Ober's test

Last updated
Ober's test
Medical diagnostics
Purposeidentify tightness of the iliotibial band

Ober's test is used in physical examination to identify tightness of the iliotibial band (iliotibial band syndrome). During the test, the patient lies on his/her side with the unaffected leg on the bottom with their shoulder and pelvis in line. The lower hip and knee can be in a flexed position to take out any lordosis of the lumbar spine. [1]

Physical examination Process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination, is the process by which a medical practitioner examines the body of a patient for any possible signs or symptoms of a medical condition. It generally consists of a series of questions regarding patient medical history followed by an examination of the symptoms. Together, the medical history and the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record.

Tension (physics) pulling force transmitted axially by means of a string, cable, chain, or similar 1D continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or 3D object; action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements; opposite of compression

In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements. Tension could be the opposite of compression.

No studies support the validity of the Ober test for measuring iliotibial band tightness. [2]

Procedure

Steps for performing the test

  1. With the patient lying in the lateral position, support the knee and flex it to 90 degrees. Then extend and abduct the hip. Then release the knee support. Failure of the knee to adduct is a positive test.
  2. The examiner places a stabilizing hand on the patient's upper iliac crest and then lifts the upper leg, which is flexed at the knee, extends it at the hip, and slowly lowers it toward the bottom leg, allowing the thigh to lower towards the table. The examiner must continue to stabilize at the hip to ensure there is no movement. The test result is positive if the patient is unable to adduct the leg parallel to the table in a neutral position.

Related Research Articles

Human leg lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region. However, the definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle, also known as the crus. Legs are used for standing, and all forms of locomotion including recreational such as dancing, and constitute a significant portion of a person's mass. Female legs generally have greater hip anteversion and tibiofemoral angles, but shorter femur and tibial lengths than those in males.

Iliotibial band syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common injury to the knee, generally associated with running, cycling, hiking or weight-lifting.

Gluteus maximus largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles

The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips. Its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks.

The psoas sign, also known as Cope's psoas test or Obraztsova's sign, is a medical sign that indicates irritation to the iliopsoas group of hip flexors in the abdomen, and consequently indicates that the inflamed appendix is retrocaecal in orientation.

Tensor fasciae latae muscle

The tensor fasciae latae is a muscle of the thigh. It is related to the gluteus maximus in function and structure and is continuous with the iliotibial tract, which attaches to the tibia. The muscle assists in keeping the balance of the pelvis while standing, walking, or running.

Snapping hip syndrome

Snapping hip syndrome is a medical condition characterized by a snapping sensation felt when the hip is flexed and extended. This may be accompanied by an audible snapping or popping noise and pain or discomfort. Pain often decreases with rest and diminished activity. Snapping hip syndrome is commonly classified by the location of the snapping as either extra-articular or intra-articular.

Fascia lata deep fascia of the thigh

The fascia lata is the deep fascia of the thigh. It encloses the thigh muscles and forms the outer limit of the fascial compartments of thigh, which are internally separated by intermuscular septa. The fascia lata is thickened at its lateral side where it forms the iliotibial tract, a structure that runs to the tibia and serves as a site of muscle attachment.

Gaenslen's test, also known as Gaenslen's maneuver, is a medical test used to detect musculoskeletal abnormalities and primary-chronic inflammation of the lumbar vertebrae and sacroiliac joint. This test is often used to test for spondyloarthritis, sciatica, or other forms of rheumatism, and is often performed during checkup visits in patients who have been diagnosed with one of the former disorders. It is named after Frederick Julius Gaenslen, the orthopedic surgeon who invented the test. This test is often performed alongside Patrick's test and Yeoman's test.

Iliotibial tract

The iliotibial tract or iliotibial band is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascia lata. The action of the ITB and its associated muscles is to extend, abduct, and laterally rotate the hip. In addition, the ITB contributes to lateral knee stabilization. During knee extension the ITB moves anterior to the lateral condyle of the femur, while ~30 degrees knee flexion, the ITB moves posterior to the lateral condyle. However, it has been suggested that this is only an illusion due to the changing tension in the anterior and posterior fibers during movement. It originates at the anterolateral iliac tubercle portion of the external lip of the iliac crest and inserts at the lateral condyle of the tibia at Gerdy's tubercle. The figure shows only the proximal part of the iliotibial tract.

The knee examination, in medicine and physiotherapy, is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with knee pain or a history that suggests a pathology of the knee joint.

In medicine, physiotherapy, chiropractic, and osteopathy the hip examination, or hip exam, is undertaken when a patient has a complaint of hip pain and/or signs and/or symptoms suggestive of hip joint pathology. It is a physical examination maneuver.

Roman chair

The Roman chair is a piece of exercise equipment. The equipment is mainly used for the lower back, but can also target the gluteal muscles, hamstring and abdominals. The definition of the equipment, and what 'Roman chair exercise' specifically means, is not clear.

A GALS screen is an examination used by doctors and other healthcare professionals to detect locomotor abnormalities and functional disability relating to gait, arms, legs and the spine.

This test is one of the three major tests for assessing anterior cruciate injury or laxity, the other two being the anterior drawer and Lachman test. However, unlike the other two, it tests for instability, an important determinant as to how the knee will function. In fact, it is instability, not simply the injury to the anterior cruciate ligament itself, that places the menisci at future risk, and gives rise to the feeling that the "knee is not secure" or "may give out".

The Trendelenburg Test or Brodie-Trendelenburg test is a test which can be carried out as part of a physical examination to determine the competency of the valves in the superficial and deep veins of the legs in patients with varicose veins.

The leg raise is a strength training exercise which targets the iliopsoas. Because the abdominal muscles are used isometrically to stabilize the body during the motion, leg raises are also often used to strengthen the rectus abdominis muscle and the internal and external oblique muscles.

The Thomas test is a physical examination test, named after Dr. Hugh Owen Thomas (1834–1891), a British orthopaedic surgeon, used to rule out hip flexion contracture and psoas syndrome. Often associated with runners, dancers, and gymnasts who complain of hip "stiffness" and reported "snapping" feeling when flexing at the waist.

Sacroiliac joint dysfunction

Sacroiliac joint dysfunction generally refers to pain in the sacroiliac joint region that is caused by abnormal motion in the sacroiliac joint, either too much motion or too little motion. It typically results in inflammation of the sacroiliac joint, and can be debilitating.

Posterolateral corner injuries of the knee are injuries to a complex area formed by the interaction of multiple structures. Injuries to the posterolateral corner can be debilitating to the person and require recognition and treatment to avoid long term consequences. Injuries to the PLC often occur in combination with other ligamentous injuries to the knee; most commonly the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). As with any injury, an understanding of the anatomy and functional interactions of the posterolateral corner is important to diagnosing and treating the injury.

Kick (association football) skill in association football in which a player strikes the ball with his or her foot

A kick is a skill in association football in which a player strikes the ball with his or her foot. Association football, more commonly referred to as football and also known as soccer, is a sport played world-wide, with up to 265 million people around the world participating on a yearly basis. Kicking is one of the most difficult skills to acquire in football. This skill is also vitally important, as kicking is the way in which passes are made and the primary means by which goals are scored.

References

  1. Ober, F. R. (1936). "The role of the iliotibial band and fascia lata as a factor in the causation of low-back disabilities and diabilities and sciatica". Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 18: 105–110.
  2. Willett, Gilbert M.; Keim, Sarah A.; Shostrom, Valerie K.; Lomneth, Carol S. (11 January 2016). "An Anatomic Investigation of the Ober Test". The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 44 (3): 696–701. doi:10.1177/0363546515621762.