Last updated
Waterhouse Hylas and the Nymphs Manchester Art Gallery 1896.15.jpg
In this 1896 painting of Hylas and the Nymphs by John William Waterhouse, Hylas is abducted by the Naiads, I.e. fresh water nymphs
Grouping Mythological
Sub grouping Nature spirit
Similar creatures Mermaid, huldra, selkie, Heloi, siren
Mythology Greek mythology
Country Greece

A nymph (Greek : νύμφη, nýmphē; Ancient: [nýmpʰɛː] , Modern: [nímfi] ) in ancient Greek folklore is a supernatural being associated with many other minor female deities that are often associated with the air, seas, woods, water or particular locations or landforms. Different from Greek goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate or maintain Nature (natural forces reified and considered as a sentient being) for the environments where they live, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young, and graceful maidens. They were not necessarily immortal, but lived many years before they died. [1]


They are often divided into various broad subgroups, such as the Meliae (nymphs of ash trees), the Naiads (nymphs of rivers and streams), the Nereids (nymphs of calm seas), and the Oreads (nymphs of mountains). [2]

Nymphs often feature in many classic works of art, literature, mythology and in fiction. Since medieval times, nymphs are sometimes popularly associated, or even confused, with the mythical or spiritual fairies.


The Greek word νύμφη has the primary meaning of "young woman; bride, young wife" but is not usually associated with deities in particular. Yet the etymology of the noun νύμφη remains uncertain. The Doric and Aeolic (Homeric) form is νύμφα.

Modern usage more often applies to young women at the peak of their attractiveness, contrasting with parthenos (παρθένος) "a virgin (of any age)", and generically as kore (κόρη < κόρϝα) "maiden, girl". The term is sometimes used by (human) women to address each other and remains the regular Modern Greek term for "bride".

Ancient Greek mythology

Nymphs were sometimes beloved by many and dwell in most specific areas related to the natural environment. e.g. mountainous regions and forests by springs or rivers. Other nymphs, mostly appeared in the shape of young maidens, were part of the retinue of a god, such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan, or a goddess, generally the huntress Artemis. [3]

The Greek nymphs were also spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin genius loci , and sometimes this produced complicated myths like cult of Arethusa to Sicily. In some of the works of the Greek-educated Latin poets, the nymphs gradually absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams (Juturna, Egeria, Carmentis, Fontus), while the Lymphae (originally Lumpae), Italian water-goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae. The classical mythologies of the Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cults of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of Latium. Among the Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted, and they appear almost exclusively as divinities of the watery element.[ citation needed ]

Greek folk religion

The ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century, when they were usually known as "nereids". [4] Often nymphs tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, and the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. They might appear in a whirlwind. Such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate human. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos. [5] [6]

Nymphs and fairies

Nymphs often feature or are depicted in many classic works across art, literature, mythology and in fiction. They are often associated with the medieval romances or Renaissance literature of the elusive mythical or spiritual fairies or elves. [7] Fairies are believed to have mixed openly with the classical nymphs and satyrs, [8] or sometimes even replacing the roles of the classical nymphs.

Sleeping nymph

A motif that entered European art during the Renaissance was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a grotto or spring. [9] [10] [11] This motif supposedly came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the River Danube. [12] The report, and an accompanying poem supposedly on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now generally concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at Stourhead. [13] [14] [15]


All the names for various classes of nymphs have plural feminine adjectives, most agreeing with the substantive numbers and groups of nymphai. There is no single adopted classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. [16] Some classes of nymphs tend to overlap, which complicates the task of precise classification. e.g. Dryads and hamadryads as nymphs of trees generally, meliai as nymphs of ash trees, and naiads as nymphs of water, but no others specifically. [16]

By type of dwelling

The following is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended simply as a guide:

Classification by type of dwelling
Type / Group / IndividualsLocationRelations and Notes
Celestial nymphs
Aurae (breezes)also called Aetae or Pnoae[ citation needed ]
Asteriae (stars)mainly comprising the Atlantides (daughters of Atlas)
1. Hesperides Far Westnymphs of the sunset, the West, and the evening; daughters of Atlas; also had attributes of the Hamadryads
Erytheia (or Eratheis)
Hesperia (or Hispereia)
2. Hyades (star cluster; sent rain)
3. Pleiades daughters of Atlas and Pleione; constellation; also were classed as Oreads
Maia partner of Zeus and mother of Hermes
Nephele (clouds)
Land nymphs
Alseides (groves)
Auloniades (valley pastures, glens)
Leimakides or Leimonides (meadows)
Napaeae (dells)
Oreads (mountains, grottoes), also Orodemniades
Wood and plant nymphs
Anthousai (flowers)
Dryades (trees)
Hamadryades or Hadryades
1. Daphnaeae (laurel tree)
2. Epimeliades or Epimelides (apple tree; also protected flocks)other name variants include Meliades, Maliades and Hamameliades; same as these are also the Boucolai (Pastoral Nymphs)
3. Kissiae (ivy)
4. Meliae (manna-ash tree)
Hyleoroi (watchers of woods)
Water nymphs (Hydriades or Ephydriades)
Haliae (sea and seashores)
1. Nereids (50 daughters of Nereus, the Mediterranean Sea)
Naiads or Naides (fresh water)
1. Crinaeae (fountains)
2. Eleionomae (wetlands)
3. Limnades or Limnatides (lakes)
4. Pegaeae (springs)
5. Potameides (rivers)
Tágides (Tagus River)
Oceanids daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, any water, usually salty. see List of Oceanids
Underworld nymphs
Cocytiaedaughters of the river god Cocytus
Lampades torch bearers in the retinue of Hecate
Underworld nymphs:
Orphne is a representation of the darkness of the river Styx, the river of hatred, but is not to be confused with the goddess Styx-herself, but she is associated with both Styx and Nyx. She is the consort of Acheron, (the god of the river in Hades), and the mother of Ascalaphus, (the orchardist of Hades).
Leuce (white poplar tree)lover of Hades
Minthe (mint)lover of Hades, rival of Persephone
Melinoe Orphic nymph, daughter of Persephone and "Zeus disguised as Pluto". [17] Her name is a possible epithet of Hecate.
Other nymphs
Hecaterides (rustic dance)sisters of the Dactyls, mothers of the Oreads and the Satyrs
Kabeiridessisters of the Kabeiroi
Maenads or Bacchai or Bacchantesfrenzied nymphs in the retinue of Dionysus
1. Lenai (wine-press)
2. Mimallones (music)
3. Naides (Naiads)
4. Thyiai or Thyiades (thyrsus bearers)
Melissae (honey bees)likely a subgroup of Oreades or Epimelides
The Muses (memory, knowledge, art)
Themeidesdaughters of Zeus and Themis, prophets and keepers of certain divine artifacts

By location

The following is a list of groups of nymphs associated with this or that particular location. Nymphs in such groupings could belong to any of the classes mentioned above (Naiades, Oreades, and so on).

Location-specific groupings of nymphs
Groups and IndividualsLocationRelations and Notes
Aeaean Nymphs Aeaea Islandhandmaidens of Circe
AegaeidesAegaeus River on the island of Scheria
Aesepides Aesepus River in Anatolia
Acheloides Achelous River
Callirhoe, second wife of Alcmaeon
AcmenesStadium in Olympia, Elis
Amnisiades Amnisos River on the island of Crete entered the retinue of Artemis
Anigrides Anigros River in Elis believed to cure skin diseases
Asopides Asopus River in Sicyonia and Boeotia
Aegina Island of Aegina mother of Menoetius by Actor, and Aeacus by Zeus
• Asopis
• Chalcis Chalcis, Euboea regarded as the mother of the Curetes and Corybantes; perhaps the same as Combe and Euboea below
• Cleone Cleonae, Argos
Combe Island of Euboeaconsort of Socus and mother by him of the seven Corybantes
Corcyra Island of Corcyra mother of Phaiax by Poseidon
Euboea Island of Euboeaabducted by Poseidon
• Gargaphia or Plataia or Oeroe Plataea, Boeotiacarried off by Zeus
• Harmoniaa nymph of the Akmonian Wood, near Themiscyra mother of the Amazons by Ares [18] [19]
Harpina Pisa, Elis mother of Oenomaus by Ares
Ismene Ismenian spring of Thebes, Boeotiawife of Argus, eponymous king of Argus and thus, mother of Argus Panoptes and Iasus.
• Nemea Nemea, Argolis others called her the daughter of Zeus and Selene
• OrneaOrnia, Sicyon
Peirene Corinth others called her father to be Oebalus or Achelous by Poseidon she became the mother of Lecheas and Cenchrias
Salamis Island of Salamis mother of Cychreus by Poseidon
Sinope Sinope, Anatolia mother of Syrus by Apollo
• Tanagra Tanagra, Boeotiamother of Leucippus and Ephippus by Poemander
Thebe Thebes, Boeotiawife of Zethus and also said to have consorted with Zeus
• Themis Arcadia She had a son with Hermes, called Evander. Her son was the founder of the Pallantium. Pallantium became one of the cities that was merged later into the ancient Rome. Romans called her, Carmenta. [20]
• Thespeia Thespia, Boeotiaabducted by Apollo
AstakidesLake Astacus, Bithynia appeared in the myth of Nicaea
Asterionides Asterion River, Argos daughters of the river god Asterion; nurses of the infant goddess Hera
Acraea ditto
Euboea ditto
• Prosymnaditto
Carian Naiades (Caria)
Nymphs of Ceos
Corycian Nymphs (Corycian Cave) Corycian cave, Delphi, Phocis daughters of the river god Pleistos
Kleodora (or Cleodora) Mt. Parnassus, Phocismother of Parnassus by Poseidon
Corycia Corycian cave, Delphi, Phocismother of Lycoreus by Apollo
• Daphnis
Melaina dittomother of Delphos by Apollo
CydnidesRiver Cydnus in Cilicia
Cyrenaean NymphsCity of Cyrene, Libya
Cypriae NymphsIsland of Cyprus
Cyrtonian NymphsTown of Cyrtone, Boeotia Κυρτωνιαι
Deliades Island of Delos daughters of Inopus, god of the river Inopus
DodonidesOracle at Dodona
ErasinidesErasinos River, Argosdaughters of the river god Erasinos; attendants of the goddess Britomartis.
Anchiroe ditto
• Byzeditto
Maera ditto
Melite ditto
Nymphs of the river Granicus
• Pegasis
Heliades River Eridanos daughters of Helios who were changed into trees
Himeriai NaiadesLocal springs at the town of Himera, Sicily
Hydaspides Hydaspers River, Indianurses of infant Zagreus
Idaean Nymphs Mount Ida nurses of infant Zeus
• Ida
Inachides Inachos River, Argosdaughters of the river god Inachus
Io dittomother of Epaphus by Zeus
Amymone ditto
Philodice dittowife of Leucippus of Messenia by whom she became the mother of Hilaeira, Phoebe and possibly Arsinoe
• Messeisditto
• Hyperiaditto
Mycene dittowife of Arestor and by him probably the mother of Argus Panoptes; eponym of Mycenae
Ionides Kytheros River in Elis daughters of the river god Cytherus
• Calliphaeaditto
• Iasisditto
• Pegaeaditto
• Synallaxisditto
Ithacian NymphsLocal springs and caves on the island of Ithaca
Ladonides Ladon River
Lamides or Lamusides Lamos River in Cilicia possible nurses of infant Dionysus
LeibethridesMounts Helicon and Leibethrios in Boeotia; or Mount Leibethros in Thrace)
• Libethrias
• Petra
Lelegeides Lycia, Anatolia
Lycaean NymphsMount Lycaeus nurses of infant Zeus, perhaps a subgroup of the Oceanides
Melian NymphsIsland of Melos transformed into frogs by Zeus; not to be confused with the Meliae (ash tree nymphs
MycalessidesMount Mycale in Caria, Anatolia
Mysian NymphsSpring of Pegai near Lake Askanios in Bithynia who abducted Hylas
• Euneica
• Malis
• Nycheia
Naxian NymphsMount Drios on the island of Naxos nurses of infant Dionysus; were syncretized with the Hyades
• Cleide
• Coronis
• Philia
Neaerides Thrinacia Islanddaughters of Helios and Neaera, watched over Helios' cattle
NymphaeidesNymphaeus River in Paphlagonia
Nysiads Mount Nysa nurses of infant Dionysos, identified with Hyades
Ogygian NymphsIsland of Ogygia four handmaidens of Calypso
Ortygian NymphsLocal springs of Syracuse, Sicily named for the island of Ortygia
OthreidesMount Othrys a local group of Hamadryads
Pactolides Pactolus River
Euryanassa, wife of Tantalus
PelionidesMount Pelion nurses of the Centaurs
Phaethonidesa synonym for the Heliades
Phaseides Phasis River
Rhyndacides Rhyndacus River in Mysia
SithnidesFountain at the town of Megara
SpercheidesRiver Spercheios one of them, Diopatra, was loved by Poseidon and the others were changed by him into trees
Sphragitides, or CithaeronidesMount Cithaeron
Tagids, Tajids, Thaejids or ThaegidsRiver Tagus in Portugal and Spain
Thessalides Peneus River in Thessaly
Thriae Mount Parnassos prophets and nurses of Apollo
Trojan NymphsLocal springs of Troy


The following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Oceanids, Dryades etc. see respective articles.

Individual names of some of the nymphs
NamesLocationRelations and Notes
Alphesiboea Indialoved by Dionysus
Aora eponym of the town Aoros in Crete [21]
AreiaCretedaughter of Cleochus and mother of Miletus by Apollo [22]
Astyoche one of the Danaïdes, and the mother of Chrysippus by Pelops. [23]
Axioche or Danaismother of Chrysippus by Pelops
Brettiaeponym of Abrettene, Mysia [24]
Brisabrought up the god Dionysus [25]
Calybe Troymother of Bucolion, Laomedon'
Chalceamother of Olympus by Zeus [26]
Chaniaa lover of Heracles
Chariclomother of Tiresias by Everes
Charidiamother of Alchanus by Zeus [26]
Chryse Lemnos fell in love with Philoctetes [27]
Cirrhaeponym of Cirrha in Phocis [28]
Clymenemother of Tlesimenes by Parthenopaeus
Cretheisbriefly mentioned in Suda [29]
Crimisaeponym of a city in Italy [30]
Deiopeaone of Hera's nymphs who was promised to Aeolus
Dodone Dodona eponym of Dodona
Echemeiaspelled "Ethemea" by Hyginus, consort of Merops
Eidothea Mt. Othrys mother by Eusiros of Cerambus [31]
Eunoepossible mother of Hecuba by Dymas
EunosteBoeotia (possibly)nurse of Eunostus
EuryteAthensmother of Halirrhothius by Poseidon [32]
Hegetoria Rhodes consort of Ochimus
Himalia mother of Cronius, Spartaios, and Cytos by Zeus
Hyalebelongs to the train of Artemis
Hyllis Argos possible eponym of the tribe Hylleis and the city Hylle [33]
Idaea Cretemother of Cres [34] and Asterion [26] by Zeus
Idaea Mt. Ida, Troadmother of Teucer by Scamander
IthomeMesseniaone of the nurses of Zeus
Laodice Argolis (possibly)mother of Apis by Phoroneus
LeucophryneMagnesia (possibly)priestess of Artemis Leucophryne
Linosmother of Pelops by Atlas in some accounts [35]
Lotis pursued by Priapus and was changed into a tree that bears her name
Manymph in the suite of Rhea who nursed Zeus
Melanippe Attica (possibly)married Itonus, son of Amphictyon. [36]
Melissa discovered and taught the use of honey; nurse of Zeus
Mendeisconsort of Sithon
Menodicedaughter of Orion and mother of Hylas by Theiodamas
MyrmexAtticabeloved companion of Athena whom she turned into an ant [37]
Nacoleeponym of Nacoleia in Phrygia [38]
NeaeraThrinaciamother of Lampetia and Phaethusa by Helios
Neaeramother of Aegle by Zeus [39]
NeaeraLydiamother of Dresaeus by Theiodamas [40]
NympheSamothracemother of Saon by Zeus
Oeneismother of Pan by Hermes
Oinoiemother of Sicinus by Thoas
OlbiaBithyniamother of Astacus by Poseidon
Paphiapossibly the mother of Cinyras by Eurymedon
Pareiamother of four sons by Minos
Polydora one of the Danaïdes
Pyroniamother of Iasion by Minos
Psalacantha changed into a plant by Dionysus
Rhene Mount Cylleneconsorted with both Hermes and Oileus
Semestranurse of Keroessa
SinoeArcadianurse of Pan
Teledicea consort of Phoroneus
ThaliaSicily (probably)mother of the Palici by Zeus
ThisbeBoeotiaeponym of the town of Thisbe
TithoreaMt. Parnassuseponym of the town of Tithorea (previously called Neon)

In non-Greek tales influenced by Greek mythology

See also

Related Research Articles

Abae town in ancient Greece, noted for its oracle

Abae was an ancient town in the northeastern corner of ancient Phocis, in Greece, near the frontiers of the Opuntian Locrians, said to have been built by the Argive Abas, son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, and grandson of Danaus. It was famous in antiquity for its oracle of Apollo Abaeus, one of those consulted by Croesus, king of Lydia, and Mardonius, among others.

Satyr bawdy male nature spirits in Greek mythology with horse-like tails and ears and permanent erections

In Greek mythology, a satyr, also known as a silenos, is a male nature spirit with ears and a tail resembling those of a horse, as well as a permanent, exaggerated erection. Early artistic representations sometimes include horse-like legs, but, by the sixth century BC, they were more often represented with human legs. Comically hideous, they have mane-like hair, bestial faces, and snub noses and are always shown naked. Satyrs were characterized by their ribaldry and were known as lovers of wine, music, dancing, and women. They were companions of the god Dionysus and were believed to inhabit remote locales, such as woodlands, mountains, and pastures. They often attempted to seduce or rape nymphs and mortal women alike, usually with little success. They are sometimes shown masturbating or engaging in bestiality.

Triton (mythology) Greek god, messenger of the sea

Triton is a Greek god of the sea, the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, god and goddess of the sea respectively. Triton lived with his parents, in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea. Later he was often depicted as having a conch shell which he would blow like a trumpet.

Britomartis Minoan goddess of mountains and hunting

Britomartis was a Greek goddess of mountains and hunting, who was primarily worshipped on the island of Crete. She was sometimes believed to be an oread, or a mountain nymph, but she was often conflated or syncretized with Artemis and Aphaea, the "invisible" patroness of Aegina.

In Greek mythology, Orithyia or Oreithyia was the name of the following women:

Salmacis nymph in Greek mythology

In Greek mythology, Salmacis was an atypical naiad who rejected the ways of the virginal Greek goddess Artemis in favor of vanity and idleness. Her attempted rape of Hermaphroditus places her as the only nymph rapist in the Greek mythological canon.

Naiad nymph presiding over fresh waters

In Greek mythology, the Naiads are a type of female spirit, or nymph, presiding over fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of fresh water.

In Greek mythology, Pirene or Peirene, a nymph, was either the daughter of the river god Asopus, Laconian king Oebalus, or the River god Achelous, depending on different sources. By Poseidon she became the mother of Lecheas and Cenchrias. When Cenchrias was unintentionally killed by Artemis, Pirene's grief was so profound that she became nothing but tears and turned into the fountain outside the gates of Corinth. The Corinthians had a small sanctuary dedicated to Pirene by the fountain where honey-cakes were offered to her to during the dry months of early summer.

Lelex King of Laconia

In Greek mythology, Lelex was one of the original inhabitants of Laconia which was called after him, its first king, Lelegia.

In Greek mythology, Harpina was a Naiad nymph and daughter of Phliasian Asopus and of Metope. Pausanias (5.22.6) and Diodorus Siculus (4.73.1) mention Harpina and state that, according to the tradition of the Eleans and Phliasians, Ares mated with her in the city of Pisa and she bore him Oenomaus, the king of Pisa. Oenomaus (6.21.8) founded and named after his mother the city of Harpina, not far from the river Harpinates, near Olympia. Pausanias (5.22.6) mentions Harpina in his description of a group sculpture, donated by the Phliasians, of the daughters of Asopus, which included Nemea, Zeus seizing Aegina, Harpina, Corcyra, Thebe and Asopus. The sculpture was located in the sanctuary of Hippodamia at Olympia.

In Greek mythology, 'Satyrion someone who intentions are very meaningful was a nymph perhaps from the region of Taranto, Italy. Her union with the god Poseidon produced Taras, eponymous founder of Taras.

Acacallis in Greek mythology, was princess of Crete. The Bibliotheca calls her Acalle.

Euboea was the name of several women in Greek mythology.

In Greek mythology, there were several people named Anthedon — at least two male and one female.

Aetolus was, in Greek mythology, a son of Endymion, great-great-grandson of Deucalion, and a Naiad nymph (Neis), or Iphianassa.

A water spirit is a kind of supernatural being found in the folklore of many cultures:

Aura (mythology) Divine personification of the breeze in Greek and Roman mythology

In Greek and Roman mythology, Aura is a minor deity, whose name means "breeze". The plural form, Aurae is sometimes found. According to Nonnus, Aura was the daughter of the Titan Lelantos and the mother, by Dionysus, of Iacchus, a minor deity connected with the Eleusinian mysteries, while Quintus Smyrnaeus makes the Aurae daughters of Boreas, the North-wind. Aurae was the title of a play by the Athenian comic poet Metagenes, who was contemporary with Aristophanes, Phrynichus, and Plato.

In Greek mythology and religion, Thalia or Thaleia was one of the three Charites, referred to as the Gratiae (Graces) within ancient Rome, along with her sisters Aglaea and Euphrosyne. In art, they were usually depicted dancing in a circle. Thalia was the goddess of festivity and rich banquets and was associated with Aphrodite as part of her retinue. The Greek word thalia is an adjective applied to banquets, meaning rich, plentiful, luxuriant and abundant.


Nympholepsy is the belief of the ancient Greeks that individuals could be possessed by the nymphs. Individuals who considered themselves nympholepts would display a great religious devotion to the nymphs. An example is Archedemos of Thera, who built the sanctuary of the nymphs in the Vari Cave northeast of Attica, Greece.

Lilaea or Lilaia, also Lilaeum or Lilaion (Λίλαιον), was one of the most important ancient Phocian towns, and a polis (city-state), built on the north slopes of Mount Parnassus, and at the sources of the Cephissus.


  1. Parad, Carlos; Förlag, Maicar (1997). "Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology: Nymphs". Astrom Editions. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  2. Grimal, p. 313, s.v. Nymphs.
  3. Larson, Jennifer (1997). "Handmaidens of Artemis?". The Classical Journal. 92 (3): 249–257. JSTOR   3298110.
  4. Lawson, John Cuthbert (1910). Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.  131.
  5. "Heathen Artemis yielded her functions to her own genitive case transformed into Saint Artemidos", as Terrot Reaveley Glover phrased it in discussing the "practical polytheism in the worship of the saints", in Progress in Religion to the Christian Era 1922:107.
  6. Tomkinson, John L. (2004). Haunted Greece: Nymphs, Vampires and Other Exotika (1st ed.). Athens: Anagnosis. chapter 3. ISBN   978-960-88087-0-6.
  7. Kready, Laura (1916). A Study of Fairy Tales. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  8. Briggs, Katharine Mary (1976). "Euphemistic names for fairies". An Encyclopedia of Fairies . New York: Pantheon Books. p.  127. ISBN   0-394-73467-X.
  9. Stephen John Campbell (2004). The Cabinet of Eros: Renaissance Mythological Painting and the Studiolo of Isabella D'Este. Yale University Press. pp. 95–6. ISBN   978-0-300-11753-0.
  10. Maryan Wynn Ainsworth; Joshua P. Waterman; Dorothy Mahon (2013). German Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1350-1600. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 95–6. ISBN   978-1-58839-487-3.
  11. Jay A. Levenson; National Gallery of Art (U.S.) (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. p. 260. ISBN   978-0-300-05167-4.
  12. Leonard Barkan (1999). Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture. Yale University Press. pp. 237–8. ISBN   978-0-300-08911-0.
  13. Elisabeth B. MacDougall (January 1994). Fountains, Statues, and Flowers: Studies in Italian Gardens of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 37–56. ISBN   978-0-88402-216-9.
  14. Kenneth Gross (1992). The Dream of the Moving Statue . Cornell University Press. pp.  170–175. ISBN   978-0-8014-2702-2.
  15. 1 2 Rose, Herbert Jennings (1959). A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1st ed.). New York: E. P. Dutton. p.  173. ISBN   978-0-525-47041-0.
  16. Orphic Hymn 71.
  17. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, Book 2
  19. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.1
  20. Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Aōros
  21. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 1. 2
  22. Robert Graves. The Greek Myths, section 110 s.v. The Children of Pelops
  23. Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. Abrettēnē
  24. Schol. ad Pers. Sat. i. 76.
  25. 1 2 3 Pseudo-Clement, Recognitions 10.21–23
  26. Hyginus, Fabulae, 102
  27. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10. 37. 5
  28. Suda s. v. Kretheus
  29. Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Krimisa
  30. Antoninus Liberalis. Metamorphoses, 22 vs Cerambus
  31. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.14.2
  32. Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Hylleis
  33. Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Krētē
  34. Robert Graves. The Greek Myths, section 108 s.v. Tantalus
  35. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 1. 1
  36. William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology s.v. Myrmex
  37. Suda s. v. Nakoleia
  38. Pausanias, 9. 35. § 1
  39. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy, 1. 290 – 291