Nunchaku

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Various types of nunchaku. Nunchaku.JPG
Various types of nunchaku.

The nunchaku(Japanese:ヌンチャク, Hepburn:nunchaku, sometimes "nunchuks", [1] "nunchucks", [2] "chainsticks", [3] "chuka sticks" [4] or "karate sticks" [5] in English) is a traditional Okinawan martial arts weapon consisting of two sticks connected at one end by a short chain or rope. The two sections of the weapon are commonly made out of wood, while the link is a cord or a metal chain. The nunchaku is most widely used in martial arts such as Okinawan kobudō and karate, and is used as a training weapon, since it allows the development of quicker hand movements and improves posture. Modern-day nunchaku can be made from metal, wood, plastic or fiberglass. Toy and replica versions made of polystyrene foam or plastic are also available. Possession of this weapon is illegal in some countries, except for use in professional martial art schools.

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries. Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.

Okinawan martial arts Okinawan martial arts

Okinawan martial arts refers to the martial arts, such as karate, tegumi and Okinawan kobudō, which originated among the indigenous people of Okinawa Island. Due to its central location, Okinawa was influenced by various cultures with a long history of trade and cultural exchange, including Japan, China and Southeast Asia, that greatly influenced the development of martial arts on Okinawa.

Contents

The exact origin of nunchaku is unclear. Allegedly adapted by Okinawan farmers from a non-weapon implement for threshing rice, it was not a historically popular weapon because it was ineffective against the most widely used weapons of that time such as samurai swords, and few historical techniques for its use still survive.

Historically, katana were one of the traditionally made Japanese swords that were used by the samurai of ancient and feudal Japan. The katana is characterized by its distinctive appearance: a curved, single-edged blade with a circular or squared guard and long grip to accommodate two hands.

In modern times, nunchaku (Tabak-Toyok) were popularized by actor and martial artist Bruce Lee and his martial arts student (and teacher to him of Filipino martial arts) Dan Inosanto, who introduced this weapon to the actor. [6] Further exploration of use of nunchaku and of other kobudo discipline was afforded to Bruce Lee with and by Tadashi Yamashita, who worked with Bruce Lee on and in the movie Enter the Dragon . Another popular association in modern times is the fictional character Michelangelo of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise. Organizations including the North American Nunchaku Association, World Amateur Nunchaku Organization, Fédération Internationale de Nunchaku de Combat et Artistique, World Nunchaku Association, and International Techdo Nunchaku Association teach the use of nunchaku as a contact sport.

The tabak-toyok is a Filipino flail weapon consisting of a pair of sticks connected by a chain. It is closely related to the Okinawan nunchaku, the primary difference being that the Filipino version tends to have shorter handles and a longer chain than its Okinawan counterpart, making it better suited for long range. Each handle is approximately eight inches long. The length of the rope or chain that connects the handles is approximately 6 to 7.5 inches, but the weapon's ideal size depends on the user. Because the small size of the tabak-toyok allows for easy concealment, it is often used in street brawls in the Philippines.

Bruce Lee Hong Kong-American actor, martial artist

Lee Jun-fan, known professionally as Bruce Lee, was a Hong Kong-American actor, director, martial artist, martial arts instructor, and philosopher. He was the founder of the hybrid martial arts Jeet Kune Do. Lee was the son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-chuen. He is considered by commentators, critics, media, and other martial artists to be the most influential martial artist and a pop culture icon of the 20th century, who bridged the gap between East and West. He is often credited with helping to change the way Asians were presented in American films.

Dan Inosanto Filipino-American martial arts instructor

Daniel Arca "Dan" Inosanto is a Filipino-American martial arts instructor who is best known as a training partner of Bruce Lee. Inosanto is an authority on Jeet Kune Do and Filipino Martial Arts including Eskrima and Pencak Silat.

Etymology

The origin of the word nunchaku (ヌンチャク) is not known. One theory indicates it was derived from pronunciation of the Chinese characters 双截棍 (a type of traditional Chinese two section staff) in a Southern Fujian dialect of Chinese language (兩節棍 nng-chat-kun, pair(of)-linked-sticks). Another derives from the definition of "nun" as "twin".

<i>Kanji</i> adopted logographic Chinese characters used in the modern Japanese writing system

Kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese syllabic scripts hiragana and katakana. The Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters". It is written with the same characters in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing system, hanzi (漢字).

Another name for this weapon is "nûchiku"(ヌウチク). [7]

In the English language, nunchaku are often referred to as "nunchuks". [8]

Origins

Hyoshiki (wooden clappers) Hyoshiki 5.jpg
Hyoshiki (wooden clappers)

The origin of the nunchaku is unclear, although one popular belief is that nunchaku was originally a short South-East Asian flail [9] used to thresh rice or soybeans. This gave rise to the theory that it was originally developed by an Okinawan horse bit (muge), or that it was adapted from a wooden clapper called hyoshiki [10] carried by the village night watch, made of two blocks of wood joined by a cord. The night watch would hit the blocks of wood together to attract people's attention, then warn them about fires and other dangers. [11]

Some propose that the association of nunchaku and other Okinawan weapons with rebellious peasants is most likely a romantic exaggeration. Martial arts in Okinawa were practiced exclusively by aristocracy ( kazoku ) and "serving nobles" ( shizoku ), but were prohibited among commoners (heimin). [12] According to Chinese folklore, nunchaku are a variation of the two section staff. [13]

Parts

Parts of nunchaku Nunchaku (Parts).JPG
Parts of nunchaku

Construction

Nunchaku consist of two sections of wood connected by a cord or chain, though variants may include additional sections of wood and chain. In China, the striking stick is called "dragon stick" ("龍棍"), while the handle is called "yang stick" ("陽棍"). Chinese nunchaku tend to be rounded,[ according to whom? ] whereas the Okinawan version has an octagonal cross-section (allowing one edge of the nunchaku to make contact with the target, increasing the damage inflicted).[ according to whom? ][ citation needed ] The ideal length of each piece should be long enough to protect the forearm when held in a high grip near the top of the shaft. Both ends are usually of equal length, although asymmetrical nunchaku exist.

The ideal length of the connecting rope or chain is just long enough to allow the user to lay it over his or her palm, with the sticks hanging comfortably and perpendicular to the ground. The weapon should be properly balanced in terms of weight. Cheaper or gimmicky nunchaku (such as glow-in-the-dark versions) are often not properly balanced, which prevents the performer from performing the more advanced and flashier "low-grip" moves, such as overhand twirls. The weight should be balanced towards the outer edges of the sticks for maximum ease and control of the swing arcs.

Uncommon nunchuks made of solid nylon, hollow aluminum, and solid metal (unlinked) Uncommon nunchucks.jpg
Uncommon nunchuks made of solid nylon, hollow aluminum, and solid metal (unlinked)

Traditional nunchaku are made from a strong, flexible hardwood such as oak, loquat or pasania. Originally, the wood would be submerged in mud for several years, where lack of oxygen and optimal acidity would prevent rotting and cause the wood to harden. The rope is made from horsehair. Finally, the wood is very finely sanded and rubbed with an oil or stain for preservation. Today, such nunchaku are often varnished or painted for display purposes. This practice tends to reduce the grip and make the weapon harder to handle, and is therefore not advised for combat.

Modern nunchaku can be made from any suitable material, such as wood, metal, or almost any plastic, fiberglass or other hard substance. Toy and practice nunchaku are commonly covered with foam to prevent injury to the self or others. It is not uncommon to see modern nunchaku made from light metals such as aluminum. Modern equivalents of the rope are nylon cord or metal chains on ball bearing joints. Simple nunchaku may be easily constructed from wooden dowels and a short length of chain. Short rope nunchaku is used for free style swing. Rope is 13cm~15cm the player hangs the rope on the wrist and turns the sticks.Grip is short kontou girp. Long rope nunchaku is used for X letter swing martial art swing.Grip is long kontei grip.Short rope is safe becourse the sticks can be controlled easily. The Nunchaku-Do sport, governed by the World Nunchaku Association, promotes black and yellow polystyrene foam nunchaku. Unlike readily available plastic training nunchaku, the devices they promote are properly balanced.

There are some alternative nunchaku, made solely for sporting such as:

There are also some types of nunchaku with no noted use in sport, such as:

Formal styles

The nunchaku is most commonly used in Okinawan kobudō and karate, but it is also used in eskrima (more accurately, the Tabak-Toyok, a similar though distinct Philippine weapon, is used, as opposed to the Okinawan nunchaku), and in Korean hapkido. Its application is different in each style. The traditional Okinawan forms use the sticks primarily to grip and lock. Filipino martial artists use it much the same way they would wield a stick—striking is given precedence. Korean systems combine offensive and defensive moves, so both locks and strikes are taught. Nunchaku is often the first weapon wielded by a student, to teach self-restraint and posture, as the weapon is liable to hit the wielder more than the opponent if not used properly.

The Nunchaku is usually wielded in one hand, but it can also be paired. It can be whirled around, using its hardened handles for blunt force, as well as wrapping its chain around an attacking weapon to immobilize or disarm an opponent. Nunchaku training has been noted[ by whom? ] to increase hand speed, improve posture, and condition the hands of the practitioner. Therefore, it makes a useful training weapon.

There are some disciplines that combine nunchaku with unarmed techniques:

Freestyle

Freestyle nunchaku is a modern style of performance art using nunchaku as a visual tool, rather than as a weapon. With the growing prevalence of the Internet, the availability of nunchaku has greatly increased. In combination with the popularity of other video sharing sites, many people have become interested in learning how to use the weapons for freestyle displays. Freestyle is one discipline of competition held by the World Nunchaku Association. Some modern martial arts teach the use of nunchaku, as it may help students improve their reflexes, hand control, and other skills.

Sporting associations

Since the 1980s, there have been various international sporting associations that organize the use of nunchaku as a contact sport. [21] [22] Current associations usually hold "semi-contact" fights, where severe strikes are prohibited, as opposed to "contact" fights. "Full-Nunch" matches, on the other hand, are limitation-free on the severity of strikes and knockout is permissible. [23]

Legality

Of the various materials of which nunchaku may be made, solid metal bars, shown here, are among the most effective for striking. Solid metal nunchucks (unlinked).jpg
Of the various materials of which nunchaku may be made, solid metal bars, shown here, are among the most effective for striking.

In a number of countries, possession of nunchaku is illegal, or the nunchaku is defined as a regulated weapon. Norway, Canada, [27] [28] Russia, Poland, Chile, and Spain are all known to have significant restrictions.

In Germany, nunchaku have been illegal since April 2006, when they were declared a strangling weapon. [29] [30]

In England and Wales, public possession of nunchaku is heavily restricted by the Prevention of Crime Act 1953 and the Criminal Justice Act 1988. However nunchaku are not included in list of weapons whose sale and manufacture prohibited by Schedule 1 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988 (Offensive Weapons) Order 1988 and are traded openly (subject to age restrictions).

In Scotland laws restricting offensive weapons is similar to that of England and Wales. However in 2010 Glasgow Sheriff Court refused to accept a defence submission that nunchaku where not prohibited weapons under Scottish law although the defendants were acquitted on other grounds [31] .

The use of nunchaku was, in the 1990s, censored from UK rebroadcasts of American children's TV shows such as Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoons and films. [32] The UK version of the Soul Blade video game was also edited, replacing the character Li Long's nunchaku with a three-sectioned staff. In Hong Kong, it is illegal to possess metal or wooden nunchaku connected by a chain, though one can obtain a license from the police as a martial arts instructor, and rubber nunchaku are still allowed. Possession of nunchaku in mainland China is legal.

Legality in Australia is determined by individual state laws. In New South Wales, the weapon is on the restricted weapons list and, thus, can only be owned with a permit.

Legality in the United States varies at the state level. As elsewhere, the popularity of Bruce Lee movies in the 1970s led to a wave of nunchaku bans. [33] Many states prohibit carrying nunchaku in public as a concealed weapon, but a small number restrict or completely ban ownership. California has made exceptions for professional martial arts schools and practitioners to use the nunchaku. [34] The state of Arizona considered nunchaku to be a "prohibited weapon," making mere possession illegal, with the sole exception of nunchaku-like objects that are manufactured for use as illumination devices, from the 1970s2019. [35] [33] New York formerly banned all possession of nunchaku, but this was ruled unconstitutional in the 2018 case Maloney v. Singas. [36]

Law enforcement use

In 2015, police in the town of Anderson, California were trained and deployed to use nunchaku as a form of non-lethal force. They were selected because of their utility as both a striking weapon and a control tool.

Nunchaku have been employed by American police for decades, especially after the popular Bruce Lee movies of the 1970's, but tasers have since become the preferred non-lethal weapon for most departments. [37]

See also

Related Research Articles

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