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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques
OECD logo new.svg
OECD member states map.svg
     Founding member countries (1961)
     Other member countries
  • OECD
  • OCDE
Formation16 April 1948;71 years ago (1948-04-16) (as the OEEC)a
Reformed in September 1961 (1961-09) (as OECD)
Type Intergovernmental organisation
Headquarters Paris, France
Official languages
  • English
  • French
José Ángel Gurría
Deputy Secretary-General
Ludger Schuknecht
Deputy Secretary-General
Ulrik Vestergaard Knudsen
Deputy Secretary-General
Masamichi Kono
374 million (2017) [2]
Website www.oecd.org
a. Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; French : Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries, [1] founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. As of 2017, the OECD member states collectively comprised 62.2% of global nominal GDP (US$49.6 trillion) [3] and 42.8% of global GDP (Int$54.2 trillion) at purchasing power parity. [4] OECD is an official United Nations observer. [5]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states, or of other intergovernmental organizations. Intergovernmental organizations are called international organizations, although that term may also include international non-governmental organization such as international nonprofit organizations or multinational corporations.

Democracy system of government in which citizens vote directly in or elect representatives to form a governing body, sometimes called "rule of the majority"

Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves. These representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority, usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association.


In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), [6] led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan (which was rejected by the Soviet Union and its satellite states). [7] This would be achieved by allocating United States financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. (Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea, but not under the name "Marshall Plan".) [8]

Robert Marjolin French economist and politician

Robert Marjolin was a French economist and politician involved in the formation of the European Economic Community.

Marshall Plan U.S. initiative to help Western Europe recover from WWII

The Marshall Plan was an American initiative passed in 1948 to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing an earlier proposal for a Morgenthau Plan, it operated for four years beginning on April 3, 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-torn regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, improve European prosperity, and prevent the spread of Communism. The Marshall Plan required a reduction of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, and encouraged an increase in productivity, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a Marxist-Leninist sovereign state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states. [9] [10] The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. [11] The OECD is funded by contributions from member states at varying rates and had a total budget of €374 million in 2017. [2]

Château de la Muette

The Château de la Muette is a château located on the edge of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, France, near the Porte de la Muette.


Organisation for European Economic Co-operation

The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. [12] It started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues. [6] According to Yanis Varoufakis, the OEEC can be seen as a continental planning commission established by the victorious United States following the successful model of their planning commissions of the New Deal. The economic philosophy these commission followed can be characterized as Keynesian. The lead in the organisation should be in French hands, with a strong integration of the Germans. [13]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

The Committee of European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) was a joint European conference to determine the priorities for the recovery of the European economy after World War II, and to assist in the administration of the Marshall Plan. The committee, consisting of representatives from 16 European nations, met from 12 July to 22 September 1947 in Paris, France.

Yanis Varoufakis Greek-Australian political economist and author, Greek finance minister

Ioannis Georgiou "Yanis" Varoufakis is a Greek economist, academic and politician, who served as the Greek Minister of Finance from January to July 2015, and who is currently serving as the General Secretary of political party MeRA25. Varoufakis was a Syriza member of the Hellenic Parliament (MP) for Athens B from January to September 2015. In the 2019 election, he was re-elected to the Greek parliament.

In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area, to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC.

European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Upon the formation of the European Union (EU) in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the European Community (EC). In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist.

By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan. [14]


Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada (three countries, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy, all OEEC members, ratified the OECD Convention after September 1961 but are nevertheless considered founding members). The official founding members are:

During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country. [15]

The OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre (1961), International Energy Agency (IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering.

Unlike the organisations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see -ise/-ize).

Enlargement to Central Europe

In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. [15] [16] This programme also included a membership option for these countries. [16] As a result of this, Poland, [17] Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as well as Mexico and South Korea [18] became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000.

Reform and further enlargement

In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey. [19] In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD. [20] Slovenia also applied for membership that same year. [21] In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation. [22] The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states. [23] Romania reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta to OECD Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría. [24] In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria confirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD Secretariat. [25]

In 2003, the OECD established a working group headed by Japan's Ambassador to the OECD Seiichiro Noboru to work out a strategy for the enlargement and co-operation with non-members. The working group proposed that the selection of candidate countries to be based on four criteria: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 and 14 May 2004. Based on these recommendations work, the meeting adopted an agreement on operationalisation of the proposed guidelines and on the drafting of a list of countries suitable as potential candidates for membership. [15] As a result of this work, on 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement. [26] Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010. [27] In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis. [28] [29]

In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia. In 2015, it opened talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania. [30] Latvia became a full member on 1 July 2016 and Lithuania on 5 July 2018. [31] [32] Colombia signed the accession agreement on 30 May 2018 and will become full member after the ratification of the accession agreement and the deposition of the ratification document. [33]

Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD membership are Argentina, Peru, [34] Malaysia, [35] Brazil [36] and Croatia. [37]

Objectives and activities


Payroll and income tax by OECD Country Payroll and income tax by country.png
Payroll and income tax by OECD Country

The OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for allocating taxation rights between countries. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings). Additionally, the OECD have published and updated the Transfer Pricing Guidelines since 1995. The Transfer Pricing Guidelines serve as a template for profit allocation of intercompany transactions to countries. The latest version, of July 2017, incorporates the approved Actions developed under the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project initiated by the G20.


The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD iLibrary.

The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD premises by appointment.


The OECD releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated accordingly to the OECD iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD flagship[ vague ] titles include:

  • The OECD Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries.
  • The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators.
  • The OECD Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimes other major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in Excel format via StatLinks.
  • The OECD Communications Outlook and the OECD Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. They contain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD member countries and non-member economies.
  • In 2007 the OECD published Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life, the first book in the OECD Insights series. This series uses OECD analysis and data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international trade and international migration.

All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library & Archives. [n 1]


OECD Observer, an award-winning magazine [n 2] launched in 1962. [38] The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD Yearbook, [n 3] launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation. [39] The online and mobile [40] editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus ordering information. [41] An OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013. [42]


The OECD is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects. In July 2014, the OECD publicly released its main statistical databases through the OECD Data Portal, an online platform that allows visitors to create custom charts based on official OECD indicators. [43] [44]

OECD statistics are available in several forms:

  • as interactive charts on the OECD Data Portal,
  • as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables,
  • as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD Statistics portal,
  • as StatLinks (in most OECD books, there is a URL that links to the underlying data).

Working papers

There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals.

Reference works

The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law).

It has published the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable.


The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:


The main entrance to the OECD Conference Centre in Paris Entrance to the OECD Conference Centre April 2014.jpg
The main entrance to the OECD Conference Centre in Paris

Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General Pierre Vinde  [ sv ] estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat. [45] This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations.[ citation needed ] In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration.

The OECD regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD charter, members and non-member states. [46]

Noteworthy meetings include:


Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas.

The secretariat is organised in Directorates:

Secretary-General of the OEEC
No.Secretary-GeneralTime servedCountry of origin
1 Robert Marjolin 1948 – 1955 Flag of France.svg France
2 René Sergent 1955 – 1960 Flag of France.svg France
3 Thorkil Kristensen 1960 – September 1961 Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark
Secretary-General of the OECD
No.Secretary-GeneralTime servedCountry of origin
1 Thorkil Kristensen 30 September 1961 – 30 September 1969 Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark
2 Emiel van Lennep 1 October 1969 – September 1984 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands
3 Jean-Claude Paye 1 October 1984 – 30 September 1994 Flag of France.svg France
Staffan Sohlman (interim) [48] [49] 1 October 1994 – November 1994 Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden
3 Jean-Claude Paye [50] November 1994 – 30 May 1996 Flag of France.svg France
4 Donald Johnston 1 June 1996 – 30 May 2006 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada
5 José Ángel Gurría 1 June 2006 – present Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico

See source.


Representatives of member and observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area. [51]

Special bodies and entities [52]

Member countries

Current members

There are currently 36 members of the OECD [1] with one more country (Colombia) invited to join. [33]

CountryApplicationNegotiationsInvitationMembership [1] Geographic locationNotes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 7 June 1971Oceania
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 29 September 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 13 September 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10 April 1961North America
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile November 2003 [53] [54] 16 May 2007 [55] 15 December 2009 [56] 7 May 2010South America
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic January 1994 [57] 8 June 1994 [58] 24 November 1995 [57] 21 December 1995EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 30 May 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 16 May 2007 [55] 10 May 2010 [59] 9 December 2010Europe
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 28 January 1969Europe
Flag of France.svg  France 7 August 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 27 September 1961EuropeJoined OEEC in 1949 (West Germany). [60] Previously represented by the Trizone. [6] East Germany was a member of the rival Comecon from 1950 until German reunification in 1990.
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 27 September 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary December 1993 [61] 8 June 1994 [58] 7 May 1996EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991.
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 5 June 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 17 August 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 15 March 2004 [62] 16 May 2007 [55] 10 May 2010 [59] 7 September 2010Asia
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 29 March 1962EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan November 1962 [63] July 1963 [63] 28 April 1964Asia
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 29 March 1995 [64] 25 October 1996 [65] 12 December 1996AsiaOfficially Republic of Korea
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 29 May 2013 [66] 11 May 2016 [67] 1 July 2016 [68] Europe
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 9 April 2015 [69] 31 May 20185 July 2018 [70] Europe
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 7 December 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 14 April 1994 [71] 18 May 1994North America
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 13 November 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 29 May 1973Oceania
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 4 July 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1 February 1994 [72] 8 June 1994 [58] 11 July 1996 [73] 22 November 1996EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991.
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 4 August 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia February 1994 [74] 8 June 1994 [58] July 2000 [74] 14 December 2000EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia March 1996 [75] 16 May 2007 [55] 10 May 2010 [59] 21 July 2010Europe
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 3 August 1961EuropeJoined OEEC in 1958. [76]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 28 September 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 28 September 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 2 August 1961AsiaOEEC member. [6]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 2 May 1961EuropeOEEC member. [6]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 12 April 1961North America

The European Commission participates in the work of the OECD alongside the EU Member States. [77]

Former members

Countries signed accession agreement but not members yet

Countries currently in accession talks

Countries whose accession talks are suspended

Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD Council


The following table shows various data for OECD member states, including area, population, economic output and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press and democratic level.

Country Area [82]
[82] 2017
[82] (Intl. $)
per capita
(Intl. $)

[82] 2008-
(latest available)
HDI [83]
FSI [84]
RLI [85]
CPI [86]
IEF [87]
GPI [88]
WPFI [89]
DI [90]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia7,741,22024,598,9331,192,065,505,30148,46034.70.93920.80.817780.91.42515.469.09
Flag of Austria.svg Austria83,8798,809,212461,582,926,40052,39830.50.90826.20.817571.81.26514.048.42
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium30,53011,372,068544,041,974,95847,84027.70.91629.70.777567.51.52513.167.78
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada9,984,67036,708,0831,714,447,151,94446,70534.00.92621.50.818277.71.37115.289.15
Flag of Chile.svg Chile756,09618,054,726444,777,637,16924,63547.70.84340.70.676775.21.59522.697.84
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic78,87010,591,323384,753,663,28336,32725.90.88839.00.745774.21.36021.897.62
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark42,9225,769,603296,350,723,35451,36428.20.92919.80.898876.61.33713.999.22
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia45,2301,315,48041,756,008,08931,74232.70.87143.00.807178.81.71214.087.79
Flag of Finland.svg Finland338,4205,511,303247,269,243,61944,86627.10.92017.90.878574.11.51510.269.03
Flag of France.svg France549,08767,118,6482,876,059,993,39942,85032.70.90132.20.747063.91.83921.877.80
Flag of Germany.svg Germany357,38082,695,0004,187,583,088,23950,63931.70.93625.80.838174.21.50014.398.61
Flag of Greece.svg Greece131,96010,760,421297,008,117,38927,60236.00.87055.30.604857.31.99829.197.29
Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary93,0309,781,127274,926,859,41228,10830.40.83850.20.554566.71.49429.116.64
Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland103,000341,28418,140,165,68953,15327.80.93520.3N/A7777.01.11114.109.58
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland70,2804,813,608364,140,938,83075,64831.80.93820.7N/A7480.41.40814.599.15
Flag of Israel.svg Israel22,0708,712,400333,351,018,35438,26241.40.903N/AN/A6272.22.70730.267.79
Flag of Italy.svg Italy301,34060,551,4162,387,357,093,79339,42735.40.88043.80.655062.51.73724.127.98
Flag of Japan.svg Japan377,962126,785,7975,487,161,155,33243,27932.10.90934.50.797372.31.40828.647.88
Flag of South Korea.svg Korea, South100,28051,466,2011,972,970,735,84238,33531.60.90335.70.725473.81.82323.518.00
Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia64,4901,940,74053,561,181,20627,59834.20.84744.9N/A5873.61.67019.637.25
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania65,2862,827,72190,748,628,81232,09237.40.85839.4N/A5975.31.73222.207.41
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg2,590599,44962,189,692,542103,74533.80.90420.8N/A8276.4N/A14.728.81
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico1,964,380129,163,2762,358,275,520,12618,25843.40.77471.50.452964.82.64648.916.41
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands41,54017,132,854899,530,829,78352,50328.20.93126.20.858276.21.52510.018.89
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand267,7104,793,900197,072,471,93141,109N/A0.91720.90.838984.21.24113.629.26
Flag of Norway.svg Norway385,1785,282,223324,403,929,57961,41427.50.95318.30.898574.31.4867.639.87
Flag of Poland.svg Poland312,68037,975,8411,102,293,080,83129,026N/A0.86541.50.676068.51.67626.596.67
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal92,22510,293,718326,029,976,81531,67335.50.84727.30.726363.41.25814.177.84
Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia49,0355,439,892171,990,237,34731,61626.50.85542.5N/A5065.31.61120.267.16
Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia20,2702,066,74872,063,812,12634,86825.40.89630.30.676164.81.36421.697.50
Flag of Spain.svg Spain505,94046,572,0281,769,637,042,99637,99836.20.89141.40.705765.11.56820.518.08
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden447,42010,067,744505,482,949,46950,20829.20.93320.80.868476.31.5168.319.39
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland41,2908,466,017547,853,971,54364,71232.30.94419.2N/A8581.71.37311.279.03
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey785,35080,745,0202,140,141,581,68526,50541.90.79182.20.424065.42.77753.504.88
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom243,61066,022,2732,856,703,440,28943,26933.20.92234.30.818278.01.78623.258.53
Flag of the United States.svg United States9,831,510325,719,17819,390,604,000,00059,53241.50.92437.70.737575.72.23223.737.98
Country Area
(Intl. $)
per capita

(Intl. $)

(latest available)
  • a The FSI index supplies no figure for Israel per se, but rather provides an average (78.5) for "Israel and West Bank".
  • b OECD total used for indicators 1 through 3; OECD weighted average used for indicator 4; OECD unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 13.
Note: The colours indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).
Highest quartile Upper-mid (3rd quartile)Lower-mid (2nd quartile)Lowest quartile

OECD Composite Leading Indicators and Turning Points

OECD Composite Leading Indicators: Reference Turning Points and Component Series

The components of the Composite Leading Indicators are time series which exhibit leading relationship to the GDP at turning points. Country Composite Leading Indicators are compiled by combining de-trended smoothed and normalized components. The component series for each country are selected based on various criteria such as economic significance; cyclical behaviour; data quality; timeliness and availability.

The turning point detection algorithm is a simplified version of the original Bry and Boschan routine.

See also


  1. "OECD Archives - OECD". www.oecd.org.
  2. Highly Commended certificate in the annual ALPSP/Charlesworth awards from the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers 2002; see article .
  3. The yearbook's website is oecd.org/yearbook.

Related Research Articles

World Trade Organization Intergovernmental trade organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.

Nordic Council geo-political inter-parliamentary forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries

The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries. Formed in 1952, it has 87 representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden as well as from the autonomous areas of the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and the Åland Islands. The representatives are members of parliament in their respective countries or areas and are elected by those parliaments. The Council holds ordinary sessions each year in October/November and usually one extra session per year with a specific theme.

Developed country country with a developed industry and infrastructure

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or more economically developed country (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate.

Pacific Islands Forum

The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between countries and territories of the Pacific Ocean. It was founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum (SPF). In 1999, the name was changed; "Pacific Islands Forum" is more inclusive of the Forum's Oceania-spanning membership of both north and south Pacific island countries, including Australia. It is an observer at the United Nations.

Nuclear Energy Agency

The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an intergovernmental agency that is organized under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Originally formed on 1 February 1958 with the name European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA)—the United States participated as an Associate Member—the name was changed on 20 April 1972 to its current name after Japan became a member.

Bank of Latvia central bank

The Bank of Latvia is the central bank of Latvia. It is one of the key public institutions and carries out economic functions as prescribed by law. It was established in 1922.

Official development aid (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid. The DAC first used the term in 1969. It is widely used as an indicator of international aid flow. It includes some loans.

Eurasian Economic Community

The Eurasian Economic Community was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states. The organisation originated from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on 29 March 1996, with the treaty on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Community signed on 10 October 2000 in Kazakhstan's capital Astana by Presidents Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus, Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan, Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan, Vladimir Putin of Russia, and Emomali Rahmon of Tajikistan. Uzbekistan joined the community on 7 October 2005, however later withdrew on 16 October 2008.

The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention is an anti-corruption convention of the OECD aimed at reducing political corruption and corporate crime in developing countries, by encouraging sanctions against bribery in international business transactions carried out by companies based in the Convention member countries. Its goal is to create a truly level playing field in today's international business environment. The Convention requires adherents to criminalise acts of offering or giving bribe, but not of soliciting or receiving bribes.

Central and Eastern Europe Geographic region in Europe

Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe, the Baltics, Eastern Europe, and Southeastern Europe (Balkans), usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern Bloc in Europe. Scholarly literature often uses the abbreviations CEE or CEEC for this term. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development also uses the term "Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs)" for a group comprising some of these countries.

The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are an annex to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. They are recommendations providing principles and standards for responsible business conduct for multinational corporations operating in or from countries adhering to the Declaration. The Guidelines are legally nonbinding, but the OECD Investment Committee and its Working Party on Responsible Business Conduct encourage implementation among adherents. Originally, the Declaration and the Guidelines were adopted by the OECD in 1976. The Guidelines were subsequently revised in 1979, 1982, 1984, 1991, 2000 and 2011.

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Development Assistance Committee OECD committee

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is a forum to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty reduction in developing countries. It describes itself as being the "venue and voice" of the world's major donor countries.

Enrico Giovannini

Enrico Giovannini is an Italian economist and statistician, member of the Club of Rome. Since 2002, he has been a full professor of economic statistics at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. He is Senior Fellow of the LUISS "School of European Political Economy", member of the “Commission Economique de la Nation” of the French Government, and co-chair of the "Independent Expert Advisory Group on the Data Revolution for Sustainable Development" established by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. He is also chair and member of several boards of Italian and international organisations. From April 2013 to February 2014 he was Minister of labour and social policies in the Italian government. From August 2009 to April 2013 he was President of the Italian Statistical Institute (Istat). From January 2001 to July 2009, he was Director of Statistics and Chief Statistician of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

The International Transport Forum (ITF) is an inter-governmental organisation within the OECD system. It is the only global body with a mandate for all modes of transport. It acts as a think tank for transport policy issues and organises the annual global summit of transport ministers. The ITF's motto is "Global dialogue for better transport". Between 1953–2007, the organisation had existed for over fifty years as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport.

A screening information dataset (SIDS) is a study of the hazards associated with a particular chemical substance or group of related substances, prepared under the auspices of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The substances studied are high production volume (HPV) chemicals, which are manufactured or imported in quantities of more than 1000 tonnes per year for any single OECD market.

The OECD Environmental Performance Reviews programme provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving domestic and international environmental policy commitments. The programme has completed over 60 reviews that aim to help improve individual and collective performance in environmental management by: promoting peer learning; enhancing countries’ accountability to each other and to the public; and helping governments to assess progress in achieving their environmental goals.

OECD Development Centre organization

The OECD Development Centre was established in 1961 as an independent platform for knowledge sharing and policy dialogue between Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries and developing economies, allowing these countries to interact on an equal footing.

Global Green Growth Institute An organisation promoting sustainable development

The Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) is a treaty-based international organization headquartered in Seoul, South Korea. The organization aims to promote green growth, a growth paradigm that is characterized by a balance of economic growth and environmental sustainability. GGGI provides research and stakeholder engagement for green growth plans, especially in developing countries, aiming to replace the more typical paradigm based on industrial development.


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