O Estado de S. Paulo

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O Estado de S. Paulo
O Estado de S. Paulo Logo.svg
Type Daily newspaper
Format Broadsheet
Owner(s)Grupo Estado
Founder(s)José Maria Lisboa
Francisco Rangel Pestana
Américo de Campos
EditorRoberto Gazzi
Opinion editorRicardo Gandour
FoundedJanuary 4, 1875;144 years ago (1875-01-04)
HeadquartersAv. Eng. Caetano Álvares, 55
São Paulo, SP 02598-900
CountryBrazil
Circulation 250,045 (average circulation in the first quarter of 2015) [1]
ISSN 1516-2931
Website www.estadao.com.br

O Estado de S. Paulo (Portuguese pronunciation:  [u isˈtadu dʒi sɐ̃w̃ ˈpawlu] , The State of São Paulo), also known as O Estadão or simply Estadão, is a daily newspaper published in the Metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, and distributed mainly nationally. It is owned by Grupo Estado, a holding company which publishes the Jornal da Tarde and owns the radios Rádio Eldorado AM and FM and the Agência Estado, largest news agency in Brazil.

Newspaper scheduled publication containing news of events, articles, features, editorials, and advertising

A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background.

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.

Jornal da Tarde, often abbreviated JT, was a daily newspaper in São Paulo, Brazil. The paper was published by Grupo Estado, the owner of other prominent Brazilian news media such as O Estado de S. Paulo and Rádio Eldorado. It was founded in 1966 by the journalist Mino Carta in an attempt to introduce new journalism to Brazil.

Contents

It has the second largest circulation in the City of São Paulo, only behind Folha de S.Paulo , and the fourth largest overall in Brazil. It is nicknamed the Estadão (lit. "Big State"). The journal was founded relying on republican ideals on January 4, 1875, and was firstly called A Província de São Paulo [2] ("The Province of São Paulo").

São Paulo Municipality in Brazil

São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world. The municipality is also the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil. It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment. The name of the city honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

Folha de S.Paulo, also known as Folha de São Paulo, or simply Folha, is a Brazilian daily newspaper founded in 1921 under the name Folha da Noite and published in São Paulo by the Folha da Manhã company.

In a 2007 ad campaign, the motto of the newspaper is Estadão, o jornal que pensa ÃO ("Estadão, the newspaper that thinks ÃO [big]"). -ão is a Portuguese augmentative suffix.

The current publisher is "O Estado de S. Paulo S.A." [3]

History

The term Província ("Province") was preserved until January 1890, one month after the fall of the monarchy and the regime change to the republican institution in Brazil. [2] Although the newspaper supported the change, it showed that it was completely independent, refusing even to serve its interests to the ascendant Republican Party of São Paulo.

Current symbol of the newspaper. Bernard Gregoire.JPG
Current symbol of the newspaper.

When the then editor in chief Francisco Rangel Pestana left to work in a project of the Constitution, in Petrópolis, the young editor Julio de Mesquita effectively took on the direction of Estado and initiated a series of innovations. One of the innovations was the engagement of the agency Havas, back then the largest in the world.

Petrópolis Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Petrópolis, also known as The Imperial City, is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil, located 68 kilometres (42 mi) northeast of Rio de Janeiro. According to the 2010 National Brazilian Census, Petrópolis municipality had 305,917 inhabitants that year, up from 286,537 inhabitants at the last census. Besides being the largest and most populous city in the Fluminense Mountain Region, the city also has the largest GDP and HDI in the region. Petrópolis is considered the safest city in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the sixth safest city in Brazil, according to IPEA classification for medium and large cities.

Havas SA is a French multinational advertising and public relations company, headquartered in Paris, France. It operates in more than 100 countries and is one of the largest global advertising and communications groups in the world. Havas consists of three main operational divisions:

The Estadão pioneered the newspaper selling system in 1875, when it was sold on the streets, instead of the subscription-only system adopted by all other newspapers in Brazil before. As first, this new way of selling motivated many jokes and mockery, but ultimately all rivals adopted the same system. Today, newspapers in Brazil are sold in small street newspapers/magazines shops, and by single sellers located in main avenues of the biggest cities. Back in the 19th century, the Estadão was sold by only one man, a French immigrant, who carried his newspapers in a bag, while riding a horse, and announcing himself with a cornet.

19th century

In the end of the 19th century, the Estado was already the largest newspaper in São Paulo, overcoming the Correio Paulistano . Property of the Mesquita family since 1902, [4] the Estado supported the Allied cause in World War I, suffering reprisal from the German community in the city, which removed all advertising announcements pertaining to them from the newspaper. Despite this, the Mesquitas maintained their eidtorial position. During the war, the afternoon edition of the newspaper began to circulate around the country. It was known as Estadinho (lit. "Little Estado"), directed by the then young Júlio de Mesquita Filho.

In 1924, the newspaper Estado was banned from circulating for the first time, after the defeat of the tenants' rebellion that shook the entire city. Julio Mesquita, who tried to mediate a dialogue between the rebels and the government, was imprisoned and taken to Rio de Janeiro, being freed shortly later. [5]

With the death of the old director of 1927, his son Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed the directory along with his brother Franscisco, the latter taking care of the financial parts of the newspaper.

In 1930 the Estado, connected to the Democratic Party, supported the candidature of Getúlio Vargas for the Liberal Alliance. [5] With the victory of Vargas, the newspaper saw the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 as a mark of the end of the oligarchy system. [5]

The so-called Grupo Estado assumed in 1932 the leadership of the constitutionalist revolution. With its defeat, many people from the directory were exiled, including Júlio de Mesquita Filho and Francisco Mesquita [5] One year later, in the month of August, Getúlio Vargas invited Armando de Salles Oliveira to be the governor in São Paulo. Armando Salles, son-in-law of Júlio Mesquita (already deceased by then), imposed as a condition to accept the job the amnesty of the rebels of 1932 and a convocation of a constituent assembly. Vargas agreed and Júlio de Mesquita Filho and Francisco Mesquita, as well as other exiled people returned to Brazil. [6]

Headquarters of the newspaper, on the Marginal Tiete. Sede de O Estado de Sao Paulo 01.jpg
Headquarters of the newspaper, on the Marginal Tietê.

Years later, with the appearance of the "Estado Novo", the newspaper maintained the opposition to the regime and, in March 1940, it was invaded by DOPS (part of the government that controlled and restrained people and movements that were against the regime in the Estado Novo) and the paper was altered by them to state that, with absurdity and mockery, "guns were arrested" in the redaction. The newspaper was initially closed and afterwards was confiscated by the dictatorship, being administrated by DIP (Department of the Press [Port."Imprense"] and Propaganda) until 1945, when the Estado was given back by the Supreme Federal Court to its legitimate owners. The numbers published during this governmental intervention are not considered part of the actual history of the paper.

Shortly after World War II the Estado enjoyed great advances, with the increase in editing and of its good reputation. In the 1950s, the Major Quedinho Street headquarters were built, adjacent to the Hotel Jaraguá. That was the phase when the section Internacional ("International") of the newspaper, directed by the journalist Giannino Carta and by Ruy Mesquita, became known as the most complete in any national newspaper. From that time until the 1970s, O Estado showed almost exclusively international news on its first page. Đ

República Nova

During the República Nova ("New Republic") (1946–1964) the Estado profiled itself to the National Democratic Union of Carlos Lacerda and opposed all the other governments, especially João Goulart. In 1954, O Estado de S. Paulo led a national campaign against the elected democratic President, Getúlio Vargas, forcing him unto suicide. In 1962, the director Julio de Mesquita Filho even wrote a Roteiro da Revolução ("Guide to Revolution"), trying to unify the opposition of civilians to the army, the then called "boasting party", that from the beginning of the Republic used to intervene in Brazilian politics. In 1964, the Estado supported the military coup [6] and the indirect election of Castelo Branco. Shortly after the Institutional Act n° 2, that dissolved the other political parties, the journal broke from the regime. [6]

Censorship

On November 13, 1968, the Estado editor was arrested because of Mesquita Filho's refusal to eliminate from the section Notas e Informações ("Notes and Information") the editorial Instituições em Frangalhos ("Institutions in Frazzles"). [7] where he denounced the end of any normal and simple democratic appearance. From then on, the newspaper began disputing censored editions of its news by the Brazilian Federal Police, unlike other national newspapers that accepted to be censored.

With the death of Mesquita Filho, the Estado was directed by Julio de Mesquita Neto. Then, the newspaper gained worldwide visibility when it denounced the preemptive censorship of articles by replacing them with verses of the Portuguese classic The Lusiads, by Luís de Camões. [7] In 1974, it received the Golden Pen of Freedom Award , bestowed by the International Federation of Editions and Newspapers. [7]

1970s

In the 1970s, the newspaper ran into debt because of the construction of its new headquarters by the Tietê river and went through a financial crisis, competing with a new standard of journalism represented by Folha de S. Paulo.

1980s

In 1986, the Estado hired the renowned journalist Augusto Nunes to be its chief editor. He updated the news bulletin of Estado and endeavored a series of reformed graphics, that would result in the adoption, in 1991, of colored printing in daily editions. Before that, Estado was not issued on Monday and holidays.

1990s

In 1996, Julio de Mesquita Neto died and Ruy Mesquita, his brother, became the new director. Previously, Ruy directed Jornal da Tarde, owned by the Estado network.

Grupo Estado

After an unsuccessful experience in the area of telecommunications, the Estado network passed by a restructuring in 2003 and most of the Mesquita family lost their directing roles. Massive layoffs also occurred.

After balancing its budget, the Estado endeavored new graphic reformulation in October 2004. It also created new notebooks and received many prizes for excellence in graphic display.

Other than the newspaper O Estado de S. Paulo, the Estado network has control over the OESP Mídia (1984), company that runs advertisements. Owned by Grupo Estado are the radios Rádio Eldorado AM and FM (1972) and the Estado Agency (1970), largest news agency in Brazil. Jornal da Tarde (1966) [6] was discontinued [8] in 2012.

In 2013, another big reorganization [9] followed. Employees were laid off, the paper reduced its numbers of pages by canceling some sections and mixing a others.

Political position

The oldest of all the sections, known as Notas e Informações ("Notes and Information"), always seen on page 3, presents a republican institutionalist view, emphasizing liberty of expression, economic liberalism and Rechtsstaat, being one of flagship columns of O Estado de S. Paulo. It was, initially, a supporter of the 1964 military coup d'état in Brazil and of the dictatorship then installed. [10] Up to this day, the newspapper is said to hold "right-wing" or "conservative" positions in the Brazilian political spectrum. [11]

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References

  1. Sacchitiello, Barbara (26 May 2015). "Circulação dos cinco grandes jornais cresce". Meio&Mensagem (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  2. 1 2 (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo
  3. "Espaço Aberto", O Estado de S. Paulo, 17/2/2008, page A2.
  4. (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.3)
  5. 1 2 3 4 (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.4)
  6. 1 2 3 4 (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.5)
  7. 1 2 3 (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.6)
  8. "Jornal da Tarde deixará de circular após 46 anos; Grupo Estado fala em reduzir custos - Notícias - Cotidiano". Cotidiano (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2017-02-23.
  9. "Jornal O Estado de S. Paulo anuncia reestruturação e cortes | EXAME.com - Negócios, economia, tecnologia e carreira". exame.abril.com.br (in Portuguese). 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2017-02-23.
  10. http://www.revistaforum.com.br/mariafro/2014/03/31/a-midia-monopolizada-o-globo-jb-estado-de-s-paulo-folha-de-s-paulo-etc-apoiou-o-golpe-de-1964-que-depos-o-presidente-joao-goulart/ Revista Forum
  11. http://www.compolitica.org/home/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/GT08-Jornalismo-politico-EleonoraDeMagalhaesCarvalho.pdf Eleonora de Magalhães Carvalho (2013). «Imprensa e poder: politização ou partidarização dos jornais brasileiros» (PDF). Universidade Federal Fluminense. ISSN 2236-6490.

Further reading