O'Hare International Airport

Last updated
O'Hare International Airport
O'Hare Airport Logo.jpg
Airport typePublic
Owner City of Chicago
OperatorChicago Department of Aviation
Serves Chicago
Location Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
OpenedFebruary 1944 (1944-02) [1]
Hub for


Focus city for
Elevation  AMSL 668 ft / 204 m
Coordinates 41°58′43″N87°54′17″W / 41.97861°N 87.90472°W / 41.97861; -87.90472 Coordinates: 41°58′43″N87°54′17″W / 41.97861°N 87.90472°W / 41.97861; -87.90472
Website www.flychicago.com/ohare
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Location of airport in Chicago
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ORD (Illinois)
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ORD (the United States)
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ORD (North America)
Direction LengthSurface
9C/27C11,2453,428Under Construction
Statistics (2018)
Passenger volume83,245,472
Aircraft movements903,747
Cargo (metric tons)1.868 million
Economic impact$39 billion
Sources: FAA [4] and airport's website. [5] , [6]

O'Hare International Airport( IATA : ORD, ICAO : KORD, FAA LID : ORD), typically referred to as O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or simply O'Hare, is an international airport located on the far Northwest Side of Chicago, Illinois, 14 miles (23 km) northwest of the Loop business district, operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation [7] and covering 7,627 acres (3,087 ha). [4] O'Hare has non-stop flights to 228 destinations in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. [8] [9]

An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The characters prominently displayed on baggage tags attached at airport check-in desks are an example of a way these codes are used.

ICAO airport code four-letter code designating many airports around the world

The ICAOairport code or location indicator is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world. These codes, as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization and published in ICAO Document 7910: Location Indicators, are used by air traffic control and airline operations such as flight planning.

Federal Aviation Administration United States Government agency dedicated to civil aviation matters

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization.


Established to be the successor to Chicago’s "busiest square mile in the world", Midway Airport, O'Hare began as an airfield serving a Douglas manufacturing plant for C-54 military transports during World War II. It was named for Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first Medal of Honor recipient during that war. [10] Later, at the height of the Cold War, O'Hare served as an active fighter base for the Air Force. [11]

Midway International Airport airport in Chicago, Illinois, United States

Chicago Midway International Airport is a major commercial airport on the southwest side of Chicago, Illinois, located eight miles (13 km) from the Loop. Established in 1927, Midway served as Chicago's primary airport until the opening of O'Hare International Airport in 1955. Today, Midway is the second-largest airport in Chicago metropolitan area and the state of Illinois, serving 22,027,737 passengers in 2018. Traffic is currently dominated by low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines; Chicago is Southwest's largest focus city.

Douglas Aircraft Company 1921-1967 aerospace manufacturer in the United States

The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California. It was founded in 1921 by Donald Wills Douglas Sr. and later merged with McDonnell Aircraft in 1967 to form McDonnell Douglas, when it then operated as a division of McDonnell Douglas. McDonnell Douglas later merged with Boeing in 1997.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

As the first major airport planned post-war, O’Hare's innovative design pioneered concepts such as concourses, direct highway access to the terminal, jet bridges, and underground refueling systems. [12] It became famous as the first World’s Busiest Airport of the jet age, holding that distinction from 1963 to 1998; today, it is the world's sixth-busiest airport, serving 83 million passengers in 2018. [13]

O'Hare is unusual in that it serves a major hub for more than one of the three U.S. mainline carriers; it is United's largest hub in both passengers and flights, while it is American's third-largest hub. [14] [15] It is also a focus city for Frontier Airlines and Spirit Airlines. [2] [3]

Airline hub airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination

Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport. They serve as transfer points to get passengers to their final destination. It is part of the hub-and-spoke system. An airline operates flights from several non-hub (spoke) cities to the hub airport, and passengers traveling between spoke cities need to connect through the hub. This paradigm creates economies of scale that allow an airline to serve city-pairs that could otherwise not be economically served on a non-stop basis. This system contrasts with the point-to-point model, in which there are no hubs and nonstop flights are instead offered between spoke cities. Hub airports also serve origin and destination (O&D) traffic.

Mainline (aeronautics)

A mainline flight is a flight operated by an airline's main operating unit, rather than by regional alliances, regional code-shares, regional subsidiaries, or wholly-owned subsidiaries offering low-cost operations. Mainline carriers typically operate between hub airports within their network and on international or long-haul services, using narrow-body and wide-body aircraft. This is in contrast to regional airlines, providing feeder services to hub airports operating smaller turboprop or regional jet aircraft, or low-cost carrier subsidiaries serving leisure markets.

United Airlines, Inc., commonly referred to as just United, is a major American airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. United operates a large domestic and international route network, with an extensive presence in the Asia-Pacific region. United is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance with a total of 28 member airlines. Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. United was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, which was founded in 1926.

While Terminals 2 and 3 remain of the original design, the airport has been engaged in a massive modernization of the airfield, and is beginning an expansion of passenger facilities that will remake it as North America’s first airport built around airline alliances. [16] [17]

Airline alliance cooperation agreement between two or more airlines

An airline alliance is an aviation industry arrangement between two or more airlines agreeing to cooperate on a substantial level. Alliances may provide marketing branding to facilitate travelers making inter-airline codeshare connections within countries. This branding may involve unified aircraft liveries of member aircraft.


Establishment and defense efforts

Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat on display in O'Hare's Terminal 2, restored in the markings of "Butch" O'Hare's plane F4F-3WildcatOHareAirport-DLighting.jpg
Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat on display in O'Hare's Terminal 2, restored in the markings of "Butch" O'Hare's plane

Not long after the opening of Midway Airport in 1926, the City of Chicago realized that additional airport capacity would be needed in the future. The city government investigated various potential airport sites during the 1930s, but made little progress prior to America's entry into World War II. [10]

O'Hare's place in aviation began with a manufacturing plant for Douglas C-54s during WWII. The site was then known as Orchard Place, and had previously been a small German farming community. The 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) plant, located in the northeast corner of what is now the airport property, needed easy access to the workforce of the nation's second-largest city, as well as its extensive railroad infrastructure and location far from enemy threat. Some 655 C-54s were built at the plant. The attached airfield, from which the completed planes were flown out, was known simply as Douglas Airport; initially, it had four 5,500-foot (1,700 m) runways. [10] Less known is the fact that it was the location of the Army Air Force’s 803rd Specialized Depot, [18] a unit charged with storing many captured enemy aircraft. A few representatives of this collection would eventually be transferred to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. [19] [20]

Douglas Company's contract ended in 1945 and, though consideration was given to building commercial aircraft at Orchard, the company ultimately chose to concentrate commercial production at its original headquarters in Santa Monica, CA. [10] With the departure of Douglas, the complex took the name of Orchard Field Airport, and was assigned the IATA code ORD. [21]

The United States Air Force used the field extensively during the Korean War, at which time there was still no scheduled commercial service at the airport. Although not its primary base in the area, the Air Force used O'Hare as an active fighter base; it was home to the 62nd Fighter-Interceptor Squadron flying F-86 Sabres from 1950 to 1959. [11] By 1960, the need for O'Hare as an active duty fighter base was diminishing, just as commercial business was picking up at the airport. The Air Force removed active-duty units from O'Hare and turned the station over to Continental Air Command, enabling them to base reserve and Air National Guard units there. [22] As a result of a 1993 agreement between the City and the Department of Defense, the reserve based was closed on April 1, 1997, ending its career as the home of the 928th Airlift Wing. At that time, the 357 acre (144 ha) site came under the ownership of the Chicago Department of Aviation. [23]

Early commercial development

In 1945, Chicago mayor Edward Kelly established a formal board to choose the site of a new facility to meet future aviation demands. After considering various proposals, the board decided upon the Orchard Field site, and acquired most of the federal government property in March 1946. The military retained a relatively small parcel of property on the site, and the rights to use 25% of the airfield's operating capacity for free. [10]

Ralph H. Burke devised an airport master plan based on the pioneering idea of what he called "split finger terminals", allowing a terminal building to be attached to "airline wings" (concourses), each providing space for gates and planes. (Pre-war airport designs had favored ever-larger single terminals, exemplified by Berlin's Tempelhof.) Other innovations Burke brought to the O'Hare design included underground refueling, direct highway access to the front of terminals, and direct rail access, all of which are utilized at airports worldwide today. O'Hare was the site of the world's first jet bridge in 1958, [24] [25] and successfully adapted slip form paving, developed for the nation's new Interstate highway system, for seamless concrete runways.

In 1949, the City renamed the facility O'Hare Field to honor Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II. [26] Its IATA code (ORD) remained unchanged, however, resulting in O'Hare's being one of the few IATA codes bearing no connection to the airport's name or metropolitan area. [21]

Arrival of passenger service and subsequent growth

Scheduled passenger service began in 1955, [27] but growth was slow at first. Although Chicago had invested over $25 million in O'Hare, Midway remained the world's busiest airport and airlines were reluctant to move until highway access and other improvements were completed. [28] The April 1957 Official Airline Guide listed 36 weekday departures from the airport, while Midway coped with 414. Improvements began to attract the airlines: O'Hare's first dedicated international terminal opened in August 1958, and by April 1959 the airport had expanded to 7,200 acres (2,900 ha) with new hangars, terminals, parking and other facilities. The expressway link to downtown Chicago, now known as the Kennedy Expressway, was completed in 1960. [27] And new Terminals 2 and 3, designed by C. F. Murphy and Associates, opened on January 1, 1962. [29]

However, the biggest factor driving the airlines to O'Hare from Midway was the emergence of commercial jet transports; one-square-mile Midway did not have the space for the lengthy runways the new planes required. [30] While airlines had initially been reluctant to move to O'Hare, they were equally unwilling to split operations between the two airports: in July 1962 the last fixed-wing scheduled airline flight in Chicago moved from Midway to O'Hare. The arrival of Midway's traffic quickly made O'Hare the world's busiest airport, serving 10 million passengers annually. Within two years that number would double, with Chicagoans proudly boasting that more people passed through O'Hare in 12 months than Ellis Island had processed in its entire existence. O'Hare remained the world's busiest airport until 1998.

Post-deregulation developments and hubs

Reconstructed Brachiosaurus skeleton, formerly in the Field Museum, exhibited at the airport since 1999 Brachiosaurus altithorax.jpg
Reconstructed Brachiosaurus skeleton, formerly in the Field Museum, exhibited at the airport since 1999

In the 1980s, after passage of US airline deregulation, the first major change at O'Hare occurred when TWA decamped Chicago for St. Louis as its main mid-continent hub. [31] Although TWA had a large hangar complex at O'Hare and had initiated non-stop service to Europe from Chicago using 707s in 1958, by the time of deregulation its operation was losing $25 million a year under intense competition from United and American. [32] Northwest likewise ceded O'Hare to the competition and shifted to a Minneapolis and Detroit-centered network by the early 1990s following its acquisition of Republic Airlines in 1986. [33] Delta maintained a Chicago hub for some time, even commissioning a new Concourse L in 1983. [34] Ultimately, Delta found competing from an inferior position at O'Hare too expensive and closed its Chicago hub in the 1990s, concentrating its upper Midwest operations at Cincinnati.

The dominant hubs established at O'Hare in the 1980s by United and American continue to operate today. United developed a new two-concourse Terminal 1 (dubbed "The Terminal for Tomorrow"), designed by Helmut Jahn. It was built between 1985 and 1987 on the site of the original Terminal 1; the structure, which includes 50 gates, is best known for its curved glass forms and the connecting underground passage between Concourses B and C. [35] American renovated and expanded its existing facilities in Terminal 3 from 1987 to 1990; these renovations feature a flag-lined entrance hall to Concourses H/K. [36] [36]

The demolition of the original Terminal 1 in 1984 to make way for Jahn's design forced a "temporary" relocation of international flights into facilities called "Terminal 4" on the ground floor of the airport's central parking garage. International passengers were then bused to and from their aircraft. Relocation finally ended with the completion of the 21-gate International Terminal in 1993 (now called Terminal 5); it contains all customs facilities. Its location, on the site of the original cargo area and east of the terminal core, necessitated the construction of the Airport Transit System people-mover, which connected the terminal core with the new terminal as well as remote rental and parking lots. [34]

The large consolidating mergers in the airline industry from 2008-2014 left O'Hare's domestic operations simplified: the airport found itself primarily with United mainline in Terminal 1, United Express, Air Canada, and Delta in Terminal 2, and American and smaller carriers in Terminal 3.

Field modernization and reconfiguration

O'Hare's high volume and crowded schedule, along with the vagaries of weather in the upper Midwest, frequently led to major delays; its hub status meant delays could affect airlines system-wide, causing issues for air travel across North America. Official reports at the end of the 1990s ranked O'Hare as one of the worst performing airports in the United States based on the percentage of delayed flights. [37] The situation was exacerbated by a practice known as banking, in which regional and mainline flights arrive within several narrow windows during each day (facilitating quick transfers but creating temporary congestion); the situation illustrated the bitter competition between United and American, who combined for 86% of all operations but refused to cooperate to ease the situation. In 2004, facing the imposition of flight limits at O'Hare by the FAA, United and American agreed to modify their flight schedules to help reduce congestion caused by clustered arrivals and departures, mainly by adjusting the schedules of their regional carriers. [38]

While reducing the practice of banking helped, the reality was that the airfield had remained unchanged since the addition of its last new runway (4R/22L) in 1971. [39] O'Hare's three pairs of angled runways were meant to allow takeoffs into the wind, but they came at a cost: the various intersecting runways were both dangerous and inefficient. In 2001, the Chicago Department of Aviation committed to a O'Hare Modernization Plan (OMP). Initially estimated at $6.6 billion, the OMP was to be paid by bonds issued against the increase in the passenger facility charge enacted that year as well as federal airport improvement funds. [40] The modernization plan was approved by the FAA in October 2005 and involved a complete reconfiguration of the airfield.

Runway layout at O'Hare as affected by the O'Hare Modernization Plan O'Hare Airport's runway layout, in 2003 and today.gif
Runway layout at O'Hare as affected by the O'Hare Modernization Plan

The OMP included the construction of four new runways, the lengthening of two existing runways, and the decommissioning of three old runways to provide O'Hare with six parallel runways and two crosswind runways. This was a complete redesign of Burke's basic airfield structure; O'Hare had effectively functioned in a circular manner, with the terminal complex in the center and runways around it. [10] Now, O'Hare would be organized into three sections, north to south: the north airfield, containing three east-west runways, one crosswind runway, and a new cargo area; the terminal complex and ground transportation access in the center; and the south airfield, again containing three east-west runways, a crosswind runway, and a large cargo area. Construction of the two new airfield layouts and the new cargo area, while the space-constrained airport continued full operations, presented significant time and capacity challenges. The north airfield gained runway 9L/27R in 2008, while the south airfield saw the opening of runway 10C/28C in 2013 and runway 10R/28L in 2015.

The OMP was the subject of lengthy legal battles, both with suburbs who feared the new layout's noise implications as well as survivors of persons interred in a cemetery the city proposed to relocate; some of the cases were not resolved until 2011. [16] These, plus the reduction in traffic as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, delayed the OMP's completion; construction of the sixth and final parallel runway (9C/27C) [41] began in 2017. Its completion in 2020, along with an extension of runway 9R/27L to be completed in 2021, will conclude the OMP. [42]

Although construction continues, peak capacity (number of operations/hour) has already increased by 50% and total (all weather) system delays reduced by 57%; [43] after completion of the first two phases of the OMP, on-time arrivals improved from 67.6% to 80.8%. [44] By 2017, O'Hare ranked 14th in on-time performance of the top 30 U.S. airports. [45] Costs of the O'Hare Modernization Plan had risen, by 2015, beyond $8 billion. [46]

Terminal redevelopment plans

In 2018, the city and airlines signed a definitive agreement to phase I of a new Terminal Area Plan dubbed ORD21. [17] It marks the first comprehensive redevelopment and expansion of the terminal core in O'Hare's history. The improvements are intended to enable same-terminal transfers between international and domestic flights, enable faster connections, improve facilities and technology for TSA and customs inspections, and modernize and expand landside amenities. A principal feature of the plan is the reorganization of the terminal core into an "alliance hub", the first in North America; airside connections and layout will be optimized around airline alliances. This will be made possible by the construction of the O’Hare Global Terminal where Terminal 2 currently stands. The Global Terminal and two new satellite concourses will allow for expansion for both American's and United's international operations as well as easy interchange with their respective Oneworld (American) and Star Alliance (United) partner carriers, eliminating the need to exit the secured airside, ride the ATS, and re-clear security at Terminal 5. Under the reconfiguration, United and its Star Alliance partners will utilize Terminal 1 and the Global Terminal, American and its Oneworld partners will use the Global Terminal and Terminal 3, while Delta and its SkyTeam partners, as well as non-affiliated carriers, will relocate to Terminal 5.

The plan is set to add over 3,000,000 square feet (280,000 m2) to the airport's terminals, a new customs processing center in the Global Terminal, 25% more ramp space at gates to accommodate larger aircraft, reconstruction of gates and concourses (new concourses will be a minimum of 120 feet (37 m) wide), and increase the gate count from 185 to 235. [47] Since construction of the Global Terminal cannot interfere with ongoing operations at the airport, it is scheduled to take place in stages, with the first step (scheduled to begin 2019) being to dig the tunnel that will connect the terminal core with two new satellite concourses. [48] Demolition of Terminal 2 and the subsequent construction of the Global Terminal can only proceed after the completion of the two new satellite concourses, which will provide the gates lost by the demolition of Terminal 2. By terms of the agreement, total costs of $8.5 billion for ORD21 are to be borne by bonds issued by the City, which will be retired by airport usage fees paid by the airlines. ORD21 is scheduled for completion in 2028. [49]

Construction has begun on the first major phase of ORD21, the expansion of Terminal 5, to be substantially completed in 2021. This expansion will not only add ten gates and passenger amenities, but will also convert Terminal 5 into a mixed domestic/international terminal in preparation for Delta's relocation and the construction of the OGT. Further improvements scheduled for Terminal 5 in 2022 include O'Hare's first baggage ID system. [50] A separate "stinger" extension of Concourse L in Terminal 3, with five new American regional gates, opened to service in May, 2018. [51]

After an international design competition that featured public voting on five finalists, Chicago's Mayor Emanuel announced in March, 2019 that the Studio ORD group, led by architect Jeanne Gang, had been selected to design the OGT. The architecture team to design the satellites, the second-place team in the competition, has not yet been publicly identified. [52] [53]


O'Hare has four numbered passenger terminals with nine lettered concourses and a total of 191 gates. [54]

With the exception of flights from airports with U.S. Customs and Border Protection preclearance, all inbound international flights arrive at Terminal 5, as the other terminals do not have customs screening facilities. Several alliance partners, such as ANA, Iberia, Japan Airlines, and Lufthansa, have outbound international flights departing from Terminals 1 and 3. This requires that the aircraft arrive and discharge passengers at Terminal 5, after which the empty plane is towed to another terminal for boarding. This is to expedite connections for passengers transferring from domestic flights to those outbound international flights; while Terminals 1, 2, and 3 all allow airside connections, Terminal 5 is separated from the other terminals by a set of taxiways that cross over the airport's access road, requiring passengers to exit security, ride a shuttle bus, and then re-clear security before boarding.

Terminal 1

United Airlines Terminal 1, Concourse B Concourse B, Chicago O'Hare airport.jpg
United Airlines Terminal 1, Concourse B

Terminal 1, containing Concourses B & C, is home to United Airlines flights, including all mainline flights and some United Express operations, as well as some departures for Star Alliance partners Lufthansa and ANA.

Concourses B and C are linear concourses located in separate buildings parallel to each other. Concourse B is adjacent to the airport roadway and houses passenger check-in, baggage claim, and security screenings on its landside and aircraft gates on its airside. Concourse C is a satellite terminal with gates on all sides, in the middle of the ramp, and is connected to Concourse B via an underground pedestrian tunnel under the ramp. The tunnel originates between gates B8 and B9 in Concourse B, and ends on Concourse C between gates C17 and C19. The tunnel is illuminated with a neon installation titled Sky's the Limit (1987) by Canadian artist Michael Hayden, which plays an airy and very slow-tempo version of Rhapsody in Blue .

United operates three United Clubs in Terminal 1. For premium international passengers, United operates a Polaris Lounge and a United Arrivals Suite. [55]

Terminal 2

Terminal 2, containing Concourses E & F, houses Air Canada, Alaska, Delta and Delta Connection domestic flights, and most United Express operations (although check-ins take place in Terminal 1). The terminal contains a United Club and a Delta Sky Club.

Terminal 3

American Airlines Terminal 3 Main Hall Chicago Airport - ND0 5470.jpg
American Airlines Terminal 3 Main Hall

Terminal 3, containing Concourses G, H, K & L, houses all departing and domestic arriving American and American Eagle flights, as well as departures for Oneworld carriers Iberia and Japan Airlines and unaffiliated carriers.

Concourses G and L house most American Eagle operated flights, while Concourses H and K house American's mainline operations. American's Oneworld partners Japan Airlines and Iberia depart from K19 or K16. Concourse L is also used by non-affiliated airlines Air Choice One, Cape Air, JetBlue, and Spirit. [56] Alaska Airlines relocated to Terminal 2 on March 14, 2019. [57]

American has three Admirals Clubs in Terminal 3 and one Flagship Lounge. [58]

Terminal 5

Terminal 5, containing Concourse M, houses all of O'Hare's international arrivals (excluding flights with Air Canada, American and United from airports with U.S. border preclearance). Other destinations with preclearance, including flights operated by Aer Lingus and Etihad Airways, arrive at Terminal 5 but are treated as domestic arrivals. With the exception of select Star Alliance and Oneworld flights that board from Terminal 1 or Terminal 3 respectively, all non-U.S. carriers except Air Canada depart from Terminal 5.

The first effects of ORD21 can be seen by developments at Terminal 5. In 2018, Frontier Airlines became the first domestic carrier to move operations to T5, [59] and the expansion of Terminal 5 began in March 2019 at the eastern end of the M concourse. It is not expected to interfere with passenger operations. [60]

Several airlines have lounges in Terminal 5, including Air France - KLM, British Airways, Korean Air, SAS, and SWISS; there is also a multi-carrier Swissport Lounge. The airport's U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility is located on the arrival (lower) level.


FAA runway diagram of ORD FAA O'Hare Diagram.svg
FAA runway diagram of ORD

O'Hare features two sets of parallel runways, one on either side of the terminal complex. The north airfield has two parallel east-west runways (9L/27R and 9R/27L), with forthcoming 9C/27C scheduled for completion in 2020. The south airfield, where the O'Hare Modernization Program (OMP) is largely complete, has three parallel east-west runways (10L/28R, 10C/28C, and 10R/28L). In addition, there are two parallel crosswind runways oriented northeast/southwest (4R/22L, 4L/22R), one on each side of the airport. The north crosswind runway, 4L/22R, actually intersects 9R/27L and forthcoming 9C/27C, limiting its use; [61] however, runway 22L is often used for takeoffs during "west flow" on the main runways. Each side of the airfield has its own ground control tower.

Original runway 18/36 closed in 2003, and runway 14L/32R closed in 2015. The last of the runways to close under the OMP, originally 14R/32L, was decommissioned on March 29, 2018, and the FAA Airport Diagram now designates the remaining sections [62] as taxiway SS. [63] It had been the first new runway added by the city to the old Douglas Field layout and was lengthened and rebuilt with concrete in 1960 to became O'Hare's first intercontinental jet runway. [10]

O'Hare has a voluntary nighttime (22:00–07:00) noise abatement program. [64]

Ground transportation

Currently, passengers are shuttled between the terminal core (Terminals 1 - 3), Terminal 5, and the remote lots and new Multi-Modal Facility (MMF) via free shuttle buses; buses board on the lower level of each terminal and run every 5-10 minutes, 24 hours a day. The Bus Shuttle center, located on the main floor of the parking garage opposite terminals 1-3, provides a temporary boarding location for local hotel shuttles and regional public transport buses. [65]

Normally, such transfers would be made using the 2.5 mi (4 km)-long automated Airport Transit System (ATS), which connects all four terminals landside and the rental and remote parking lots. However, the ATS is undergoing a $310 million modernization and expansion that includes replacing the existing 15-car fleet with 36 new Bombardier vehicles, [66] upgrading the previous infrastructure, and extending the line 2,000 feet (610 m) [67] to the MMF. As of January 8, 2019, the ATS was removed from service to allow for completion and testing of the project. The ATS will not re-enter service until safety testing (required due to its unmanned operation) is complete in the fall of 2019. [68]

The new MMF opened in October 2018 and is the home of all on-airport car rental firms as well as some extended parking. Rental customers now proceed from the terminal to the MMF via shuttle bus. [69] After the completion of the ATS project in late 2019, it is anticipated that all shuttle bus service to the terminals will end, eliminating some 1.3 million bus trips yearly. In addition, the O'Hare Transfer station of Metra's North Central Service is located at the northeast corner of the MMF.

The CTA Blue Line's terminus is at O'Hare and provides direct service to the Dearborn Street subway in the Loop and to Forest Park. Trains depart at intervals ranging from every 4 to 30 minutes, 24 hours a day. [70] The station is located on the lower level of the parking garage, and can be accessed directly from Terminals 1-3 via tunnel and from Terminal 5 via shuttle bus.

About 23,000 parking spaces are available at O'Hare. A large multi-level garage containing short-term parking is located immediately opposite the terminal core, and there is a short-term lot immediately in front of Terminal 5. There are also several economy lots available; these are located farther away but are accessed from the terminals with free shuttle bus service. Rates at airport lots currently range from $10 to $40 a day. [71]

O'Hare is directly served by Interstate 190, which offers interchanges with Mannheim Road (U.S. 12 and 45), the Tri-State Tollway (Interstate 294), and Interstate 90. I-90 continues as the Kennedy Expressway into downtown Chicago and becomes the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway northwest to Rockford and the Wisconsin state line.


The Hilton Chicago O'Hare is between the terminal core and parking garage and is currently the only hotel on airport property. It is owned by the Chicago Department of Aviation and operated under an agreement with Hilton Hotels, who extended their agreement with the city for 10 years in 2018. [72]

Cargo facilities

There are two main cargo areas at O'Hare that have warehouse, build-up/tear-down and aircraft parking facilities.

The Cargo Area (now the South Cargo Area) was relocated in the 1980s from the airport's first air cargo facilities, which were located east of the terminal core, where Terminal 5 now stands. Many of the structures in the new Cargo Area then had to be rebuilt, again, to allow for the OMP and specifically runway 10R/28L; as a result, what is now called the South Cargo Area is located between 10R/28L and 10C/28C. These facilities were established mainly by traditional airline-based air cargo; Air France Cargo, American, JAL Cargo, KLM, Lufthansa Cargo, Northwest and United all built purpose-built, freestanding cargo facilities, [73] although some of them are now leased out to dedicated cargo firms. In addition, the area contains two separate facilities for shipper FedEx and one for UPS. [73]

The Northeast Cargo Area (NEC) is a conversion of the former military base (the Douglas plant area) at the northeast corner of the airport property. It is a new facility designed to increase O'Hare's cargo capacity by 50%. Two buildings currently make up the NEC: a 540,000 square feet (50,000 m2) building completed in 2016, [74] and a 240,000 square feet (22,000 m2) building that was completed in 2017. [75] A third structure, scheduled for completion in 2019, will complete the NEC with another 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) of warehouse space. [76]

The current capability of the cargo areas provide 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of airside cargo space, on four ramps, with parking for 40 wide-body freighters, matched with over 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of landside warehousing capability. O'Hare shipped over 1.9 million tonnes of cargo in 2017, third among major airports in the U.S. [77]

Other facilities

The USO offers two facilities: one open 24 hours and located before security in Terminal 2, and an additional site behind security in Terminal 3, open 06:00-22:30 daily. Each offers meals, refreshments, TV and quiet rooms, and internet access. Active duty military personnel and their families, as well as new recruits going to Recruit Training Command, are welcome. [78]

The large Postal Service processing facility at O'Hare is located at the far south end of the airfield along Irving Park Road. Being on secured airfield property, it is not open to the public. USPS drop locations are provided in Terminals 1, 3 and 5.

Airlines and destinations


Aer Lingus Dublin [79]
Aeroméxico Guadalajara, Mexico City [80]
Air Canada Toronto–Pearson [81]
Air Canada Express Montréal–Trudeau, Vancouver [81]
Air Choice One Burlington (IA), Ironwood, Mason City [82]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle [83]
Air India Delhi [84]
Air New Zealand Auckland [85]
Alaska Airlines Anchorage, Los Angeles, Portland (OR), San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma [86]
Alitalia Seasonal: Rome–Fiumicino [87]
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita [88]
American Airlines Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Boston, Cancún, Charlotte, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, El Paso, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Hartford, Houston–Intercontinental, Kansas City, Las Vegas, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Orange County (CA), Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Reno/Tahoe, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, Tokyo–Narita, Tucson, Tulsa, Vancouver, Washington–National, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Aruba, Athens (begins May 3, 2019), [89] Barcelona, Bozeman, Colorado Springs, Columbus–Glenn, Cozumel, Detroit, Dublin, Eagle/Vail, Grand Cayman, Guatemala City, Honolulu, Indianapolis, Jackson Hole, Jacksonville (FL), Montego Bay, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, Omaha (begins June 8, 2019), Palm Springs, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Providenciales, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Rome–Fiumicino, San José del Cabo, Venice
American Eagle Akron/Canton, Albany, Albuquerque, Appleton, Atlanta, Baltimore, Bangor, Birmingham (AL), Bismarck, Bloomington/Normal, Boise, Buffalo, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Champaign/Urbana, Charleston (SC), Charlottesville, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Columbia (MO), Columbus–Glenn, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Dubuque, Duluth (begins May 23, 2019), El Paso, Erie (begins May 3, 2019), [91] Evansville, Fargo, Fayetteville/Bentonville, Flint, Fort Wayne, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Joplin (begins June 6, 2019), [92] Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Knoxville, La Crosse, Lansing, Lexington, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Manchester (NH) (begins June 6, 2019), [93] Manhattan (KS), Marquette, Memphis, Meridian (MS), Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moline/Quad Cities, Montréal–Trudeau, Mosinee, Nashville, New Orleans, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Peoria, Pittsburgh, Providence, Rapid City, Richmond, Rochester (MN), Rochester (NY), St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Sioux City, Sioux Falls, Springfield/Branson, State College, Syracuse, Toledo, Toronto–Pearson, Traverse City, Tucson, Tulsa, Washington–National, Waterloo (IA), White Plains, Wichita, Wilkes-Barre
Seasonal: Aspen, Bozeman, Burlington (VT), Calgary, Destin/Fort Walton Beach, Durango (CO) (begins June 8, 2019), [93] Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Kalispell (begins June 6, 2019), [93] Key West, Missoula, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Panama City (FL), Pensacola (FL), Portland (ME), Québec City (begins June 6, 2019), [94] Raleigh/Durham, Sarasota, Savannah, Wilmington (NC)
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon [95]
Austrian Airlines Vienna [96]
Avianca Bogotá (ends May 1, 2019) [97] [98]
Avianca Guatemala Guatemala City (ends June 1, 2019) [99] [98]
Bahamasair Nassau [100]
British Airways London–Heathrow [101]
Cape Air Decatur [102]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong [103]
Cayman Airways Seasonal: Grand Cayman [104]
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong [105]
Copa Airlines Panama City [106]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–LaGuardia, Salt Lake City, Seattle/Tacoma [107]
Delta Connection Boston (begins September 8, 2019), [108] Cincinnati, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Raleigh/Durham, Salt Lake City [107]
El Al Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion (resumes March 22, 2020) [109] [110]
Emirates Dubai–International [111]
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa 1 [112]
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi [113]
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan [114]
Finnair Seasonal: Helsinki [115]
Frontier Airlines Austin (resumes April 30, 2019), Cancún, Denver, Fort Myers, Harlingen, Jacksonville (FL), Las Vegas, Mobile–Downtown (begins May 1, 2019), [116] Nashville (resumes April 30, 2019), [117] Orlando, Pensacola (FL), Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Punta Cana, Tampa
Seasonal: Branson (begins May 1, 2019), [118] El Paso, Miami, Palm Springs, Puerto Vallarta, Syracuse, Trenton
Hainan Airlines Beijing–Capital [120]
Iberia Madrid [121]
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík [122]
Interjet Guadalajara, Mexico City [123]
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Narita [124]
JetBlue Airways Boston, Fort Lauderdale, New York–JFK [125]
KLM Amsterdam [126]
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon [127]
LOT Polish Airlines Budapest, Kraków, Warsaw–Chopin [128]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich [129]
Norwegian Air Shuttle London–Gatwick
Seasonal: Barcelona (begins June 7, 2019) [130]
Qatar Airways Doha [132]
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia [133]
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Stockholm–Arlanda [134]
Spirit Airlines Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Cancún, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston–Intercontinental, Jacksonville (FL), Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando, Raleigh/Durham (begins May 2, 2019), [135] San Diego, Tampa
Seasonal: Boston, Myrtle Beach, Oakland, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Seattle/Tacoma
Sun Country Airlines Seasonal: Minneapolis/St. Paul [137]
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich [138]
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon (begins June 1, 2019) [139] [140]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul [141]
United Airlines Albany, Amsterdam, Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Beijing–Capital, Belize City, Boston, Bozeman, Brussels, Buffalo, Calgary, Cancún, Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus–Glenn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Frankfurt, Grand Rapids, Harrisburg, Hartford, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Houston–Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Kahului, Kansas City, Las Vegas, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madison, Memphis, Mexico City, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Munich, Nashville, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Orange County (CA), Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Sarasota, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai–Pudong, Spokane, Syracuse, Tampa, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National, Wichita
Seasonal: Albuquerque, Anchorage, Bangor, Boise, Bozeman, Burlington (VT), Cozumel, Dublin, Edinburgh, Fairbanks, Fresno, Grand Cayman, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Jackson Hole, Jacksonville (FL), Kalispell, Knoxville, Liberia, Missoula, Montego Bay, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Nassau, Palm Springs, Pensacola (FL) (begins June 8, 2019), [142] Portland (ME), Providence, Providenciales, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Rapid City, Reno/Tahoe, Rome–Fiumicino, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, San José del Cabo, San José de Costa Rica, Savannah, Sioux Falls, Traverse City, Tucson, Vail/Eagle, West Palm Beach
United Express Akron/Canton, Albany, Albuquerque, Allentown, Appleton, Asheville, Atlanta, Austin, Birmingham (AL), Bismarck, Boise, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Calgary, Cape Girardeau, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Charlottesville, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, Clarksburg (WV), Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Columbia (MO), Columbia (SC), Columbus–Glenn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Durango (begins June 2, 2019), [144] Eau Claire, El Paso, Erie, Eugene (begins June 6, 2019), [145] Evansville, Fargo, Fayetteville/Bentonville, Flint, Fort Wayne, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Houghton, Houston–Intercontinental, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jackson (MS), Jackson Hole (WY), Jacksonville (FL), Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Lansing, León/Del Bajío, Lewisburg (WV), Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moline/Quad Cities, Monterrey, Montréal–Trudeau, Mosinee, Muskegon, Nashville, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Ogdensburg (begins May 3, 2019), [146] Oklahoma City, Omaha, Ottawa (ends June 5, 2019), [147] Paducah, Pensacola (FL), Peoria, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Quincy, Raleigh/Durham, Rapid City, Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (MN), Rochester (NY), St. Louis, Saginaw, Salina, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Sarasota, Savannah, Shenandoah Valley, Sioux Falls, South Bend, Springfield (IL), Springfield/Branson, State College, Syracuse, Toronto–Pearson, Traverse City, Tucson, Tulsa, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National, West Palm Beach, White Plains, Wichita, Wilkes–Barre/Scranton, Wilmington (NC), Winnipeg
Seasonal: Aspen, Bangor, Billings, Brownsville, Cody, Destin/Fort Walton Beach (begins June 8, 2019), [145] Fresno, Grand Junction (begins June 8, 2019), [148] Great Falls, Gunnison/Crested Butte, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Halifax (begins June 6, 2019), [145] Hilton Head, Kalispell, Key West, Miami, Missoula, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Nassau, Palm Springs, Panama City (FL) (begins June 8, 2019), [145] Québec City, Redmond/Bend (begins June 6, 2019), [145] Reno/Tahoe, Sun Valley
Volaris Guadalajara, Mexico City, Querétaro (begins June 16, 2019) [149]
Seasonal: Puerto Vallarta (begins May 5, 2019) [149]


  • ^1 : Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Addis Ababa to O'Hare stops at Dublin, [151] but the flight from O'Hare to Addis Ababa is nonstop.


AeroUnion Mexico City
AirBridgeCargo Airlines Amsterdam, Dallas/Fort Worth, Frankfurt, Houston–Intercontinental, Luxembourg, Moscow–Domodedovo [152]
Air China Cargo Anchorage, Beijing–Capital, Frankfurt, New York–JFK, Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin
Air France Cargo Dublin, New York–JFK, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Prestwick
Asiana Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon, Seattle/Tacoma
ASL Airlines Belgium Liège
Atlas Air Anchorage, Miami, Seoul–Incheon
Cargolux Anchorage, Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hong Kong, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, New York–JFK, Zhengzhou
Cathay Pacific Cargo Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK, Portland (OR)
China Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Houston–Intercontinental, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma
China Cargo Airlines Anchorage, Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth
China Southern Cargo Shanghai–Pudong [153]
DHL Aviation Anchorage, Calgary, Cincinnati, Newark, New York–JFK
Emirates SkyCargo Maastricht [154]
EVA Air Cargo Anchorage, Dallas/Fort Worth, Taipei–Taoyuan
FedEx Express Fort Worth/Alliance, Greensboro, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Memphis, Milwaukee, Newark, Oakland, Seattle/Tacoma, Pittsburgh
Korean Air Cargo Anchorage, Halifax, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Toronto–Pearson
LATAM Cargo Santiago [155]
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin
Lufthansa Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, Frankfurt, Guadalajara, Los Angeles, Manchester (UK), Mexico City, New York–JFK [156]
Nippon Cargo Airlines Anchorage, Dallas/Fort Worth, Edmonton, Frankfurt–Hahn, Los Angeles, New York–JFK [157] [158]
Qantas Freight Anchorage, Auckland, Chongqing, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Sydney [159] [160] [161] [162]
Qatar Airways Cargo Amsterdam, Doha, Los Angeles, Milan–Malpensa [163] [164] [165]
Silk Way Airlines Baku [166]
Singapore Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, Brussels, Chennai Airport, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Seattle/Tacoma [167]
Turkish Airlines Cargo Istanbul–Atatürk, Maastricht, Shannon, Toronto–Pearson [168] [169]
UPS Airlines Cologne/Bonn, Columbus–Rickenbacker, Dallas/Fort Worth, Louisville, Miami, Philadelphia, Portland (OR)
Yangtze River Express Anchorage, Shanghai–Pudong


Top destinations

Busiest domestic routes from ORD
(February 2018 – January 2019)
1 Flag of New York.svg New York–LaGuardia, New York 1,588,630American, Delta, Spirit, United
2 Flag of California.svg Los Angeles, California 1,392,860Alaska, American, Spirit, United
3 Flag of California.svg San Francisco, California 1,108,840Alaska, American, United
4 Flag of Texas.svg Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 1,076,700American, Spirit, United
5 Flag of Colorado.svg Denver, Colorado 993,370American, Frontier, Spirit, United
6 Flag of Massachusetts.svg Boston, Massachusetts 970,990American, JetBlue, Spirit, United
7 Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Atlanta, Georgia 850,010American, Delta, Spirit, United
8 Flag of Arizona.svg Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Arizona 829,510American, Frontier, Spirit, United
9 Flag of Washington.svg Seattle/Tacoma, Washington 820,400Alaska, American, Delta, Spirit, United
10 Flag of Virginia.svg Washington D.C. 776,440American, Delta, United
Busiest International Routes to and from ORD (2016) [171]
1Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London–Heathrow 1,037,444American, British Airways, United
2Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Toronto–Pearson 887,663Air Canada, American, United
3Flag of Japan.svg Tokyo–Narita 685,067All Nippon, American, JAL, United
4Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt 607,328Lufthansa, United
5Flag of Mexico.svg Cancún 522,129American, Frontier, Spirit, United
6Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico City 488,015Aeroméxico, Interjet, United, Volaris
7Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Beijing–Capital 413,448American, Hainan, United
8Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai–Pudong 412,485American, China Eastern, United
9Flag of Ireland.svg Dublin 397,559Aer Lingus, American, United
10Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Montréal–Trudeau 393,089Air Canada, American, United

Airline market share

Top Airlines at ORD
(February 2018 - January 2019) [172]
RankAirlinePassengersPercent of market share
1 United Airlines 21,053,00031.88%
2 American Airlines 17,227,00026.09%
3 SkyWest Airlines 6,699,00010.14%
4 Envoy Air 5,392,0008.17%
5 Spirit Airlines 3,109,0004.71%

Annual traffic

Traffic by calendar year [173]
YearPassenger volumeChange over previous yearAircraft operationsCargo tonnage
201883,339,186 [174] Increase2.svg4.40%903,7471,868,880

Environmental efforts

In 2011, O'Hare became the first major airport to build an apiary on its property; every summer, it hosts as many as 75 hives and a million bees. The bees are maintained by 30 to 40 ex-offenders with little to no work experience and few marketable skills from the North Lawndale community. They are taught beekeeping but also benefit from the bees' labor, turning it into bottled fresh honey, soaps, lip balms, candles and moisturizers marketed under the beelove product line; products are sold at stores and used by restaurants throughout both Chicago airports. [175] More than 500 persons have completed the program, transferring to jobs in manufacturing, food processing, customer service, and hospitality; the repeat-offender rate is reported to be less than 10%. [176]

O'Hare has used livestock, primarily goats, since 2013 to control vegetation in harder-to-reach areas or on steeper banks as along Willow-Higgins Creek on the airport property. In the summer of 2018, a mix of 30 goats, sheep, and a donkey named Jackson controlled buckthorn, garlic mustard, ragweed and various other invasive species. [177] The livestock assist not only with vegetation removal and control, but also reduce hiding and nesting places for birds that may interfere with safe aircraft operations, and all without food expense or environmental damage. [178]

Accidents and incidents

The following is a list of crashes or incidents that happened to planes at O'Hare, on approach, or just after takeoff from the airport. [179]

See also

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