children" by the University of Calgary based Children First Canada and the O'Brien Institute for Public Health, wrote that Nunavut had the highest infant mortality rate (IMR) in Canada — 17.7 per 1,000 live births, much higher than the Canadian average IMR of 4.7. [11] The president of Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, Aluki Kotierk, said she hoped this would "spark rage" at the dire living conditions of some Nunavummiut children. [12] The report, which provided a snapshot of the health and well-being of Canadian children based on data collected by Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), the Canadian Pediatric Society, UNICEF report cards and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reports, warned that Canada's IMR was higher than all other European OECD countries and compared to all OECD countries, Canada ranks 30th of 44. [13]

Related Research Articles

Devolution Granting of some competences of central government to local government

Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area, thus granting them a higher level of autonomy.

Pond Inlet Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Pond Inlet is a small, predominantly Inuit community in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada, located on northern Baffin Island. To the Inuit the name of the place "is and always has been Mittimatalik." The Scottish explorer Sir John Ross had named an arm of the sea that separates Bylot Island from Baffin Island as Pond's Bay, and the hamlet now shares that name. On August 29, 1921, the Hudson's Bay Company opened its trading post near the Inuit camp and named it Pond Inlet, marking the expansion of its trading empire into the High Arctic.

Paul Okalik Canadian politician

Paul Okalik is a Canadian politician. He is the first Inuk to have been called to the Nunavut Bar. He was also the first Premier of Nunavut.

Inuktitut Name of several Inuit languages spoken in Canada

Inuktitut, also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba as well as the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. It is one of the aboriginal languages written with Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.

Crown–Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada Department of the government of Canada

Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada is the department of the Government of Canada responsible for Canada's northern lands and territories, and one of two departments with responsibility for policies relating to Indigenous peoples in Canada.

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Canadian Inuit political organization

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, previously known as the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, is a nonprofit organization in Canada that represents over 65,000 Inuit. Their mission is to "serve as a national voice protecting and advancing the rights and interests of Inuit in Canada."

The Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut was the organization officially recognized from 1982 to 1993 as representing the Inuit of what is now Nunavut, but was then part of the Northwest Territories, for the purpose of negotiating treaties and land claims settlements. In this role, it replaced the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, which represents Inuit across Canada, and has been superseded by Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated.

Tagak Curley is an Inuit leader, politician and businessman from Nunavut. As a prominent figure in the negotiations that led to the creation of Nunavut, Tagak is considered a living father of confederation in Canada. He was born in a hunting camp at Coral Harbour, Northwest Territories.

Jose Kusugak was an Inuk politician from Repulse Bay, Nunavut, Canada. He moved, along with his family, to Rankin Inlet in 1960.

Inuktitut (ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ) is a Canadian Inuit magazine produced by the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and Beat Studios. The magazine, now available quarterly, is published in Inuktitut (syllabics), Inuinnaqtun, English, and French.

The Nunavut Land Claim Agreement was signed on May 25, 1993, in Iqaluit, by representatives of the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut, the Government of Canada and the Government of the Northwest Territories. This agreement gave the Inuit of the central and eastern Northwest Territories a separate territory called Nunavut. It is the largest Aboriginal land claim settlement in Canadian history.

Inuit Group of peoples of Arctic North America

The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska. The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut languages also known as Inuit-Yupik-Unangan and also as Eskaleut. Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut.

Inuvialuit Settlement Region Region in Canada

The Inuvialuit Settlement Region, abbreviated as ISR, located in Canada's western Arctic, was designated in 1984 in the Inuvialuit Final Agreement by the Government of Canada for the Inuvialuit people. It spans 90,650 km2 (35,000 sq mi) of land, mostly above the tree line, and includes several subregions: the Beaufort Sea, the Mackenzie River delta, the northern portion of Yukon, and the northwest portion of the Northwest Territories. The ISR includes both Crown Lands and Inuvialuit Private Lands.

Archaeology in Nunavut

Canada welcomed its most recent territory, Nunavut, on April 1, 1999, after it separated from the Northwest Territories. With Nunavut's separation from the Northwest Territories came a need for new regulations regarding cultural history. Nunavut has the unique experience of having a large Aboriginal community that creates strong cultural ties within the legislation.

Paul Aarulaaq Quassa is a Canadian politician who served as the fourth Premier of Nunavut from November 2017 to June 2018. He currently serves as a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut, representing Aggu since 2013.

Natan Obed

Natan Obed is a Canadian politician who has served as president of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) since September 2015.

Nunavut Municipal Training Organization

The Nunavut Municipal Training Organization (MTO) is a school for municipal staff throughout the Territory of Nunavut. Training is primarily geared towards the staff of Inuit communities in Canada's far north. Since its inception, the work of the Nunavut Municipal Training Organization (MTO) has evolved into three core activities; Training Programs, Program Development/Enhancement, and improving municipal operations in Nunavut's 25 communities. The training itself is divided into three main categories: the college-accredited Municipal Government Program through the Nunavut Arctic College, Protection Services training, and community-targeted training courses.

Aluki Kotierk is an Inuk politician. She was born in Iqaluit but grew up in Igloolik, Nunavut.

John Amagoalik is an Inuit politician from Nunavik (Québec). He campaigned for Inuit rights and made a significant contribution to the founding of the Canadian territory of Nunavut. He was Chairman of the Nunavut Implementation Commission and is widely regarded as the "Father of Nunavut".

References

  1. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Organizational Structure Archived 2012-02-04 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Nunavut Act". Justice Canada. 1993. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
  3. Justice Canada (1993). "Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act". Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  4. Bonesteel, Sarah (June 2006). Anderson, Erik (ed.). Canada’s Relationship with Inuit: A History of Policy and Program Development (PDF) (Report). Public History Inc. via Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. ISBN   978-1-100-11121-6 . Retrieved September 11, 2018. www.publichistory.ca
  5. Bonesteel, Sarah (January 1, 2006). Canada's Relationship with Inuit: A History of Policy and Program Development. Canadian Museum of Civilization. ISBN   9781100111216.
  6. Usher, Peter J. (1973). The Committee for Original Peoples’ Entitlement (COPE) (Report). Ottawa. p. 29.
  7. 1 2 Freeman, Milton (1976), Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project: A Report, Ottawa, Ontario: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs
  8. 1 2 Argetsinger, Timothy H. Aqukkasuk (2009), "The Nature of Inuit Self-Governance in Nunavut Territory" (PDF), Dartmouth College, Native American Studies, Hanover, NH, Anthropologist David Hoffman one of the many experts who conducted fieldwork in what is now Nunavut, admired the "precision with which Inuit – who did not ordinarily use maps and who often could not read English – were able to recall specific areas of use and the "incredible encyclopedic knowledge of the land," formed by generations of dependence on its living bounty."
  9. Mitchell, Marybelle (1996). From Talking Chiefs to a Native Corporate Elite: The Birth of Class and Nationalism among Canadian Inuit. McGill-Queen's Native and Northern Series. 12. McGill-Queen's Press (MQUP). pp.  568. ISBN   0773565809.
  10. Elliott, Daid W. (December 1980). "Baker Lake and the Concept of Aboriginal Title". Osgoode Hall Law Journal (OSLJ). York University. 18 (4): 653–663.
  11. Statistics Canada. Table 13-10-0712-01. Ottawa: 2018 Aug 22 [cited 2018 August]. Infant mortality rates, by sex, annual CANSIM (database)
  12. Fenn, Kirsten (September 5, 2018). "Report on children's well-being highlights dire conditions for some in the North". CBC News. Retrieved September 10, 2018. Numbers show Nunavut continues to take top spot for infant mortality rate
  13. Organization for Economic Co-operation Development. Infant mortality rates (indicator). France: OECD; 2018 [cited 2018 Jul]. doi: 10.1787/83dea506-en