|Full name||Open Researcher and Contributor ID|
|Introduced||16 October 2012|
|No. of digits||16|
|Check digit||MOD 11-2|
The ORCID ( // (
The ORCID organization, ORCID Inc., offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for contributor identification in research and academic publishing. On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry servicesand started issuing user identifiers.
ORCID was first announced in 2009 as a collaborative effort by the research community "to resolve the author name ambiguity problem in scholarly communication".The "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative" - hence the name ORCID - was created temporarily prior to incorporation.
A prototype was developed on software adapted from that used by Thomson Reuters for its ResearcherID system.ORCID, Inc. was incorporated as an independent nonprofit organization in August 2010 in Delaware, United States of America, with an international board of directors. Its executive Director, Laurel Haak, was appointed in April 2012. From 2016, the board is chaired by Veronique Kiermer of PLOS (the former chair was Ed Pentz of Crossref). ORCID is freely usable and interoperable with other ID systems. ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers on 16 October 2012.
Formally, ORCID iDs are specified as URIs, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097 (both https:// and http:// forms are supported; the former became canonical in November 2017 ). However, some publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-1825-0097" (as a URN).for example, the ORCID iD for Josiah S. Carberry (a fictitious professor whose iD is used in examples and testing) is
ORCID iDs are a subset of the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI),under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (as ISO 27729), and the two organizations are cooperating. ISNI will uniquely identify contributors to books, television programmes, and newspapers, and has reserved a block of identifiers for use by ORCID, in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to 0000-0003-5000-0001. It is therefore possible for a person to legitimately have both an ISNI and an ORCID iD – effectively, two ISNIs.
Both ORCID and ISNI use 16-character identifiers, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9079-593X ), is a MOD 11-2 check digit conforming to the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard.using the digits 0–9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens. The final character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10" (for example, Stephen Hawking's ORCID iD is
The aim of ORCID is to aid "the transition from science to e-Science, wherein scholarly publications can be mined to spot links and ideas hidden in the ever-growing volume of scholarly literature".Another suggested use is to provide each researcher with "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list". The idea is that other organizations will use the open-access ORCID database to build their own services.
It has been noted in an editorial in Nature that ORCID, in addition to tagging the contributions that scientists make to papers, "could also be assigned to data sets they helped to generate, comments on their colleagues’ blog posts or unpublished draft papers, edits of Wikipedia entries and much else besides".
In April 2014, ORCID announced plans to work with the Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information to record and acknowledge contributions to peer review.
In an open letter dated 1 January 2016 eight publishers, including the Royal Society, the American Geophysical Union, Hindawi, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, PLOS, and Science, committed to requiring all authors in their journals to have an ORCID iD.
By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations and over 460,000 registrants. As of 1 January 2020 [update] , the number of live accounts reported by ORCID was 7,765,228. The organizational members include many research institutions such as Caltech and Cornell University, and publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Nature Publishing Group. There are also commercial companies including Thomson Reuters, academic societies and funding bodies.On 15 November 2014, ORCID announced the one-millionth registration.
Grant-making bodies such as the Wellcome Trust (a charitable foundation) have also begun to mandate that applicants for funding provide an ORCID identifier.
In several countries, consortia, including government bodies as partners, are operating at a national level to implement ORCID. For example, in Italy, seventy universities and four research centres are collaborating under the auspices of the Conference of Italian University Rectors(CRUI) and the National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research Institutes (ANVUR), in a project implemented by Cineca, a not-for-profit consortium representing the universities, research institutions, and the Ministry of Education. In Australia, the government's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian Research Council (ARC) "encourage all researchers applying for funding to have an ORCID identifier". The French scientific article repository HAL is also inviting its users to enter their ORCID iD.
In addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other services have included ORCID in their workflows or databases. For example, the Journal of Neuroscience ,Springer Publishing, the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Europe PMC, the Japanese National Institute of Informatics's Researcher Name Resolver, Wikipedia, and Wikidata.
Some online services have created tools for exporting data to, or importing data from, ORCID. These include Scopus,Figshare, Thomson Reuters' ResearcherID system, Researchfish, the British Library (for their EThOS thesis catalogue), ProQuest (for their ProQuest Dissertations and Theses service), and Frontiers Loop.
In October 2015, DataCite, Crossref and ORCID announced that the former organisations would update ORCID records, "when an ORCID identifier is found in newly registered DOI names".
Third-party tools allow the migration of content from other services into ORCID, for example Mendeley2ORCID, for Mendeley.
Some ORCID data may also be retrieved as RDF/XML, RDF Turtle, XML or JSON.ORCID uses GitHub as its code repository.
| Wikidata has the property: |
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.
Scopus is Elsevier’s abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences. It covers three types of sources: book series, journals, and trade journals. All journals covered in the Scopus database, regardless of who they are published under, are reviewed each year to ensure high quality standards are maintained. Searches in Scopus also incorporate searches of patent databases. Scopus gives four types of quality measure for each title; those are h-Index, CiteScore, SJR and SNIP.
In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers.
With reference to a given set of objects, a unique identifier (UID) is any identifier which is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objects and for a specific purpose. The concept have been formalized early in Computer science and Information systems, in general associating it to an atomic data type.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation is a commercial publisher of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) literature. Founded in 1997, Hindawi currently publishes more than 230 peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as a number of scholarly monographs, with an annual output of roughly 20,000 articles each year. As of April 2019, 71 (30%) of its journals were indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded, with a further 107 (46%) journals indexed in the Emerging Sources Citation Index. The company has its headquarters in London, an office in Cairo and a virtual office address in New York City. Since 2007, all of Hindawi's journals have been open access and published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY). It is a founding member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, a participating publisher and supporter of the Initiative for Open Citations, and a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Crossref is an official Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Registration Agency of the International DOI Foundation. It is run by the Publishers International Linking Association Inc. (PILA) and was launched in early 2000 as a cooperative effort among publishers to enable persistent cross-publisher citation linking in online academic journals.
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks.
Hubert Chanson is a hydraulic engineering and applied fluid mechanics academic. Since 1990 he has worked at the University of Queensland.
ResearcherID is an identifying system for scientific authors. The system was introduced in January 2008 by Thomson Reuters.
In the Dutch research system, the Digital Author Identifier (DAI) system assigns a unique number to all academic authors as a form of authority control. The DAI links the PICA database in institutional libraries with the METIS national research information system.
The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC).
The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors who create and maintain the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Individual contributors are known as "Wikipedians". OxfordDictionaries.com added the word "Wikipedian" in August 2012.
Frontiers Media SA is an academic publisher of peer-reviewed open access scientific journals currently active in science, technology, and medicine. It was founded in 2007 by a group of neuroscientists, including Henry and Kamila Markram, and later expanded to other academic fields. Frontiers is based in Lausanne, Switzerland, with other offices in London, Madrid, Seattle and Brussels. All Frontiers journals are published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).
Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word is also used as a count noun: a taxonomy, or taxonomic scheme, is a particular classification. The word finds its roots in the Greek language τάξις, taxis and νόμος, nomos. Originally, taxonomy referred only to the classification of organisms or a particular classification of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a classification of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a classification. Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which is dealing with the classification of parts of a whole.
Figshare is an online open access repository where researchers can preserve and share their research outputs, including figures, datasets, images, and videos. It is free to upload content and free to access, in adherence to the principle of open data. Figshare is one of a number of portfolio businesses supported by Digital Science.
In computing, a Research Object is a method for the identification, aggregation and exchange of scholarly information on the Web. The primary goal of the research object approach is to provide a mechanism to associate related resources about a scientific investigation so that they can be shared using a single identifier. As such, research objects are an advanced form of Enhanced publication.
A Ringgold Identifier is a persistent numeric unique identifier for organizations in the publishing industry supply chain. Ringgold's Identify Database includes almost 500,000 Ringgold IDs representing organizations and consortia who acquire scholarly publications and content.
The Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC) is a project launched publicly in April 2017, that describes itself as:
a collaboration between scholarly publishers, researchers, and other interested parties to promote the unrestricted availability of scholarly citation data and to make these data available.
Paul Harvey Peters is the Chief Executive Officer of the Open Access publisher Hindawi. He is also Chair of the Board of Crossref and was President of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) from 2013 to 2019. Peters is known for his work as an advocate for Open Access, open infrastructure for Open Science, and research integrity in the published literature.
María Guðjónsdóttir is a professor of food science at the University of Iceland.
ORCID also announced today that Thomson Reuters has provided ORCID with a perpetual license and royalty free use of ResearcherID code and intellectual property, giving ORCID the critical technology to create its system.[ dead link ]
Josiah Carberry is a fictitious person.
It’s official! 1M of you have an ORCID iD! We thank the community, and look forward to continued collaboration.