Nymph

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Nymph
Waterhouse Hylas and the Nymphs Manchester Art Gallery 1896.15.jpg
In this 1896 painting of Hylas and the Nymphs by John William Waterhouse, Hylas is abducted by the Naiads, i.e. fresh water nymphs
Grouping Mythological
Sub grouping Nature spirit
Country Greece

A nymph (Ancient Greek : νύμφη, romanized: nýmphē, Modern Greek : nímfi; Attic Greek:  [nýmpʰɛː] , Modern Greek:  [ˈniɱfi] ) in ancient Greek folklore is a minor female nature deity. Different from Greek goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as personifications of nature, are typically tied to a specific place or landform, and are usually depicted as beautiful maidens. They were not necessarily immortal, but lived much longer than humans. [1]

Contents

They are often divided into various broad subgroups, such as the Meliae (ash tree nymphs), the Dryad (oak tree nymphs), the Naiads (freshwater nymphs), the Nereids (sea nymphs), and the Oreads (mountain nymphs). [2]

Nymphs are often featured in classic works of art, literature, mythology, and fiction. Since medieval times, nymphs have been sometimes popularly associated or even confused with fairies.

Etymology

The Greek word nýmphē has the primary meaning of "young woman; bride, young wife" but is not usually associated with deities in particular. Yet the etymology of the noun nýmphē remains uncertain. The Doric and Aeolic (Homeric) form is nýmphā (νύμφα). [3]

Modern usage more often applies to young women at the peak of their attractiveness, contrasting with parthenos (παρθένος) "a virgin (of any age)", and generically as kore (κόρη < κόρϝα) "maiden, girl". The term is sometimes used by women to address each other and remains the regular Modern Greek term for "bride".

Ancient Greek mythology

Nymphs were sometimes beloved by many and dwelt in specific areas related to the natural environment: e.g. mountainous regions; forests; springs. Other nymphs were part of the retinue of a god (such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan) or of a goddess (generally the huntress Artemis). [4]

The Greek nymphs were also spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin genius loci , and sometimes this produced complicated myths like the cult of Arethusa to Sicily. In some of the works of the Greek-educated Latin poets, the nymphs gradually absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams (Juturna, Egeria, Carmentis, Fontus) while the Lymphae (originally Lumpae), Italian water goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae. The classical mythologies of the Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cults of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of Latium. Among the Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted and they appear almost exclusively as divinities of the watery element.[ citation needed ]

Greek folk religion

The ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century when they were usually known as "nereids". [5] Nymphs often tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, and the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. [6] They might appear in a whirlwind. Such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate man. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos. [7] [8]

Nymphs and fairies

Nymphs are often depicted in classic works across art, literature, mythology, and fiction. They are often associated with the medieval romances or Renaissance literature of the elusive fairies or elves. [9] [10]

Sleeping nymph

The statue of a sleeping nymph in a grotto at Stourhead gardens, England. Stourhead, Grotto, statue of a sleeping nymph.jpg
The statue of a sleeping nymph in a grotto at Stourhead gardens, England.

A motif that entered European art during the Renaissance was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a grotto or spring. [11] [12] [13] This motif supposedly came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the River Danube. [14] The report, and an accompanying poem supposedly on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now generally concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at Stourhead. [15] [16] [17]

List

All the names for various classes of nymphs have plural feminine adjectives, most agreeing with the substantive numbers and groups of nymphai. There is no single adopted classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. [18] Some classes of nymphs tend to overlap, which complicates the task of precise classification. e.g. dryads and hamadryads as nymphs of trees generally, meliai as nymphs of ash trees. [18]

By dwelling or affinity

The following is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended as a guide:

Type / Group / IndividualsLocationRelations and Notes
Celestial nymphs
Aurae (breezes)also called Aetae or Pnoae,[ citation needed ] daughters of Boreas [19]
Asteriae (stars)mainly comprising the Atlantides (daughters of Atlas)
1. Hesperides (evening)Far Westnymphs of the sunset, the West, and the evening; daughters of Atlas; also had attributes of the Hamadryads [20]
Aegle
Arethusa
Erytheia (or Eratheis)mother of Eurytion by Ares [21]
2. Hyades (star cluster; sent rain)Boeotia (probably)daughters of Atlas by either Pleione or Aethra [22]
3. Pleiades daughters of Atlas and Pleione; [23] constellation; also were classed as Oreads
Maia Mt. Cyllene, Arcadiapartner of Zeus and mother of Hermes [24]
Electra Mt. Saon, Samothracemother of Dardanus and Iasion by Zeus [25]
Taygete Taygetos Mts., Laconiamother of Lacedaemon by Zeus [26]
Alcyone Mt. Cithaeron, Boeotiamother of Hyperes and Anthas by Poseidon [27]
Celaeno Mt. Cithaeron, Boeotia or Euboeamother of Lycus and Nycteus by Poseidon [28]
Asterope Pisa, Elismother of Oenomaus by Ares [29]
Merope Corinthwife of Sisyphus and mother of Glaucus [30]
Nephele (clouds)daughters of Oceanus [31] and/or Tethys [32] or of Aither [33]
Land nymphs
Alseides (groves) [34]
Auloniades (valley pastures, glens)
Leimakides or Leimonides (meadows)
Napaeae (dells) [35]
Oreads (mountains, grottoes), also Orodemniades
Wood and plant nymphs
Anthousai (flowers)
Dryades (trees)
Hamadryades or Hadryades
1. Daphnaeae (laurel tree)
2. Epimeliades or Epimelides (apple tree; also protected flocks)other name variants include Meliades, Maliades and Hamameliades; same as these are also the Boucolai (Pastoral Nymphs)
3. Kissiae (ivy)
4. Meliae (manna-ash tree)born from the drops of blood that fell on Gaia when Cronus castrated Uranus [36]
Hyleoroi (watchers of woods)
Water nymphs (Hydriades or Ephydriades)
Haliae (sea and seashores)
1. Nereids Mediterranean Sea 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris [37]
Naiads, Naides (fresh water)
1. Crinaeae (fountains)
2. Eleionomae (wetlands)
3. Limnades, Limnatides (lakes)
4. Pegaeae (springs)
5. Potameides (rivers)
Oceanids daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, [38] any freshwater, typically clouds and rain. see List of Oceanids
Underworld nymphs
Lampades Hadestorch bearers in the retinue of Hecate
Orphne is a representation of the darkness of the river Styx, the river of hatred, but is not to be confused with the goddess Styx herself nor with Nyx, goddess of night, despite being associated with both. She is the consort of Acheron, (the god of the river in Hades), and the mother of Ascalaphus, (the orchardist of Hades). [39]
Leuce (white poplar tree)daughter of Oceanus and lover of Hades [40]
Melinoe Orphic nymph, daughter of Persephone and "Zeus disguised as Pluto". [41] Her name is a possible epithet of Hecate.
Minthe (mint)Cocytus Riverprobably a daughter of Cocytus, lover of Hades and rival of Persephone [42] [43]
Other nymphs
Hecaterides (rustic dance)daughters of Hecaterus by a daughter of Phoroneus; sisters of the Dactyls and mothers of the Oreads and the Satyrs [44]
Kabeiridesdaughters of Cadmilus and sisters of the Kabeiroi [45] or of Hephaestus and Cabeiro [46]
Maenads or Bacchai or Bacchantesfrenzied nymphs in the retinue of Dionysus
1. Lenai (wine-press)
2. Mimallones (music)
4. Thyiai or Thyiades (thyrsus bearers)
Melissae (honey)likely a subgroup of Oreades or Epimelides

By location

The following is a list of individual nymphs or groups thereof associated with this or that particular location. Nymphs in such groups could belong to any of the classes mentioned above (Naiades, Oreades, and so on).

Groups and IndividualsLocationRelations and Notes
Aeaean Nymphs Aeaea Islandhandmaidens of Circe
AegaeidesAegaeus River on the island of Scheria
Aesepides Aesepus River in Anatolia
Abarbarea
Acheloides Achelous River in Acarnania
Callirhoe, second wife of Alcmaeon
AcmenesStadium in Olympia, Elis
Amnisiades Amnisos River on the island of Crete entered the retinue of Artemis
Anigrides Anigros River in Elis believed to cure skin diseases
Asopides Asopus River in Sicyonia and Boeotia
Aegina Island of Aegina mother of Menoetius by Actor, and Aeacus by Zeus
Asopis
Chalcis Chalcis, Euboea regarded as the mother of the Curetes and Corybantes; perhaps the same as Combe and Euboea below
Cleone Cleonae, Argos
Combe Island of Euboeaconsort of Socus and mother by him of the seven Corybantes
Corcyra Island of Corcyra mother of Phaiax by Poseidon
Euboea Island of Euboeaabducted by Poseidon
Gargaphia or Plataia or Oeroe Plataea, Boeotiacarried off by Zeus
Harmonia Akmonian Wood, near Themiscyra mother of the Amazons by Ares [47] [48]
Harpina Pisa, Elismother of Oenomaus by Ares
Ismene Ismenian spring of Thebes, Boeotiawife of Argus, eponymous king of Argus and thus, mother of Argus Panoptes and Iasus.
Nemea Nemea, Argolis others called her the daughter of Zeus and Selene
Ornea Ornia, Sicyon
Peirene Corinth others called her father to be Oebalus or Achelous by Poseidon she became the mother of Lecheas and Cenchrias
Salamis Island of Salamis mother of Cychreus by Poseidon
Sinope Sinope, Anatolia mother of Syrus by Apollo
Tanagra Tanagra, Boeotiamother of Leucippus and Ephippus by Poemander
Thebe Thebes, Boeotiawife of Zethus and also said to have consorted with Zeus
Carmentis,or Carmenta Arcadia She had a son with Hermes, called Evander. Her son was the founder of the Pallantium. Pallantium became one of the cities that was merged later into the ancient Rome. Romans called her, Carmenta. [49]
Thespeia Thespia, Boeotiaabducted by Apollo
AstakidesLake Astacus, Bithynia appeared in the myth of Nicaea
Nicaea Nicaea, Bithynia
Asterionides Asterion River, Argos daughters of the river god Asterion; nurses of the infant goddess Hera
Acraea
Euboea
Prosymna
Carian Naiades (Caria)Caria
Salmacis Halicarnassus, Caria
Nymphs of Ceos Island of Ceos
Corycian Nymphs (Corycian Cave) Corycian cave, Delphi, Phocis daughters of the river god Pleistos
Kleodora (or Cleodora) Mt. Parnassus, Phocismother of Parnassus by Poseidon
Corycia Corycian cave, Delphi, Phocismother of Lycoreus by Apollo
Daphnis Mt. Parnassus, Phocis
Melaina Dephi, Phocismother of Delphos by Apollo
CydnidesRiver Cydnus in Cilicia
Cyrenaean NymphsCity of Cyrene, Libya
Cypriae NymphsIsland of Cyprus
Cyrtonian NymphsTown of Cyrtone, Boeotia Κυρτωνιαι
Deliades Island of Delos daughters of Inopus, god of the river Inopus
DodonidesOracle at Dodona
ErasinidesErasinos River, Argosdaughters of the river god Erasinos; attendants of the goddess Britomartis.
Anchiroe
Byze
Maera
Melite
Nymphs of the river Granicus River Granicusdaughters of the river-god Granicus
Alexirhoe mother of Aesacus by Priam
Pegasis mother of Atymnios by Emathion
Heliades River Eridanos daughters of Helios who were changed into trees
Himeriai NaiadesLocal springs at the town of Himera, Sicily
Hydaspides Hydaspers River, Indianurses of infant Zagreus
Idaean Nymphs Mount Ida, Cretenurses of infant Zeus
Ida
Adrasteia
Inachides Inachos River, Argosdaughters of the river god Inachus
Io mother of Epaphus by Zeus
Amymone
Philodice wife of Leucippus of Messenia by whom she became the mother of Hilaeira, Phoebe and possibly Arsinoe
Messeis
Hyperia
Mycene wife of Arestor and by him probably the mother of Argus Panoptes; eponym of Mycenae
Ionides Kytheros River in Elis daughters of the river god Cytherus
Calliphaea
Iasis
Pegaea
Synallaxis
Ithacian NymphsLocal springs and caves on the island of Ithaca
Ladonides Ladon River
Lamides or Lamusides Lamos River in Cilicia possible nurses of infant Dionysus
LeibethridesMounts Helicon and Leibethrios in Boeotia; or Mount Leibethros in Thrace)
Libethrias
Petra
Lelegeides Lycia, Anatolia
Lycaean NymphsMount Lycaeus nurses of infant Zeus, perhaps a subgroup of the Oceanides
Melian NymphsIsland of Melos transformed into frogs by Zeus; not to be confused with the Meliae (ash tree nymphs
MycalessidesMount Mycale in Caria, Anatolia
Mysian NymphsSpring of Pegai near Lake Askanios in Bithynia who abducted Hylas
Euneica
Malis
Nycheia
Naxian NymphsMount Drios on the island of Naxos nurses of infant Dionysus; were syncretized with the Hyades
Cleide
Coronis
Philia
Neaerides Thrinacia Islanddaughters of Helios and Neaera, watched over Helios' cattle
NymphaeidesNymphaeus River in Paphlagonia
Nysiads Mount Nysa nurses of infant Dionysos, identified with Hyades
Ogygian NymphsIsland of Ogygia four handmaidens of Calypso
Ortygian NymphsLocal springs of Syracuse, Sicily named for the island of Ortygia
OthreidesMount Othrys a local group of Hamadryads
Pactolides Pactolus River
Euryanassa wife of Tantalus
PelionidesMount Pelion nurses of the Centaurs
Phaethonidesa synonym for the Heliades
Phaseides Phasis River
Rhyndacides Rhyndacus River in Mysia
SithnidesFountain at the town of Megara
SpercheidesRiver Spercheios one of them, Diopatra, was loved by Poseidon and the others were changed by him into trees
Sphragitides, or CithaeronidesMount Cithaeron
Tagids, Tajids, Thaejids or ThaegidsRiver Tagus in Portugal and Spain
Thessalides Peneus River in Thessaly
Thriae Mount Parnassos prophets and nurses of Apollo
Trojan NymphsLocal springs of Troy

Others

The following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Oceanids, Dryades etc., see respective articles.

Individual names of some of the nymphs
NamesLocationRelations and Notes
Alphesiboea Indialoved by Dionysus [50]
Aora Crete eponym of the town Aoros in Crete [51]
Areia daughter of Cleochus and mother of Miletus by Apollo [52]
Astyoche one of the Danaïdes, and the mother of Chrysippus by Pelops [53]
Axioche or Danais Elismother of Chrysippus by Pelops [54] [55]
Brettia Mysiaeponym of Abrettene, Mysia [56]
Brisa brought up the god Dionysus [57]
Calybe Troymother of Bucolion, Laomedon [58]
Chalcea mother of Olympus by Zeus [59]
Chania a lover of Heracles
Chariclo Thebesmother of Tiresias by Everes [60]
Charidia mother of Alchanus by Zeus [59]
Chryse Lemnos fell in love with Philoctetes [61]
Cirrha Phociseponym of Cirrha in Phocis [62]
Clymene mother of Tlesimenes by Parthenopaeus [63]
Cretheis briefly mentioned in Suda [64]
Crimisa Italyeponym of a city in Italy [65]
Deiopea one of Hera's nymphs who was promised to Aeolus [66]
Dodone Dodona eponym of Dodona [67]
Echemeia Cosspelled "Ethemea" by Hyginus, consort of Merops [68]
Eidothea Mt. Othrys mother by Eusiros of Cerambus [69]
Eunoë Phrygiapossible mother of Hecuba by Dymas [70]
Eunoste Boeotia (possibly)nurse of Eunostus [71]
Euryte Athensmother of Halirrhothius by Poseidon [72]
Hegetoria Rhodes consort of Ochimus [73]
Hemera mother of Iasion by Zeus
Himalia Rhodesmother of Cronius, Spartaios, and Cytos by Zeus [74]
Hyale belongs to the train of Artemis [75]
Hyllis Argos possible eponym of the tribe Hylleis and the city Hylle [76]
Idaea Cretemother of Cres [77] and Asterion [59] by Zeus
Idaea Mt. Ida, Troadmother of Teucer by Scamander [78]
Ithome Messeniaone of the nurses of Zeus [79]
Laodice Argolis (possibly)mother of Apis by Phoroneus [80]
Leucophryne Magnesia (possibly)priestess of Artemis Leucophryne
Ligeia
Linos mother of Pelops by Atlas in some accounts [81]
Lotis pursued by Priapus and was changed into a tree that bears her name [82]
Ma nymph in the suite of Rhea who nursed Zeus
Melanippe Attica (possibly)married Itonus, son of Amphictyon [83]
Melissa Cretenurse of Zeus [84]
Mendeis Thraceconsort of Sithon [85]
Menodice daughter of Orion and mother of Hylas by Theiodamas [86]
Methone Pieriamother of Oeagrus by King Pierus of Emathia [87]
Myrmex Atticabeloved companion of Athena whom she turned into an ant [88]
Nacole Phrygiaeponym of Nacoleia in Phrygia [89]
Neaera Thrinaciamother of Lampetia and Phaethusa by Helios [90]
Neaeramother of Aegle by Zeus[ citation needed ]
NeaeraLydiamother of Dresaeus by Theiodamas [91]
Nymphe Samothracemother of Saon by Zeus [92]
Oeneis mother of Pan by Hermes [93]
Oinoie Sicinusmother of Sicinus by Thoas [94]
Olbia Bithyniamother of Astacus by Poseidon [95]
Paphia possibly the mother of Cinyras by Eurymedon [96]
Pareia Parosmother of four sons by Minos [97]
Polydora one of the Danaïdes [98]
Pyronia mother of Iasion by Minos
Psalacantha Icariachanged into a plant by Dionysus [99]
Rhene Mt. Cyllene, Arcadiaconsorted with Oileus [100]
Semestra Thracenurse of Keroessa [101]
Teledice Argolis (possibly)a consort of Phoroneus [102]
Thalia Sicilymother of the Palici by Zeus [103]
Thisbe Boeotiaeponym of the town of Thisbe [104]
Tithorea Mt. Parnassus, Phociseponym of the town of Tithorea (previously called Neon) [105]

In non-Greek tales influenced by Greek mythology

Modern Use

In modern usage, "Nymph" is used in two senses different from the original Greek meaning.

See also

Notes

  1. Parad, Carlos; Förlag, Maicar (1997). "Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology: Nymphs". Astrom Editions. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  2. Grimal, p. 313, s.v. Nymphs.
  3. "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  4. Larson, Jennifer (1997). "Handmaidens of Artemis?". The Classical Journal. 92 (3): 249–257. JSTOR   3298110.
  5. Lawson, John Cuthbert (1910). Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.  131.
  6. Lee, D. Demetracopoulou. “Folklore of the Greeks in America”. In: Folklore 47, no. 3 (1936): 305. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1256865.
  7. "Heathen Artemis yielded her functions to her own genitive case transformed into Saint Artemidos", as Terrot Reaveley Glover phrased it in discussing the "practical polytheism in the worship of the saints", in Progress in Religion to the Christian Era 1922:107.
  8. Tomkinson, John L. (2004). Haunted Greece: Nymphs, Vampires and Other Exotika (1st ed.). Athens: Anagnosis. chapter 3. ISBN   978-960-88087-0-6.
  9. Kready, Laura (1916). A Study of Fairy Tales. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  10. Briggs, Katharine Mary (1976). "Euphemistic names for fairies". An Encyclopedia of Fairies . New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN   0-394-73467-X.
  11. Stephen John Campbell (2004). The Cabinet of Eros: Renaissance Mythological Painting and the Studiolo of Isabella D'Este. Yale University Press. pp. 95–6. ISBN   978-0-300-11753-0.
  12. Maryan Wynn Ainsworth; Joshua P. Waterman; Dorothy Mahon (2013). German Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1350-1600. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 95–6. ISBN   978-1-58839-487-3.
  13. Jay A. Levenson; National Gallery of Art (U.S.) (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. p. 260. ISBN   978-0-300-05167-4.
  14. Leonard Barkan (1999). Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture. Yale University Press. pp. 237–8. ISBN   978-0-300-08911-0.
  15. Elisabeth B. MacDougall (January 1994). Fountains, Statues, and Flowers: Studies in Italian Gardens of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 37–56. ISBN   978-0-88402-216-9.
  16. Kenneth Gross (1992). The Dream of the Moving Statue . Cornell University Press. pp.  170–175. ISBN   978-0-8014-2702-2.
  17. 1 2 Rose, Herbert Jennings (1959). A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1st ed.). New York: E. P. Dutton. p.  173. ISBN   978-0-525-47041-0.
  18. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 1.683 ff
  19. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.26.2
  20. Stesichorus, Geryoneis Frag S8
  21. Hyginus, Fabulae 192
  22. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.10.1
  23. Hesiod, Theogony 938
  24. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.12.1
  25. Hyginus, Fabulae 155
  26. Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.30.8
  27. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.10.1
  28. Hyginus, Fabulae 84
  29. Hyginus, Astronomica 2.21
  30. Aristophanes, Clouds 264
  31. Orphic Hymn 22
  32. Aristophanes, Clouds 563
  33. Homer, Iliad 20.4
  34. Statius, Thebaid 9.385
  35. Hesiod, Theogony 182–187
  36. Hesiod, Theogony 240-262
  37. Hesiod, Theogony 365–366
  38. Ovid, Metamorphoses 5.539 ff
  39. Servius, Commentary on Virgil's Aeneid 7.61
  40. Orphic Hymn 71
  41. Oppian , Halieutica 3.485 ff
  42. Strabo, Geographica 8.3.14
  43. Strabo, Geographica 10.3.19
  44. Acusilaus Frag as cited in Strabo, Geographica 10.3.21
  45. Strabo, Geographica 10.3.21 citing Pherecydes
  46. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, Book 2
  47. ARGONAUTICA BOOK 2
  48. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.1
  49. Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 24
  50. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Aōros
  51. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.1.2
  52. Robert Graves. The Greek Myths, section 110 s.v. The Children of Pelops
  53. Scholia on Euripides, Orestes, 4; on Pindar, Olympian Ode 1.144
  54. Plutarch, Parallela minora 33
  55. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Abrettēnē
  56. Schol. ad Pers. Sat. i. 76.
  57. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.12.3
  58. 1 2 3 Pseudo-Clement, Recognitions 10.21–23
  59. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.6.7
  60. Sophocles, Philoctetes 1327
  61. Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 10.37.5
  62. Hyginus, Fabulae 71
  63. Suida, Suda Encyclopedia s.v. Kretheus
  64. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Krimisa
  65. Virgil, Aeneid 1.71-75
  66. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Dodone
  67. Hyginus, Astronomica 2.16.2
  68. Antoninus Liberalis. Metamorphoses, 22 vs Cerambus
  69. Scholia on Homer's Iliad 16. 718 with Pherecydes as the authority
  70. Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae 40
  71. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.14.2
  72. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.57.7
  73. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.55.5
  74. Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.155
  75. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Hylleis
  76. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Krētē
  77. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.12.1
  78. Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 4.33.1
  79. Tzetzes on Lycophron, 177
  80. Robert Graves. The Greek Myths, section 108 s.v. Tantalus
  81. Ovid, Fasti 1.416 & 1.423; Metamorphoses , 9.347
  82. Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.1.1
  83. Lactantius, Divine Institutes 1.22.3
  84. Conon, Narrations 10
  85. Hyginus, Fabulae 14
  86. Of the Origin of Homer and Hesiod and their Contest, Fragment 1. Translated by Evelyn-White.
  87. William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology s.v. Myrmex
  88. Suida, Suda Encyclopedia s.v. Nakoleia
  89. Homer, Odyssey 12.133 ff
  90. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy, 1. 290 – 291
  91. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates Romanae 1.61.3
  92. Scholiast ad Theocritus, 1.3
  93. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1.620 ff with scholia on 1.623
  94. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Astakos
  95. Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Ode 2.28
  96. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.1.2
  97. Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 32
  98. Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 5 in Photius, Myrobiblion 190
  99. Homer, Iliad 2.728
  100. Dionysius of Byzantium, Anaplous of the Bosporos, §24
  101. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.1.1
  102. Macrobius, Saturnalia 5.19.15
  103. Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.32.3
  104. Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 10.32.9

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