Nydam Mose also known as "Nydam Bog", is an archaeological site located at Øster Sottrup, a town located in Sundeved, eight kilometres from Sønderborg, Denmark.
In the Iron Age, the site of the bog was a sacred place, where the weapons and ships of vanquished armies were offered to the indigenous gods in thanks for victory over the fallen enemy. Many items were deliberately destroyed (bent, broken or hacked into pieces) in ritual sacrificial acts, from the period 200–400 CE. Nydam Bog has played a role in the Danish national claim for Southern Jutland.[ citation needed ]
The first known finds from the bog date from the 1830s, when a local farmer gave old swords and shields as toys to his children.
Amongst numerous other items, three boats were found in Nydam Bog. In particular, the 23-metre-long oak boat, commonly known as "the Nydam Boat", maintains a distinguished position amongst Danish Iron Age finds, as it is the oldest known rowing vessel in Northern Europe. The oak (egetræsbåden) boat is on display at the archaeological museum in Gottorp Castle, Schleswig, Germany.
From 1859 to 1863, archaeologist Conrad Engelhardt excavated the bog. Engelhardt found weapons, tools, pieces of clothing and two intact clinker built boats, one made of oak and one made of pine. The weapons include lances, spears, bows, arrows and round shields. Under these finds were the remains of a third boat, which apparently had been demolished already during the sacrifice.
Engelhardt's work ceased with the outbreak of the Second Schleswig War in early 1864. Some of the discoveries from the bog were lost during the Second Schleswig War. The smaller of the two boats, perhaps 19 meters long and made of pine, was hacked up and used as firewood by troops.
The National Museum of Denmark resumed excavation of the bog in 1989. During excavation a large quantity of weapons have come to light, in the form of swords, spears, bows and arrows; and also personal effects such as belt buckles, brooches and ornate clasps. These finds originate from the Iron Age, in the period between 250–550 CE.
The sacrifice site was probably used on different occasions during the years 200–450 CE. The oak boat was the first boat found, and the only one still preserved. It has been dendro dated to 310–320 CE. The oak boat is considered the oldest Nordic shipfind and the oldest known clinker built boat. It is 23 m long, c 4 m wide, of clinker type, and built for 15 pairs of oars. The Nydam boat is the largest and best preserved of the boats found in Nydam Bog and is now displayed at Gottorf Castle in Schleswig, Germany. It once weighed over three tonnes and was rowed by thirty men.
Interest in the archaeology of Nydam Bog has always been particularly lively in the local area. The Nydam discoveries were and remain a significant theme in the relationship between Danish and German cultures in the border region. On this basis, the "Society for Nydam Research" – commonly known as the Nydam Society - was formed in 1983. Through its work, this interest group has contributed to the resumption of National Museum of Denmark's investigation of the bog.
Today, the site is a green meadow. Parking is available on Nydamvej. From here, there is a path (Nydamstien) to the small white house, Nydamhuset, which is situated beside the site of the archaeological discoveries. It takes about 10 minutes to walk there.
The Nydam Society's long-standing desire to build a replica of the Nydam Boat has been realized. The Nydam Tveir was built employing the techniques of the time – both to exploit the material characteristics of the timber and to develop an understanding of how large vessels were built in that period. Construction of a replica of the Nydam Boat was based on the oak boat found in 1859. The construction of the Nydam Boat was divided into two phases. Phase 1 was a feasibility study to investigate the construction of the boat. Here the builders investigated prerequisites and gathered experience for use in Phase 2, which comprised building the complete boat.
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Year 320 (CCCXX) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Constantinus and Constantinus. The denomination 320 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
A bog body is a human cadaver that has been naturally mummified in a peat bog. Such bodies, sometimes known as bog people, are both geographically and chronologically widespread, having been dated to between 8000 BCE and the Second World War. The unifying factor of the bog bodies is that they have been found in peat and are partially preserved; however, the actual levels of preservation vary widely from perfectly preserved to mere skeletons.
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The year 1952 in archaeology involved some significant events.
Clinker built is a method of boat building where the edges of hull planks overlap each other. Where necessary in larger craft, shorter planks can be joined end to end into a longer strake or hull plank. The technique developed in northern Europe and was successfully used by the Anglo-Saxons, Frisians, Scandinavians, and typical for the Hanseatic cog. A contrasting method, where plank edges are butted smoothly seam to seam, is known as carvel construction.
1859 in archaeology
1863 in archaeology
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The Thorsberg moor near Süderbrarup in Anglia, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, is a peat bog in which the Angles deposited votive offerings for approximately four centuries. It is the location of important Roman Iron Age finds, including early Elder Futhark runic inscriptions such as the Thorsberg chape, a Roman helmet, a shield buckle, and an early example of socks. The finds are of similar importance as the contemporaneous finds from Illerup and Vimose in Denmark.
The Haraldskær Woman is a bog body of a woman found naturally preserved in a bog in Jutland, Denmark, and dating from about 490 BCE. Workers found the body in 1835 while excavating peat on the Haraldskær Estate. The anaerobic conditions and acids of the peat bog contributed to the body's excellent preservation. Not only was the intact skeleton found, but so were the skin and internal organs. Scientists settled disputes about the age and identity of this well preserved body in 1977, when radiocarbon dating determined conclusively that the woman's death occurred around the 5th century BCE.
Windeby I is the name given to the bog body found preserved in a peat bog near Windeby, Northern Germany, in 1952. Until recently, the body was also called the Windeby Girl, since an archeologist believed it to be the body of a 14-year-old girl, because of its slight build. Prof. Heather Gill-Robinson, a Canadian anthropologist and pathologist, used DNA testing to show the body was actually that of a sixteen-year-old boy. The body has been radiocarbon-dated to between 41 BCE and 118 CE.
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