Obec

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Signs showing the border of two municipalities Libis, Melnicka 2, z Neratovic z Mladeznicke, tabule hranice obci.jpg
Signs showing the border of two municipalities

Obec (plural: obce) is the Czech and Slovak word for a municipality (in the Czech Republic, in Slovakia and abroad). The literal meaning of the word is "commune" or "community". It is the smallest administrative unit that is governed by elected representatives. Cities and towns are also municipalities.

Contents

Definition

Legal definition (according to the Czech code of law [1] with similar definition in the Slovak code of law [2] ) is: "The municipality is a basic territorial self-governing community of citizens; it forms a territorial unit, which is defined by the boundary of the municipality."

Every municipality is composed of one or more cadastral areas. Every municipality is composed of one or more administrative parts, usually called town parts or villages. A municipality can have its own flag and coat of arms. [1] [2]

Czech Republic

Almost whole area of the republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being military training areas. The smaller municipalities consist only of one village. A municipality has mostly the same name as the settlement which is the most populated and where is the municipal office. However there are many exceptions, for example municipalities created by merger of formerly separate municipalities (like Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav or Orlické Podhůří).

A municipality can obtain the title of a city (Czech : statutární město), town (Czech : město) or market town (Czech : městys). While all of them are municipalities from the point of view of the law, they are usually referred by its title and not as municipalities, and municipalities without status are called just municipalities. Statutory cities can have self-governing subdivisions, so-called city parts or city districts, which have standing partly similar to small municipalities. [1] Town and market towns are above all ceremonious honorary degrees, referring to population, history and regional significance of a municipality. History and regional significance are reasons, why a small municipality can have the status of a town or market town, and why more populated municipalities don't have any status.

A special type of municipality is the capital Prague, which has simultaneously the status of a municipality and the status of a region and which is treated by special law. [3]

The law makes it possible to restitute by request a status of town for every municipality which lost it (during communist period). A municipality, which want to acquire status of town and never was a town before, must have population over 3,000 and the improvement in status is subject of assessment by chairman of the parliament. For market town status population is not a condition. [1] The newest Czech town is Štěpánov, which obtained the status in July 2020. [4]

Some of municipalities have extended competencies of delegated state administration (pověřená obec, obec s rozšířenou působností) for the territory of the municipality and for surrounding municipalities. [5]

Statistics

Count of municipalities by category of population (as of January 2020) [6]
TotalCitiesTownsMarket townsMunicipalities without status
Over 99,99966
50,000–99,9991212
25,000–49,99923914
10,000–24,9998888
5,000–9,9991471443
2,500–4,999280180793
1,000–2,499927125111691
500–9991,36816871,265
Under 5003,40313233,367
Total6,254275802285,419
Population in municipalities by status (as of January 2020) [6]
TotalCitiesTownsMarket townsMunicipalities without status
Average1,709135,1886,4181,166564
Median41666,0344,1361,029371
Minimum1535,002 (Třinec)73 (Přebuz)134 (Levín)15 (Vysoká Lhota)
Maximum1,324,2771,324,277 (Prague)37,525 (Česká Lípa)3,575 (Nehvizdy)5,384 (Petrovice u Karviné)
Total10,693,9393,650,0763,722,529264,9273,056,407

The smallest municipalities by area are Závist (0.42 km2) and Strukov (0.53 km2). The biggest are the cities of Prague (496.21 km2), Brno (230.18 km2) and Ostrava (214.23 km2), and the town of Ralsko (170.23 km2, including a former military area, with only 2,000 inhabitants). [7]

List of municipalities

Slovakia

As of 2020, there are 2,890 municipalities in Slovakia, with 141 of them being a city or a town. [8]

After meeting certain conditions such as population over 5,000, being well accessible, having cultural or economical significance and having an urban style of settlement an obec can be declared a town ("mesto"). [2]

Related Research Articles

Uherské Hradiště Town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Uherské Hradiště is a town in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It is located 23 km (14 mi) southwest of Zlín on the Morava River. It is the capital of the Uherské Hradiště District. The town itself has a population of around 25,000. The agglomeration with the two neighbouring towns of Staré Město and Kunovice has over 38,000 people.

Nepomuk Town in Plzeň, Czech Republic

Nepomuk is a town in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 3,700 inhabitants. It is known as the birthplace of Saint John of Nepomuk who was born here in around 1340 and whose statue can be seen on the town square.

Statutory city (Czech Republic)

In Czech politics, a statutory city is a municipal corporation which has been granted city status by Act of Parliament. It is more prestigious than the simple title město ("town"), which can be awarded by the cabinet and chair of the Chamber of Deputies to a municipality which applies for it. Statutory city status is partially ceremonial; the mayor is called primátor, rather than the starosta of other municipalities. Statutory cities are allowed to subdivide into self-governing boroughs with their own elected councils; such a statutory city has to issue a statute that delimits power to boroughs. As of 2016 only seven of then total 25 statutory cities have done so. Also the capital of Prague, while not being de iure statutory city, is subdivided into similar self-governing boroughs.

Mikulov Town in South Moravian Region, Czech Republic

Mikulov is a town in Břeclav District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 7,500 inhabitants. The historic centre of Mikulov is well preserved and historically significant and is protected by law as urban monument reservation.

Bojkovice Town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Bojkovice is a town in Uherské Hradiště District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 4,400 inhabitants. It is part of the cultural region of Slovácko. It lies in the White Carpathian Mountains, which has the status of a protected landscape area.

Mirovice Town in South Bohemian, Czech Republic

Mirovice is a town in Písek District in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 1,600 inhabitants. The centre of the town is historically significant and is protected by law as Urban monument zone.

Kelč Town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Kelč is a town in Vsetín District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 2,700 inhabitants.

Districts of the Czech Republic

In 1960, Czechoslovakia was re-divided into districts often without regard to traditional division and local relationships. In the area of the Czech Republic, there were 75 districts; a 76th Jeseník District was split in the 1990s from Šumperk District. Three consisted only of statutory cities Brno, Ostrava and Plzeň which gained the status of districts only in 1971; the capital city of Prague had a special status, but ten districts of Prague (obvody) were in some ways equivalent to okres.

Koryčany Town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Koryčany is a town in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 2,800 inhabitants.

Brumov-Bylnice Town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Brumov-Bylnice is a town in Zlín District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has a population of about 5,500. It is located 30 km east from Zlín, 5 km from borders with Slovakia. The centre of the town is historically significant and is protected by law as urban monument zone.

Kunovice (Uherské Hradiště District) Town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Kunovice is a town in the Uherské Hradiště District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 5,600 inhabitants.

Velké Bílovice Town in South Moravian, Czech Republic

Velké Bílovice is a town in Břeclav District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 3,900 inhabitants. It is located about 45 km southeast of Brno and 80 km northeast of Vienna. It is the largest grapevine-growing town in the Czech Republic with more than 760 hectares of officially registered vineyards.

Soběslav Town in South Bohemian, Czech Republic

Soběslav is a town in Tábor District in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 6,900 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Lužnice, 7 km northern from Veselí nad Lužnicí and 18 km southern from Tábor. The centre of the town is well preserved and historically significant and is protected by law as urban monument zone.

Morkovice-Slížany Town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Morkovice-Slížany is a town in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 2,900 inhabitants.

Městys, translated as "market town", is a status conferred on certain municipalities in the Czech Republic, lying in terms of size and importance higher than that of simple obec (municipality), but lower than that of město.

Staré Město pod Landštejnem Market town in South Bohemian, Czech Republic

Staré Město pod Landštejnem is a market town in Jindřichův Hradec District in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 500 inhabitants.

Pozlovice Market town in Zlín, Czech Republic

Pozlovice is a market town in Zlín District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 1,300 inhabitants.

Prague City Hall

Prague City Hall is municipal and regional office of Prague the capital of Czech Republic. It is formed by the Chief Executive of Prague City Hall and other employees of the City of Prague included in this body. Prague City Hall performs tasks assigned by Prague City Assembly or Prague City Council, which are democratically elected. As of 2017, it employed 2,091 people and had a budget of 65,193 billion CZK.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Zákon č. 128/2000 Sb. o obcích (obecní zřízení)". zakonyprolidi.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 "Úplné znenie č. 612/2002 Z. z." zakonypreludi.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  3. "Zákon č. 131/2000 Sb. o hlavním městě Praze". zakonyprolidi.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  4. "Ze Štěpánova se stalo město. Chce si tak zachovat stavební úřad či matriku" (in Czech). Olomoucký deník. 7 August 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  5. "Zákon č. 314/2002 Sb. o stanovení obcí s pověřeným obecním úřadem". zakonyprolidi.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  6. 1 2 "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2020". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2020.
  7. "Public database: All about territory". vdb.czso.cz. Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  8. "Slovenská republika – sumárne údaje". sodbtn.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 17 September 2020.

See also