Nuremberg

Last updated

Nuremberg

Nürnberg
Nurnberger Burg im Herbst von SudWest 05.JPG
Staatstheater Nurnberg 2006-08-08.jpg
Nurnberg-(Frauenkirche)-damir-zg.jpg
Nurnberg Stadtansicht 001.JPG
Maxbrucke Nurnberg Nacht.jpg
Nuremberg Castle, Nuremberg Opera House, Frauenkirche, Nuremberg skyline, Pegnitz River
Bandera de Nurnberg.svg
Flag
Wappen von Nurnberg.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Nuremberg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Nuremberg
Bavaria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Nuremberg
Coordinates: 49°27′N11°5′E / 49.450°N 11.083°E / 49.450; 11.083 Coordinates: 49°27′N11°5′E / 49.450°N 11.083°E / 49.450; 11.083
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Middle Franconia
District Urban district
Government
   Mayor Ulrich Maly (SPD)
Area
  City186.46 km2 (71.99 sq mi)
Elevation
302 m (991 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31) [1]
  City515,201
  Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
   Urban
763,854 (includes Erlangen, Fürth and Schwabach)
   Metro
3,500,000
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
90000-90491
Dialling codes 0911, 09122, 09129
Vehicle registration N
Website nuernberg.de

Nuremberg ( /ˈnjʊərəmbɜːrɡ/ ; German: Nürnberg; pronounced [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Nuremberg dialect: Närmberch; East Franconian: Närrnberch or Nämberch) is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 511,628 (2016) inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River (from its confluence with the Rednitz in Fürth onwards: Regnitz, a tributary of the River Main) and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, and is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth, Erlangen and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976 (2016), while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has approximately 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich. It is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area (colloquially: "Franconian"; German: Fränkisch).

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

States of Germany First-level administrative subdivisions of the Federal Republic of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states. Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer.

Bavaria State in Germany

Bavaria, officially the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg.

Contents

There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg), with 39,780 students (2017) Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen (Universitätsklinikum Erlangen); Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm ; and Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg . Nuremberg Airport (Flughafen Nürnberg “Albrecht Dürer“) is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, and the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.

The Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm is a public Technische Hochschule in Nuremberg, Bavaria. With its 12,200 students and 1,800 faculty members, it's the second biggest Technische Hochschule in Bavaria.

Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg organization

The Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg is a music conservatoire based in Nuremberg, Germany.

Nuremberg Airport airport in Germany

Nuremberg Airport, German: Albrecht Dürer Flughafen Nürnberg, is the international airport of the Franconian metropolitan area of Nuremberg and the second-busiest airport in Bavaria after Munich Airport. With about 4.2 million passengers handled in 2017, it is Germany's 10th biggest airport. It is located approximately 5 km north of Nuremberg's city centre and offers flights within Germany as well as to European metropolitan and leisure destinations, especially along the Mediterranean Sea, on the Canary Islands and in Egypt.

Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, [lower-alpha 1] showing operas, operettas, musicals, and ballets (main venue: Nuremberg Opera House), plays (main venue: Schauspielhaus Nürnberg), as well as concerts (main venue: Meistersingerhalle ). Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Albrecht Dürer and Johann Pachelbel.

Staatstheater Nürnberg theatre and opera house in Nuremberg, Germany

The Staatstheater Nürnberg is a German theatre company in Nuremberg, Bavaria. The theatre is one of four Bavarian state theatres and shows operas, plays, ballets and concerts. Until 1 January 2005, it was the Städtische Bühnen Nürnberg

Play (theatre) form of literature intended for theatrical performance

A play is form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue or singing between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from London’s West End and Broadway in New York – which are the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world – to regional theatre, to Community theatre, as well as university or school productions. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference as to whether their plays were performed or read. The term "play" can refer to both the written texts of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance.

Schauspielhaus is the German word for a theatre intended to show plays. Many towns, namely in Germany, have municipal theatres which operate different venues, one for music theatre, frequently called Opernhaus, another for plays. Both are commonly referred to as "Bühnen" (Stages).

Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, and it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials.

Nuremberg trials series of military trials at the end of World War II

The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held after World War II by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war. The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes. The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany, and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law.

History

Middle Ages

Old fortifications of Nuremberg Nuremberg defensive wall north f burggarten bastion f w.jpg
Old fortifications of Nuremberg

The first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. [2] From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III (reigning as King of Germany from 1138 to 1152) established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.

Imperial castle

An imperial castle or Reichsburg was a castle built by order of the Holy Roman Emperor, whose management was entrusted to Reichsministeriales or Burgmannen. It is not possible to identify a clear distinction between imperial castles and the fortified imperial palaces or Pfalzen, because many imperial castles were used by German kings for temporary stays. A large number of imperial castles were built in regions such as Swabia, Franconia, the Palatinate and the Alsace, where there were a high density of imperial estates (Reichsgüter) during the Hohenstaufen era.

Conrad III of Germany King of Germany

Conrad III was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He was the son of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and Agnes, a daughter of the Salian Emperor Henry IV.

Burgraviate of Nuremberg

The Burgraviate of Nuremberg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the early 12th to the late 15th centuries. As a burgraviate, it was a county seated in the town of Nuremberg; almost two centuries passed before the burgraviate lost power over the city, which became independent from 1219. Eventually, the burgraviate was partitioned to form Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Bayreuth.

From the late 12th century to the Interregnum (1254–73), however, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor (German: Reichsschultheiß ) from 1173/74. [3] [4] The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, finally broke out into open enmity, which greatly influenced the history of the city. [4]

Hohenstaufen German Dynasty

The Hohenstaufen, also known as Staufer, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. Before ascending to the kingship, they were Dukes of Swabia from 1079. As kings of Germany, they had a claim to Italy, Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire. Three members of the dynasty—Frederick I (1155), Henry VI (1191) and Frederick II (1220)—were crowned emperor. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily (1194–1268) and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1225–1268)

The Imperial Castle Nuernberg Burg Panorama PtGUI.jpg
The Imperial Castle

Nuremberg is often referred to[ by whom? ] as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire, particularly because the Imperial Diet (Reichstag) and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire.[ citation needed ] The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief ('Great Letter of Freedom'), including town rights, Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit), the privilege to mint coins, and an independent customs policy - almost wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves. [3] [4] Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe.

In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused[ by whom? ] of having desecrated the host, and 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was also the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city,[ citation needed ] which were divided by the Pegnitz. The Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century.

In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom. [5] They were burned at the stake or expelled,[ by whom? ] and a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. [6] The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534. [7]

Nuremberg in 1493
(from the Nuremberg Chronicle). Nuremberg chronicles - Nuremberga.png
Nuremberg in 1493
(from the Nuremberg Chronicle ).

The largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. [3] Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362 (the architect was likely Peter Parler), where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. [3]

In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand ('Craftsmen's Uprising'), supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe; the unions were then dissolved, and the oligarchs remained in power while Nuremberg was a free city (until the early-19th century). [3] [4] Charles IV conferred upon the city the right to conclude alliances independently, thereby placing it upon a politically equal footing with the princes of the Empire. [4] Frequent fights took place with the burgraves - without, however, inflicting lasting damage upon the city. After fire destroyed the castle in 1420 during a feud between Frederick IV (from 1417 Margrave of Brandenburg) and the duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, the city purchased the ruins and the forest belonging to the castle (1427), resulting in the city's total sovereignty within its borders.

Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory. [4] The Hussite Wars (1419-1434), a recurrence of the Black Death in 1437, and the First Margrave War (1449-1450) led to a severe fall in population in the mid-15th century. [4] Siding with Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria-Munich, in the Landshut War of Succession of 1503-1505 led the city to gain substantial territory, resulting in lands of 25 sq mi (64.7 km2), making it one of the largest Imperial cities. [4]

During the Middle Ages, Nuremberg fostered a rich, varied, and influential literary culture. [8]

Early modern age

Map of Nuremberg, 1648 De Merian Frankoniae 090.jpg
Map of Nuremberg, 1648

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg, in the 15th and 16th centuries, made it the centre of the German Renaissance. In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Protestant Reformation, and in 1532, the Nuremberg Religious Peace was signed there, preventing war between Protestants and Catholics [4] for 15 years. [9] During the 1552 revolution against Charles V, Nuremberg tried to purchase its neutrality, but the city was attacked without a declaration of war and was forced into a disadvantageous peace. [4] At the Peace of Augsburg, the possessions of the Protestants were confirmed by the Emperor, their religious privileges extended and their independence from the Bishop of Bamberg affirmed, while the 1520s' secularisation of the monasteries was also approved. [4]

Wolffscher Bau of the old city hall Old town hall.jpg
Wolffscher Bau of the old city hall

The state of affairs in the early 16th century, increased trade routes elsewhere and the ossification of the social hierarchy and legal structures contributed to the decline in trade. [4] Frequent quartering of Imperial, Swedish and League soldiers, the financial costs of the war and the cessation of trade caused irreparable damage to the city and a near-halving of the population. [4] In 1632, the city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre. Even after the Thirty Years' War, however, there was a late flowering of architecture and culture – secular Baroque architecture is exemplified in the layout of the civic gardens built outside the city walls, and in the Protestant city's rebuilding of St. Egidien church, destroyed by fire at the beginning of the 18th century, considered a significant contribution to the baroque church architecture of Middle Franconia. [3]

After the Thirty Years' War, Nuremberg attempted to remain detached from external affairs, but contributions were demanded for the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War and restrictions of imports and exports deprived the city of many markets for its manufactures. [4] The Bavarian elector, Charles Theodore, appropriated part of the land obtained by the city during the Landshut War of Succession, to which Bavaria had maintained its claim; Prussia also claimed part of the territory. Realising its weakness, the city asked to be incorporated into Prussia but Frederick William II refused, fearing to offend Austria, Russia and France. [4] At the Imperial diet in 1803, the independence of Nuremberg was affirmed, but on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine on 12 July 1806, it was agreed to hand the city over to Bavaria from 8 September, with Bavaria guaranteeing the amortisation of the city's 12.5 million guilder public debt. [4]

After the Napoleonic Wars

Old town of Nuremberg in the 19th century Nuremberg Scrapbooks cropped.jpg
Old town of Nuremberg in the 19th century
The British-built Adler was the locomotive of the first German Railway between Nuremberg and Furth. Adler Originalfoto.jpg
The British-built Adler was the locomotive of the first German Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth.

After the fall of Napoleon, the city's trade and commerce revived; the skill of its inhabitants together with its favourable situation soon made the city prosperous, particularly after its public debt had been acknowledged as a part of the Bavarian national debt. Having been incorporated into a Catholic country, the city was compelled to refrain from further discrimination against Catholics, who had been excluded from the rights of citizenship. Catholic services had been celebrated in the city by the priests of the Teutonic Order, often under great difficulties. After their possessions had been confiscated by the Bavarian government in 1806, they were given the Frauenkirche on the Market in 1809; in 1810 the first Catholic parish was established, which in 1818 numbered 1,010 souls. [4] [10]

In 1817, the city was incorporated into the district of Rezatkreis (named for the river Franconian Rezat), which was renamed to Middle Franconia (German : Mittelfranken ) on 1 January 1838. [4] The first German railway, the Bavarian Ludwigsbahn, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835. The establishment of railways and the incorporation of Bavaria into Zollverein (the 19th-century German Customs Union), commerce and industry opened the way to greater prosperity. [4] In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics. It subsequently grew to become the most important industrial city of Bavaria and one of the most prosperous towns of southern Germany. In 1905, its population, including several incorporated suburbs, was 291,351: 86,943 Catholics, 196,913 Protestants, 3,738 Jews and 3,766 members of other creeds. [4]

Nazi era

Nuremberg rally, 1935 Reichsparteitag 1935 Grosser Appell 28-1121M original.jpg
Nuremberg rally, 1935

Nuremberg held great significance during the Nazi Germany era. Because of the city's relevance to the Holy Roman Empire and its position in the centre of Germany, the Nazi Party chose the city to be the site of huge Nazi Party conventions — the Nuremberg rallies. The rallies were held in 1927, 1929 and annually from 1933 through 1938. After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg rallies became huge Nazi propaganda events, a centre of Nazi ideals. The 1934 rally was filmed by Leni Riefenstahl, and made into a propaganda film called Triumph des Willens ( Triumph of the Will ).

At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg to pass the Nuremberg Laws which revoked German citizenship for all Jews and other non-Aryans. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Today many examples of Nazi architecture can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of Der Stürmer .

1945.02.12. Plan der Zerstorungen Nurnbergs.jpg
Map of city centre with air raid destruction
Nuremberg in Ruins 1945 HD-SN-99-02986.JPEG
The bombed-out city of Nuremberg, 1945

During the Second World War, Nuremberg was the headquarters of Wehrkreis (military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including aircraft, submarines and tank engines. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here, and extensively used slave labour. [11] The city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943 to 1945. On 29 March 1944, the RAF endured its heaviest losses in the bombing campaign of Germany. Out of more than 700 planes participating, 106 were shot down or crash-landed on the way home to their bases, and more than 700 men were missing, as many as 545 of them dead. More than 160 became prisoners of war. [12]

On 2 January 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed by the Royal Air Force and the U.S. Army Air Forces and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1,800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 displaced. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. In total, about 6,000 Nuremberg residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids.

Nuremberg was a heavily fortified city that was captured in a fierce battle lasting from 17 to 21 April 1945 by the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division, 42nd Infantry Division and 45th Infantry Division, which fought house-to-house and street-by-street against determined German resistance, causing further urban devastation to the already bombed and shelled buildings. [13] Despite this intense degree of destruction, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent restored to its pre-war appearance, including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings. [14] However, over half of the historic look of the center, and especially the northeastern half of the old Imperial Free City was not restored.

Nuremberg trials

Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials Defendants in the dock at nuremberg trials.jpg
Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in war crimes and crimes against humanity were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremberg trials. The Soviet Union had wanted these trials to take place in Berlin. However, Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons:

The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organized by the United States as occupying power in the area.

Nuremberg executions

On 16 October 1946, a series of executions took place in Nuremberg when ten members of the military and political leadership of Nazi Germany were executed, including Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhem Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart and Julius Streicher. Hermann Göring was scheduled to be executed, but committed suicide with a potassium cyanide the night before he was to be hanged.

Geography

Map of Nuremberg Nuremberg Map.png
Map of Nuremberg

Several old villages now belong to the city, for example Grossgründlach, Kraftshof, Thon, and Neunhof in the north-west; Ziegelstein in the northeast, Altenfurt and Fischbach in the south-east; and Katzwang, Kornburg in the south. Langwasser is a modern suburb.

Climate

Nuremberg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with a certain humid continental influence (Dfb), categorized in the latter by the 0 °C isotherm. [15] The city's climate is influenced by its inland position and higher altitude. Winters are changeable, with either mild or cold weather: the average temperature is around −3 °C (27 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F), while summers are generally warm, mostly around 13 °C (55 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the afternoon. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year, although February and April tend to be a bit drier whereas July tends to have more rainfall. [16]

Climate data for Nuremberg (~5km of the downtown), 1981–2010 normals, elevation: 314 m, extremes 1955-2013
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.0
(59.0)
19.3
(66.7)
23.7
(74.7)
31.0
(87.8)
32.2
(90.0)
35.1
(95.2)
38.6
(101.5)
37.6
(99.7)
32.3
(90.1)
27.7
(81.9)
20.4
(68.7)
15.1
(59.2)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
4.6
(40.3)
9.2
(48.6)
14.4
(57.9)
19.4
(66.9)
21.8
(71.2)
24.6
(76.3)
24.2
(75.6)
19.4
(66.9)
13.9
(57.0)
7.2
(45.0)
3.5
(38.3)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
0.9
(33.6)
4.8
(40.6)
8.9
(48.0)
13.7
(56.7)
16.7
(62.1)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
14.2
(57.6)
9.6
(49.3)
4.2
(39.6)
0.9
(33.6)
9.3
(48.7)
Average low °C (°F)−3.1
(26.4)
−2.9
(26.8)
0.4
(32.7)
3.3
(37.9)
8.0
(46.4)
11.1
(52.0)
13.3
(55.9)
12.8
(55.0)
9.0
(48.2)
5.2
(41.4)
1.2
(34.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
4.8
(40.6)
Record low °C (°F)−25.4
(−13.7)
−30.2
(−22.4)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
−4.3
(24.3)
0.0
(32.0)
3.1
(37.6)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.7
(27.1)
−7.3
(18.9)
−12.7
(9.1)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−30.2
(−22.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)41.7
(1.64)
36.6
(1.44)
47.0
(1.85)
39.8
(1.57)
60.8
(2.39)
66.1
(2.60)
80.4
(3.17)
63.5
(2.50)
49.6
(1.95)
52.6
(2.07)
47.4
(1.87)
51.4
(2.02)
636.8
(25.07)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.287.2116.8175.0216.0217.9234.7219.9161.2114.457.243.21,701.6
Source: DWD [17] [18]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
13975,626    
175030,000+433.2%
181028,544−4.9%
182533,018+15.7%
183039,870+20.8%
184046,824+17.4%
185556,398+20.4%
186470,492+25.0%
187591,018+29.1%
1900261,081+186.8%
1910333,142+27.6%
1920364,093+9.3%
1930416,700+14.4%
1940429,400+3.0%
1950362,459−15.6%
1960458,401+26.5%
1970478,181+4.3%
1980484,405+1.3%
1990493,692+1.9%
2000488,400−1.1%
2005499,237+2.2%
2010505,664+1.3%
2015509,975+0.9%

Nuremberg has been a destination for immigrants. 39.5 % of the residents had an immigrant background in 2010 (counted with MigraPro). [19]

RankNationalityPopulation (31.12.2018) [20]
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 17,085
2Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 13,327
3Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 11,893
4Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 6,986
5Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 5,790
6Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 5,614
7Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 5,327
8Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 4,849
9Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 4,348
10Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 3,097
11Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia 2,903
12Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 2,206

Economy

Nuremberg for many people is still associated with its traditional gingerbread ( Lebkuchen ) products, sausages, and handmade toys. Pocket watches Nuremberg eggs — were made here in the 16th century by Peter Henlein. In the 19th century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Nuremberg is still an important industrial centre with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products and printed materials.

The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy and medical technology. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city. The Nuremberg International Toy Fair is the largest of its kind in the world. [21]


Tourism

Nuremberg is Bavaria’s second largest city after Munich, and a popular tourist destination for foreigners and Germans alike. It was a leading city 500 years ago, but 90% of the town was destroyed in 1945 during the war. After World War II, the town was rebuilt with the charm of a medieval Bavarian village. It has since been dubbed the “most German of German cities”. [22]

Attractions

Beyond its main attractions of the Imperial Castle, St. Lorenz Church, and Nazi Trial grounds, there are 54 different museums for arts and culture, history, science and technology, family and children, and more niche categories [23] , where visitors can see the world’s oldest globe (built in 1492), a 500-year-old Madonna, and Renaissance-era German art [22] . There are several types of tours offered in the city, including historic tours, those that are Nazi-focused, underground and night tours, walking tours, sightseeing buses, self guided tours, and an old town tour on a mini train. Nuremberg also offers several parks and green areas, as well as indoor activities such as bowling, rock wall climbing, escape rooms, cart racing, and mini golf, theaters and cinemas, pools and thermal spas. There are also six nearby amusement parks [23] . The city’s tourism board sells the Nurnberg Card which allows for free use of public transportation and free entry to all museums and attractions in Nuremberg for a two day period. [23]

Culinary Tourism

Nuremberg is also a destination for food lovers. Culinary tourists can taste the city’s famous lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer, and Nürnberger Rostbratwürstchen, or Nuremberg sausages. There are hundreds of restaurants for all tastes, including traditional franconian restaurants and beer gardens. Also offers 17 vegan and vegetarian restaurants, seven fully organic restaurants. Nuremberg also boasts a two Michelin Star rated restaurant, Essigbrätlein. [23]

Pedestrian zones

Like many European cities, Nuremberg offers a pedestrian-only zone covering a large portion of the old town, which is a main destination for shopping and specialty retail, [24] including year-round Christmas stores where tourists and locals alike can purchase Christmas ornaments, gifts, decorations, and additions to their toy Christmas villages. The Craftsmen's Courtyard, or Handwerkerhof, is another tourist shopping destination in the style of a medieval village. It houses several local family-run businesses which sell handcrafted items from glass, wood, leather, pottery, and precious metals. The Handwerkerhof is also home to traditional German restaurants and beer gardens. [25]

The Pedestrian zones of Nuremberg host festivals and markets throughout the year, most well known being Christkindlesmarkt, Germany’s largest Christmas market and the gingerbread capital of the world. Visitors to the Christmas market can peruse the hundreds of stalls and purchase local wood crafts, nutcrackers, smokers, and prune people, while sampling Christmas sweets and traditional gluhwein. [26]

Hospitality

In 2017, Nuremberg saw a total of 3.3 million overnight stays, a record for the town, and is expected to have surpassed that in 2018, with more growth in tourism anticipated in the coming years [27] . There are over 175 registered places of accommodation in Nuremberg, ranging from hostels to luxury hotels, bed and breakfasts, to multi-hundred room properties. [23] As of 19 April 2019, Nuremberg had 306 AirBnB listings. [28]

Culture

Albrecht Durer's House Albrecht-Durer-Haus - Tiergartnerplatz - Nuremberg, Germany - DSC02033.jpg
Albrecht Dürer's House
Christkindlesmarkt with Schoner Brunnen Christkindlesmarkt nuernberg.jpg
Christkindlesmarkt with Schöner Brunnen

Nuremberg was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts.

In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, created woodcuts of the first maps of the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johannes Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe. [29] Perhaps most famously, the main part of Nicolaus Copernicus's work was published in Nuremberg in 1543.

Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe.

Sculptors such as Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg.

Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Richard Wagner made their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the hero of his opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg . Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel was born here and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church.

The academy of fine arts situated in Nuremberg is the oldest art academy in central Europe and looks back to a tradition of 350 years of artistic education.

Nuremberg is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt (Christmas market), which draws well over a million shoppers each year. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies.

Museums

Dokumentationszentrum.JPG
Documentation centre at the former Nazi party rally grounds
Nuremberg Dokuzentrum.jpg
Documentation Centre
NeuesMuseumNbg Aussenansicht.jpg
Neues Museum , museum of modern art and design
GMN Schausammlung 2011 1.jpg
Renaissance art gallery of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum

Performing arts

The Nuremberg State Theatre Staatstheater Nurnberg 2006-08-08.jpg
The Nuremberg State Theatre
Bardentreffen 2013 Bardentreffen 2013 3668.jpg
Bardentreffen 2013

The Nuremberg State Theatre, founded in 1906, is dedicated to all types of opera, ballet and stage theatre. During the season 2009/2010, the theatre presented 651 performances for an audience of 240,000 persons. [30] The State Philharmonic Nuremberg (Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg) is the orchestra of the State Theatre. Its name was changed in 2011 from its previous name: The Nuremberg Philharmonic (Nürnberger Philharmoniker). It is the second-largest opera orchestra in Bavaria. [31] Besides opera performances, it also presents its own subscription concert series in the Meistersingerhalle. Christof Perick was the principal conductor of the orchestra between 2006–2011. Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September 2011 .

The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra (Nürnberger Symphoniker) performs around 100 concerts a year to a combined annual audience of more than 180,000. [32] The regular subscription concert series are mostly performed in the Meistersingerhalle but other venues are used as well, including the new concert hall of the Kongresshalle and the Serenadenhof. Alexander Shelley has been the principal conductor of the orchestra since 2009.

The Nuremberg International Chamber Music Festival (Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg) takes place in early September each year, and in 2011 celebrated its tenth anniversary. Concerts take place around the city; opening and closing events are held in the medieval Burg. The Bardentreffen, an annual folk festival in Nuremberg, has been deemed the largest world music festival in Germany and takes place since 1976. 2014 the Bardentreffen starred 368 artists from 31 nations. [33]

Cuisine

Nurnberger Bratwurst Nurnberger Bratwurste.jpg
Nürnberger Bratwurst

Nuremberg is known for Nürnberger Bratwurst, which is shorter and thinner than other bratwurst sausages.

Another Nuremberg speciality is Nürnberger Lebkuchen, a kind of gingerbread eaten mainly around Christmas time.

Education

The Georg Simon Ohm Technische Hochschule Nurnberg (Kesslerplatz). Germany Nuernberg Georg-Simon-Ohm-Fachhochschule.jpg
The Georg Simon Ohm Technische Hochschule Nürnberg (Kesslerplatz).

Nuremberg offers 51 public and 6 private elementary schools in nearly all of its districts. Secondary education is offered at 23 Mittelschulen, 12 Realschulen, and 17 Gymnasien (state, city, church, and privately owned). There are also several other providers of secondary education such as Berufsschule, Berufsfachschule, Wirtschaftsschule etc. [34]

Higher education

Nuremberg hosts the joint university Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, two Fachhochschulen (Technische Hochschule Nürnberg and Evangelische Hochschule Nürnberg), an art school (Akademie der Bildenden Künste Nürnberg), and a music conservatoire (Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg). [35] There are also private schools such as the Akademie Deutsche POP Nürnberg offering higher education. [36]

Main sights

Nuremberg from Burg 17.04.2010.jpg
Nuremberg, seen from the castle
Nuremberg from Spittlertor Nurnberg panorama.jpg
Nuremberg from Spittlertor
St. Sebaldus Church and Nuremberg Castle in winter Nuremberg View Old Town.jpg
St. Sebaldus Church and Nuremberg Castle in winter
Heilig-Geist-Spital (Hospice of the Holy Spirit) Nurnberg (9532545824) (3).jpg
Heilig-Geist-Spital (Hospice of the Holy Spirit)
Pilatushaus and Nuremberg Castle Nuernberg Pilatushaus 001.JPG
Pilatushaus and Nuremberg Castle
Nuremberg Business Area Nuremberg Aerial Tullnau Moegeldorf.JPG
Nuremberg Business Area
Palace of Justice - Nuremberg Trials site Ostbau Justizpalast Nurnberg.jpg
Palace of Justice - Nuremberg Trials site

Transport

The city's location next to numerous highways, railways, and a waterway has contributed to its rising importance for trade with Eastern Europe.

Railways

The main railway station Nuremberg.Central railway station.jpg
The main railway station
A subway station in Nuremberg. Subway station nuremberg.jpg
A subway station in Nuremberg.

Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. The Nuremberg–Ingolstadt–Munich high-speed line with 300 km/h (186 mph) operation opened 28 May 2006, and was fully integrated into the rail schedule on 10 December 2006. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour. The Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway opened in December 2017.

City and regional transport

An automatic U-Bahn train on the line U3 DT3 Hauptbahnhof TB.JPG
An automatic U-Bahn train on the line U3

The Nuremberg tramway network was opened in 1881. As of 2008, it extended a total length of 36 km (22 mi), had six lines, and carried 39.152 million passengers annually. The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1972. Nuremberg's trams, buses and metro system are operated by the VAG Nürnberg (Verkehrsaktiengesellschaft Nürnberg or Nuremberg Transport Corporation), itself a member of the VGN (Verkehrsverbund Grossraum Nürnberg or Greater Nuremberg Transport Network).

There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof. Since 2008, Nuremberg has had the first U-Bahn in Germany (U2/U21 and U3) that works without a driver. It also was the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks.

Tramway Network Strassenbahn Nurnberg Linienband.png
Tramway Network
S- and U-Bahn network Schnellbahnnetz nurnberg.jpg
S- and U-Bahn network
S-, U-Bahn and Tramway network Schnellbahnnetz Nurnberg S U Tram.png
S-, U-Bahn and Tramway network
S-Bahn network S-Bahn Nurnberg Linienband.png
S-Bahn network
U-Bahn network U-Bahn Nurnberg Linienband.png
U-Bahn network

Motorways

Nuremberg is located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The A3 ( Netherlands FrankfurtWürzburg Vienna ) passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. The A9 (Berlin–Munich) passes in a north–south direction on the east of the city. The A6 (FranceSaarbrücken Prague ) passes in an east–west direction to the south of the city. Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg.

Airport

Nuremberg Airport has flights to major German cities and many European destinations. The largest operators are currently Eurowings, TUI fly Deutschland and SunExpress Deutschland, while the low-cost Ryanair and Wizz Air companies connect the city to various European centres. A significant amount of the airport's traffic flies to and from mainly touristic destinations during the peak winter season. The airport (Flughafen) is the terminus of subway line 2; it is the only airport in Germany served by a subway.

Canals

Nuremberg is an important port on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal.

Sport

Max-Morlock-Stadion is the football stadium of Bundesliga club 1. FC Nurnberg Frankenstadion 3.JPG
Max-Morlock-Stadion is the football stadium of Bundesliga club 1. FC Nürnberg

Football

1. FC Nürnberg, known locally as Der Club (English: "The Club"), was founded in 1900 and currently plays in the Bundesliga. The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. The current chairmen are Nils Rossow and Robert Palikuca. They play in Max-Morlock-Stadion which was refurbished for the 2006 FIFA World Cup and accommodates 50,000 spectators.

Basketball

The SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 2005 to 2007. Since then, teams from Nuremberg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Nürnberg Falcons BC have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg. The Falcons play their home games at the Halle im Berufsbildungszentrum (BBZ).

International relations

Twin Towns – Sister Cities

Nuremberg is twinned with: [37]

Associated cities

Apart from the official twin towns (sister cities), there are a number with which Nuremberg maintains "cordial relations": [46]

Cooperation

Nuremberg also engages in cooperation with various other cities internationally: [48] [ citation needed ]

Notable residents

Albrecht Durer is the best-known son of the city Durer selfporitrait.jpg
Albrecht Dürer is the best-known son of the city

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. Not according Verona's official listing.
  1. Bavarian state theatres in Munich: Bavarian State Opera, Bayerisches Staatsschauspiel, and Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz; in Nuremberg: Staatstheater Nürnberg; in Augsburg: Staatstheater Augsburg

Related Research Articles

Franconia Cultural region of Germany

Franconia is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, colloquially referred to as "Franconian", is spoken. There are several other Franconian dialects, but only the East Franconian ones are colloquially referred to as "Franconian".

Middle Franconia Regierungsbezirk in Bavaria, Germany

Not to be confused with, Middle Francia.

Fürth Place in Bavaria, Germany

Fürth is a city in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division (Regierungsbezirk) of Middle Franconia. It is now contiguous with the larger city of Nuremberg, the centres of the two cities being only 7 km apart.

Nuremberg Castle fortification

Nuremberg Castle is a group of medieval fortified buildings on a sandstone ridge dominating the historical center of Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany.

University of Erlangen–Nuremberg public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany

Friedrich–Alexander University Erlangen–Nürnberg is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The name Friedrich–Alexander comes from the university's first founder Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and its benefactor Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.

Cadolzburg Place in Bavaria, Germany

Cadolzburg is a municipality in the Middle Frankonian district of Fürth, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated 11 km (6.8 mi) west of Fürth. Its name derives from its central castle, first being mentioned in the year 1157.

Heroldsberg Place in Bavaria, Germany

Heroldsberg is a municipality in the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located eleven kilometers north-east from the city of Nuremberg and 23 kilometers east from Erlangen and is the headquarters of Schwan-Stabilo.

Kalchreuth Place in Bavaria, Germany

Kalchreuth is a municipality in the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located 10 kilometers east of Erlangen and 15 kilometers north of Nuremberg and contains the villages of Kalchreuth, Käswasser and Röckenhof and also the hamlets of Stettenberg, Minderleinsmühle and Gabermühle.

Nuremberg Zoo zoo

Nuremberg Zoo is a zoo located in the Nuremberg Reichswald, southeast of Nuremberg, Germany. With an area of 67 hectares, approximately 300 animal species are kept by the zoo.

The Franconian International School (FIS) is an international school based in Erlangen serving the Nuremberg metropolitan area community in Germany.

Free Imperial City of Nuremberg quasi-independent city state within the Holy Roman Empire, 1219–1806

The Imperial City of Nuremberg was a free imperial city — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire. After Nuremberg gained piecemeal independence from the Burgraviate of Nuremberg in the High Middle Ages and considerable territory from Bavaria in the Landshut War of Succession, it grew to become one of the largest and most important Imperial cities, the 'unofficial capital' of the Empire, particularly because Imperial Diets and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the Empire. The Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Emperor Charles IV, named Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, making Nuremberg one of the three highest cities of the Empire.

Nuremberg Ring Railway German railway line

The Nuremberg Ring Railway is the ring railway for freight that runs at a distance of three to four kilometres from the center of Nuremberg in the German state of Bavaria.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Nuremberg, Germany.

Rothenberg Fortress Cultural heritage monument in Landkreis Nürnberger Land, Bavaria, Germany

Rothenberg Fortress is a fortress on the eponymous hill, 588 m, near Schnaittach in the Franconian Jura.

History of Franconia

Franconia is a region that is not precisely defined, but which lies in the north of the Free State of Bavaria, parts of Baden-Württemberg and South Thuringia and Hesse in Germany. It is characterised by its own cultural and linguistic heritage. Its history began with the first recorded human settlement about 600,000 years ago. Thuringii, Alemanni and Franks, who gave the region its name, settled the area in the Early Middle Ages. From the mid-9th century, the Stem Duchy of Franconia emerged as one of the five stem duchies of the Empire of East Francia. On 2 July 1500, during the reign of Emperor Maximilian I, as part of the Imperial Reform, the empire was divided into Imperial Circles. The Franconian Circle, which was formed as a result of this restructuring, became decisive in the creation of a Franconian national identity. A feature of Franconia in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period was its Kleinstaaterei, an extreme fragmentation into little states and territories. In the 19th century under Napoleon, large parts of Franconia were incorporated into the newly created Kingdom of Bavaria.

Rabenstein Castle (Upper Franconia) district and castle in Ahorntal

Rabenstein Castle is a former high medieval aristocratic castle in the municipality of Ahorntal in the Upper Franconian county of Bayreuth in the German state of Bavaria.

Thuisbrunn Castle castle

Thuisbrunn Castle is located centrally within the parish of Thuisbrunn in the municipality of Gräfenberg in the Bavarian province of Upper Franconia. After having been destroyed and rebuilt several times, the castle is now in private ownership.

Hiltpoltstein Castle Architectural heritage monument in Landkreis Forchheim, Bavaria, Germany

Hiltpoltstein Castle was originally a high mediaeval aristocratic castle dating to the 11th or 12th century. It stands in the centre of the market village of Markt Hiltpoltstein in the Upper Franconian county of Forchheim in the south German state of Bavaria. Its present appearance as a triple-winged building goes back to renovations carried out at the end of the 16th century.

References

  1. "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). September 2018.
  2. Compare: ‹See Tfd› (in German) Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung (Political and Social Development of the Imperial City of Nuremberg), Historisches Lexikon Bayerns : "Nürnberg ist erstmals 1050 als Reichsburg inmitten eines großen Reichsgutkomplexes schriftlich bezeugt. [...] Die Stadt Nürnberg entstand um die Wende zum 11. Jahrhundert in Anlehnung an eine 1050 erstmals erwähnte Reichsburg inmitten eines ausgedehnten Reichsgutkomplexes in Ostfranken und dem bayerischen Nordgau." [The first written attestation of Nuremberg occurs in 1050 as an Imperial castle in the middle of an extensive complex of Imperial property. [...] The city of Nuremberg originated about the turn of the 11th century inconnection with an Imperial castle (first mentioned in 1050) in the centre of an expansive complex of Imperial property in East Franconia and in the Bavarian Nordgau.]
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ‹See Tfd› (in German) Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung (Political and Social Development of the Imperial City of Nuremberg), Historisches Lexikon Bayerns
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 PD-icon.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Nuremberg". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. "Black Death". JewishEncyclopedia.com
  6. Cities and People: A Social and Architectural History, Mark Girouard, Yale University Press, 1985, p.69
  7. Jerry Stannard, Katherine E. Stannard, Richard Kay (1999). Herbs and herbalism in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. University of Michigan Press. ISBN   0-86078-774-5
  8. Sobecki, Sebastian (2016). "Nuremberg". Europe: A Literary History, 1348-1418, ed. David Wallace. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 566–581.
  9. article on the Nuremberg Religious Peace, page 351 of the 1899 Lutheran Cyclopedia
  10. "Nuremberg History". www.triposo.com. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  11. Keeffe, Christine O. "Concentration Camps List". Tartanplace.com. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  12. "Flossenbürg | Holocaust". www.holocaust.cz. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  13. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 90, 129, 135
  14. Neil Gregor, Haunted City. Nuremberg and the Nazi Past (New Haven, 2008)
  15. "Nuremberg, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  16. "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". Dwd.de. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  17. "German climate normals 1981-2010" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  18. "Amt für Stadtforschung und Statistik für Nürnberg und Fürth: Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Nürnberg" (PDF). Destatis.de. November 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  19. "Bevölkerungsstand". Stadtforschung und Statistik für Nürnberg und Fürth. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  20. "10 Reasons for visiting". Spielwarenmesse Nürnberg. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  21. 1 2 "Germany: Frankfurt and Nürnberg - Video - Rick Steves' Europe". www.ricksteves.com. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 "Home". Tourismus Nürnberg. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  23. Monheim, Rolf (January 1992). "Town and transport planning and the development of retail trade in metropolitan areas of West Germany". Landscape and Urban Planning. 22 (2–4): 121–136. doi:10.1016/0169-2046(92)90017-t.
  24. "Craftmen's Courtyard in Nuremberg – a friendly welcome awaits you!". www.christkindlesmarkt.de (in German). Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  25. "European Christmas TV Special | Rick Steves' Europe". www.ricksteves.com. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  26. "Record results for tourism in 2017: Overnight stays in Nuremberg exceed all expectations". Tourismus Nürnberg. 2 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  27. "Vacation Rentals, Homes, Experiences & Places". Airbnb. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  28. Waetzoldt, Wilhelm (1935). Dürer und seine Zeit. Vienna: Phaedon. pp. 306–309.
  29. "Audience of the Staatstheater (Mehr Besucher im Staatstheater Nürnberg)" (in German). Mittelbayerische.de. 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  30. "Die Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg" (in German). Staatstheater-nuernberg.de. 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  31. "Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra, audience and concerts stats" (in German). 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  32. ""Krieg und Frieden" – Pippo Pollina eröffnet Bardentreffen". Frankenfernsehen.tv. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  33. Schulreferat, Stadt Nürnberg (20 August 2015). "Schulen in Nürnberg". nuernberg.de. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  34. Stadt Nürnberg (1 May 2016). "Nürnberg in Zahlen" (PDF). nuernberg.de. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  35. "Deutsche Pop Nürnberg". 14 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  36. "Partnerstädte". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  37. "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  38. "Kraków - Miasta Bliźniacze" [Kraków - Twin Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  39. "Skopje - Twin towns & Sister cities". Official portal of City of Skopje. © Grad Skopje - 2006 - 2013, www.skopje.gov.mk. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  40. "Skopje – Die Partnerschaft" (in German). Town of Nürnberg. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  41. "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague - Twin Cities HMP]. Portál „Zahraniční vztahy“ [Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  42. Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  43. Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  44. Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  45. "Befreundete Kommunen". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  46. "Gemellaggi" (official site) (in Italian). Verona, Italy: Comune di Verona. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  47. "Befreundete Kommunen". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  48. "Biography of Peter Angermann". Biographies.net. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  49. "Chaya Arbel". Jwa.org. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  50. "OBITUARIES: Heinz Bernard". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  51. "Peter Owen dies - The Bookseller". www.thebookseller.com.
  52. "Caritas Pirckheimer". Home.infionline.net. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2015.

Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Nuremberg