Oberto (opera)

Last updated
Oberto Conte di San Bonifacio
Opera by Giuseppe Verdi
Bassano-location of Oberto-detail.jpg
The town and citadel of Bassano
where the opera is set
Librettist Temistocle Solera
LanguageItalian
Based onExisting libretto by Antonio Piazza probably called Rocester
Premiere
17 November 1839 (1839-11-17)

Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio is an opera in two acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on an existing libretto by Antonio Piazza probably called Rocester. [1] [2]

Opera artform combining sung text and musical score in a theatrical setting

Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.

Giuseppe Verdi 19th-century Italian opera composer

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history.

Libretto text used for an extended musical work

A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical. The term libretto is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass, requiem and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet.

Contents

It was Verdi's first opera, written over a period of four years, and was first performed at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan, on 17 November 1839. The La Scala production enjoyed "a fair success" and the theatre's impresario, Bartolomeo Merelli, commissioned two further operas from the young composer. [1]

La Scala Opera house in Milan, Italy

La Scala is an opera house in Milan, Italy. The theatre was inaugurated on 3 August 1778 and was originally known as the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala. The premiere performance was Antonio Salieri's Europa riconosciuta.

Milan Italian city

Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres. The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age.

Bartolomeo Merelli Italian impresario and librettist

Bartolomeo Merelli was an Italian impresario and librettist, best known as the manager of the La Scala Milan opera house between 1829 and 1850, and for his support for the young Giuseppe Verdi.

Composition history

Portrait of Verdi, 1839-40 by Molentini Verdi-portrait 1839-40 by Molentini.png
Portrait of Verdi, 1839–40 by Molentini

During his student days in Milan, Verdi began the process of making connections to the world of music in that city which were to stand him in good stead. These included an introduction by his teacher Lavigna to an amateur choral group, the Società Filarmonica, where he functioned as rehearsal director and continuo player for Haydn's The Creation in 1834, as well as conducting Rossini's La cenerentola himself the following year. [3] [4] 1836 saw his involvement in an April concert celebrating Emperor Ferdinand's birthday; for this he wrote a cantata in the Emperor's honour which received some praise.

<i>The Creation</i> (Haydn) musical composition

The Creation is an oratorio written between 1797 and 1798 by Joseph Haydn, and considered by many to be one of his masterpieces. The oratorio depicts and celebrates the creation of the world as described in the Book of Genesis.

But it was after his return to his hometown of Busseto in 1835 to become director of the music school with a three-year contract that Verdi took advantage of the connection he had made to the Filarmonica's director, Pietro Massini. In a series of letters from 1835 to 1837 he informed him about the progress towards writing his first opera using a libretto supplied by Massini which had been written by Antonio Piazza, a Milanese "journalist and man of letters" . [5] By then it had been given the title of Rocester and the young composer expressed hopes of a production in Parma.

However, Parma was not interested in new works and so approaches were made to Milan. Whether Rocester actually became the basis for Oberto when Verdi was able to return to Milan in February 1839 after fulfilling two and a half years of his contract in Busseto is subject to some disagreement amongst scholars. How much of Rocester remained visible in Oberto [6] is discussed by Roger Parker, who does suggest that "in this shape-shifting tendency, the opera was, of course, very much of its time." [3]

In his recollections in 1881 (quoted in Budden) following his return to Milan from Busseto in 1838, Verdi describes how he was invited to meet the La Scala impresario, Bartolomeo Merelli, who had heard a conversation about the music of the opera between soprano Giuseppina Strepponi and Giorgio Ronconi in which she praised it. Merelli then offered to put on Oberto during the 1839 season and, after its premiere, Oberto was given a respectable 13 additional performances.

Giuseppina Strepponi Italian singer

Clelia Maria Josepha (Giuseppina) Strepponi was a nineteenth-century Italian operatic soprano of great renown and the second wife of composer Giuseppe Verdi.

Giorgio Ronconi Italian opera singer

Giorgio Ronconi was an Italian operatic baritone celebrated for his brilliant acting and compelling stage presence. In 1842, he created the title-role in Giuseppe Verdi's Nabucco at La Scala, Milan.

Performance history

19th century

Bass Ignazio Marini was the first Oberto Ignazio Marini.jpg
Bass Ignazio Marini was the first Oberto
Lorenzo Salvi was the first Riccardo Lorenzo Salvi by Josef Kriehuber.jpg
Lorenzo Salvi was the first Riccardo

As noted by Roger Parker, the opera, while having a somewhat limited success at La Scala, did receive revivals over the following three years, during which Verdi took the opportunity to compose new numbers or supply new or revised music to fit particular voices. [7] It appeared in Turin and Milan in 1840, the latter in the autumn after the failure of Verdi's second opera, Un giorno di regno ; again, it was seen in Naples and Genoa (both in 1841), and in Barcelona in 1842. [3]

20th century and beyond

The opera was staged in Parma on 6 September 1913, [8] but it is only occasionally performed today. The British premiere did not take place until 8 April 1965, and then only in a concert version at St Pancras Town Hall. [1] It was not given a staged production until 17 February 1982 at the Bloomsbury Theatre in London. [1] Its American premiere did not take place until 18 February 1978 at the Amato Theatre in New York City, [1] although the San Diego Opera gave the US professional premiere in March 1985 with Ferruccio Furlanetto and Susanne Marsee in the major roles. [9] It is also claimed that Vincent La Selva (of the New York Grand Opera) gave the first New York presentation of the opera [10] as part of the company's comprehensive and chronological "Viva Verdi" series which began in 1994 and which launched performances of all Verdi's operas. Opera North presented the opera during their 1994–5 season with John Tomlinson both directing and performing the title-role. [11] The Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, gave a concert performance in June 1997 with Denyce Graves as Cuniza.

Three opera companies, which plan to present all of Verdi's operas, have given this opera recently. Companies which intend to present all of the composer's works have included Oberto in their schedules in recent years. These are Sarasota Opera which staged it in 2001 as part of their "Verdi Cycle"; the ABAO in Bilbao, Spain, gave performances in January 2007, as part of their "Tutto Verdi" series; and the Teatro Regio di Parma gave it in October 2007 as part of their on-going "Festival Verdi". [12] In 2010 the Berliner Operngruppe under Felix Krieger presented the work in a concert performance in Berlin.

In celebration of the Verdi bicentennial, it was staged by La Scala in April/May 2013. [13]

Roles

Mary Shaw Postans sang the first Cuniza Mary Shaw Postans.jpg
Mary Shaw Postans sang the first Cuniza
RoleVoice typePremiere Cast,
17 November 1839 [14]
(Conductor: Eugenio Cavallini)
Oberto, Count of San Bonifacio bass Ignazio Marini
Leonora, his daughter soprano Antonietta Marini-Rainieri
Cuniza, sister of Ezzelino da Romano mezzo-soprano Mary Shaw
Imelda, Cuniza's confidentmezzo-soprano Marietta Sacchi
Riccardo, Count of Salinguerra tenor Lorenzo Salvi
Lords, ladies, vassals

Synopsis

Temistocle Solera, the librettist of the opera Temistocle Solera.jpg
Temistocle Solera, the librettist of the opera
Time: 1228
Place: Northern Italy, Bassano, at Ezzelino da Romano's castle and nearby

Before the action takes place, a battle has been fought between Oberto, Count of San Boniface, and the Salinguerra, led by Ezzelino da Romano. Oberto has lost and has retreated to Mantua. Meanwhile, his daughter Leonora has been seduced and abandoned by Riccardo, Count of Salinguerra, and Riccardo is about to marry Cuniza, Ezzelino's sister. Leonora makes her way to Bassano on Riccardo's wedding day, intent on confronting him.

Act 1

Scene 1: The countryside near Bassano

Riccardo is welcomed by a chorus as he is about to enter Ezzelino's palace. He sings of his joy at being close to Cuniza (Son fra voi! Già sorto è il giorno...Già parmi udire il fremito – "Here I am amongst you! The day hasted by my desire has now arrived"). They enter the castle. Leonora arrives swearing to avenge Riccardo's desertion and she sings of the love which she had and a hope of recovering those innocent days (Sotto il paterno tetto...Oh potessi nel mio core- "Beneath my father's roof an angel appeared to me"). She leaves to go towards the village. Her father, Oberto, arrives, pleased to be back in his home country but unsure of Leonora's whereabouts. When Leonora returns, each is aware of the other's presence and father and daughter are reunited. They express amazement at having found each other again. But, Oberto's initial anger at Leonora's actions quickly turns to fatherly affection as the pair makes plans to disrupt the wedding.

Scene 2: A room in Ezzelino's palace

The chorus sings a welcome to the happy bride but, alone with Riccardo, Cuniza expresses some forebodings in spite of expressing her love for him. (Questa gioia che il petto m'inonda – "This joy that overwhelms my breast is mingled with a mysterious fear").

After the couple leaves, Leonora enters and is questioned by Imelda. Leonora tells her that her father, Oberto, is also in the palace and, when he enters, she tells Cuniza about her betrayal by Riccardo. Cuniza agrees to help them.

She then hides Oberto in a nearby room and invites Riccardo and his guests to join her. Upon entering, Cuniza reveals Leonora's presence and accuses her lover of infidelity. Riccardo's accusations against Leonora prompt her father to enter and challenge Riccardo to a duel.

Act 2

Scene 1: The princess's private apartments

Cuniza and Imelda are alone and the servant announces that Riccardo wishes to speak to her mistress. Cuniza laments the love she had, but following her aria, Oh, chi torna l'ardente pensiero – "Oh, who can turn my fevered thoughts", she instructs Imelda to tell Riccardo that he should return to Leonora, concluding in Più che i vezzi e lo splendore – "More persuasive to my conscience" that she has made the right decision.

Scene 2: A remote place near the castle gardens

The courtiers gather and express their sympathy for Leonora's plight. As they leave, Oberto enters, waiting for his rival to appear. He proclaims that he will seek vengeance: (Aria: L'orror del tradimento – "The horror of his betrayal"). The courtiers return to tell him that Cuniza has interceded on his behalf and that he has nothing to fear from Riccardo, but Oberto's thoughts still focus on vengeance. Riccardo finally arrives and they begin to fight, but are soon stopped by Cuniza who arrives with Leonora. Cuniza insists that Riccardo admit his infidelity and agrees to marry Leonora. Still determined to fight his rival, Oberto extracts an agreement from Riccardo that they will soon meet in the woods. Oberto leaves the group to go into the woods; all leave. Offstage, the sound of a duel in progress can be heard and it is followed by Riccardo's arrival. He realizes that he has killed Oberto (Aria: Ciel che feci? – "Heavens, what have I done!") and he is filled with remorse. Then Imelda and Cuniza appear explaining that Leonora is prostrate over the dead body of her father. Soon a letter arrives from Riccardo explaining that he has gone into exile leaving everything he possesses to Leonora. In her grief, she announces that she will become a hermit.

Critical reactions

Contemporary critical reactions to Verdi's first effort were mixed, as noted by scholar Francis Toye, writing in 1931, when he quoted two Milanese critics:

"The music of this opera," wrote the paper La Fama, "has much in common with the style of Bellini. There is an abundant, perhaps a too abundant wealth of melody. In some passages where the words demand energy and passion the vocal line is languid and monotonous." The paper then goes on to praise two arias and a quartet in the second act, a judgment shared by the periodical Figaro which, incidentally, advised the composer to make a further study of the classics. As a matter of fact, the quartet in question may be described as an afterthought, Merelli himself having suggested it when Verdi was making certain alterations in the opera to meet the requirements of the new cast. [15]

Julian Budden comments on the performance reviews of the time, especially one which indicates that Verdi's music was not inspired by Donizetti, Bellini, Mercadante nor Rossini, and he states "in detail it owes a little to all of them. But what finally emerges is often subtly different, with a flavour of its own. Above all, it has that ultra-Verdian quality of gathering momentum as it proceeds." [16]

Music

Given the need at the time for composers to take into account singers' strengths and weaknesses, Verdi's writing for the four principals (rather than the more conventional three of that era) who became the cast for the premiere of Oberto well accommodated the limitations of Mary Shaw's voice and played to the strengths of Antonietta Rainieri-Marini's in the lower register. Ignazio Marini, the bass who sang the title role, was "a performer of impressive vocal and dramatic range, for whom Verdi would later write the title role of Attila , notes Parker. [3] He continues by adding that "la Marini" was undoubtedly grateful to Verdi in that it was she who quite probably helped to secure most of the revivals of the opera during the following few years where she appeared as Leonora in four of the five of them. [3]

Agreeing with Parker that the support given to "la Marini" helped with stagings of further performances from 1840 to 1843 (and, therefore, allowed the composer the opportunity to make additions and changes as these performances were played in different cities and with different singers).

For the 1840 revival after the failure of Un giorno di regno , the role of Cuniza was sung by Luigia Abbadia and it was for her that Verdi wrote an entrance aria in act 1 and a duet for Cuniza and Riccardo also in act 1, the latter described as being "full of that intensely condensed melodic expressiveness that will characterise the best of his early music. It is on quite a different level of invention from the rest of Oberto. [3]

Toye notes that, in spite of its weaknesses, the opera:

still compels attention. For instance, the energy of the finale of the first act, at times surprisingly classical in feeling, is remarkable; and the same is true to an even greater extent of the quartet in the second act, certainly the best music in the opera and a fine piece of ensemble writing in which, towards the end, the curious will find an amusing reminiscence of Schubert['s] "Marche Militaire." [17]

Recordings

YearCast
(Oberto,
Leonora,
Cuniza,
Riccardo)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label [18]
1951 Giuseppe Modesti,
Maria Vitale,
Elena Nicolai,
Gino Bonelli
Alfredo Simonetto,
Orchestra and Chorus of RAI Torino
Audio CD: Gala
1983 Rolando Panerai,
Ghena Dimitrova,
Ruža Pospiš-Baldani,
Carlo Bergonzi
Lamberto Gardelli,
Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra,
Chorus of Bavarian Radio
Audio CD: Orfeo
Cat: C 105842
1997 Samuel Ramey,
Maria Guleghina,
Violeta Urmana,
Stuart Neill
Sir Neville Marriner,
Academy of St. Martin in the Fields
London Voices
Audio CD: Philips Classics
Cat: 454 472–2
2007 Ildar Abdrazakov,
Evelyn Herlitzius,
Marianne Cornetti,
Carlo Ventre
Yves Abel,
Orquestra Sinfonica del Principado de Asturias,
Chorus of Opéra de Bilbao
DVD: Opus Arte
Cat: OA 0982 D
2007 Giovanni Battista Parodi,
Francesca Sassu,
Mariana Pentcheva,
Fabio Sartori
Antonello Allemandi,
Teatro Regio di Parma
(Recording of a performance at the Teatro Regio, 2007)
DVD:C Major
Cat:720104 [19]

2012 Michael Hofstetter conductor, Theater Gießen – Germany, Oberto: Adrian Ganz, Leonora: Franceska Lombardi, Cuniza: Manuela Custer, Riccardo: Norman Reinhardt, Imelda: Naroa Intxausti, Concert Version Stadttheater Giessen, OEHMS Classics OC959 2CDs

See also

The historical Cunizza da Romano, whose life was as at least as interesting as this fictionalised account.

Related Research Articles

<i>Il trovatore</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Il trovatore is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto largely written by Salvadore Cammarano, based on the play El trovador (1836) by Antonio García Gutiérrez. It was Gutiérrez's most successful play, one which Verdi scholar Julian Budden describes as "a high flown, sprawling melodrama flamboyantly defiant of the Aristotelian unities, packed with all manner of fantastic and bizarre incident."

<i>Ernani</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Ernani is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Hernani by Victor Hugo.

Arrigo Boito Italian opera composer and librettist of Verdis opera Otello

Arrigo Boito, was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist, librettist and composer, best known today for his libretti, especially those for Giuseppe Verdi's operas Otello and Falstaff, and his own opera Mefistofele. Along with Emilio Praga, and his own brother Camillo Boito he is regarded as one of the prominent representatives of the Scapigliatura artistic movement.

<i>Un ballo in maschera</i> melodramma in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi

Un ballo in maschera(A Masked Ball) is an 1859 opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The text by Antonio Somma was based on Eugène Scribe's libretto for Daniel Auber's 1833 five act opera, Gustave III, ou Le bal masqué.

<i>La forza del destino</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

La forza del destino is an Italian opera by Giuseppe Verdi. The libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based on a Spanish drama, Don Álvaro o la fuerza del sino (1835), by Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas, with a scene adapted from Friedrich Schiller's Wallensteins Lager. It was first performed in the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre of Saint Petersburg, Russia, on 10 November 1862 O.S..

<i>Nabucco</i> opera written by Giuseppe Verdi, Italian composer

Nabucco is an Italian-language opera in four acts composed in 1841 by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera. The libretto is based on biblical books of Jeremiah and Daniel and the 1836 play by Auguste Anicet-Bourgeois and Francis Cornu, although Antonio Cortese's ballet adaptation of the play, given at La Scala in 1836, was a more important source for Solera than the play itself. Under its original name of Nabucodonosor, the opera was first performed at La Scala in Milan on 9 March 1842.

<i>Un giorno di regno</i> operatic melodramma giocoso in 2 acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto written in 1818 by Felice Romani, based on the play Le faux Stanislas by A. V. P. Duval in 1808; first performed at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan on 5 Sept. 1840

Un giorno di regno, ossia Il finto Stanislao is an operatic melodramma giocoso in two acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto written in 1818 by Felice Romani. Originally written for the Bohemian composer Adalbert Gyrowetz the libretto was based on the play Le faux Stanislas written by the Frenchman Alexandre-Vincent Pineux Duval in 1808. Un giorno was given its premiere performance at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan on 5 September 1840.

<i>I Lombardi alla prima crociata</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

I Lombardi alla Prima Crociata is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on an epic poem by Tommaso Grossi, which was "very much a child of its age; a grand historical novel with a patriotic slant". Its first performance was given at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan on 11 February 1843. Verdi dedicated the score to Maria Luigia, the Habsburg Duchess of Parma, who died a few weeks after the premiere.

<i>I due Foscari</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

I due Foscari is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on a historical play, The Two Foscari by Lord Byron.

<i>I masnadieri</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

I masnadieri is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Andrea Maffei, based on the play Die Räuber by Friedrich von Schiller. As Verdi became more successful in Italy, he began to receive offers from other opera houses outside the country. The London impresario Benjamin Lumley had presented Ernani in 1845 and, as a result of its success, commissioned an opera from the composer which became I masnadieri. It was given its first performance at Her Majesty's Theatre on 22 July 1847 with Verdi conducting the first two performances.

<i>Aroldo</i> opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi

Aroldo is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on and adapted from their earlier 1850 collaboration, Stiffelio. The first performance was given in the Teatro Nuovo Comunale in Rimini on 16 August 1857.

<i>Giovanna dArco</i> dramma lirico in a prologue and three acts by Giuseppe Verdi

Giovanna d'Arco is an operatic dramma lirico with a prologue and three acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, who had prepared the libretti for Nabucco and I Lombardi. It is Verdi's seventh opera.

<i>Attila</i> (opera) opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Attila is an opera in a prologue and three acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on the 1809 play Attila, König der Hunnen by Zacharias Werner. The opera received its first performance at La Fenice in Venice on 17 March 1846.

<i>Il corsaro</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Il corsaro is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi, from a libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on Lord Byron's poem The Corsair. The first performance was given at the Teatro Grande in Trieste on 25 October 1848.

<i>La battaglia di Legnano</i> opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi with Italian-language libretto by Salvadore Cammarano.

La battaglia di Legnano is an opera in four acts, with music by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian-language libretto by Salvadore Cammarano. It was based on the play La Bataille de Toulouse by Joseph Méry, later the co-librettist of Don Carlos.

<i>Alzira</i> (opera) opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Alzira is an opera in a prologue and two acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Salvatore Cammarano, based on the 1736 play Alzire, ou les Américains by Voltaire.

<i>Jérusalem</i> Opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Jérusalem is a grand opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The libretto was to be an adaptation and partial translation of the composer's original 1843 Italian opera, I Lombardi alla prima crociata. It was the one opera which he regarded as the most suitable for being translated into French and, taking Eugène Scribe's advice, Verdi agreed that a French libretto was to be prepared by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz, who had written the libretto for Donizetti's most successful French opera, La favorite. The opera received its premiere performance at the Salle Le Peletier in Paris on 26 November 1847. The maiden production was designed by Paul Lormier (costumes), Charles Séchan, Jules Diéterle and Édouard Desplechin, and Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 David Kimbell 2001, in Holden, p. 977
  2. Budden 1984, p. 44: He notes that Solera received sole credit even though the majority of the text was "probably by Piazza". p. 44
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parker 1997, pp. 10–11
  4. Budden 1984, pp. 45–46
  5. Verdi to Massini 1837, in Parker 1997, p. 9
  6. For instance, see Budden pp. 47 – 50, on conflicting statements and imperfect memories. Roger Parker's 1997 essay also discusses the situation, pp. 9 – 10
  7. Parker 1998, p. 642
  8. 1913 Parma performance on librettodpoera.it. Retrieved 7 April 2013
  9. San Diego Opera's performance history for 1985 Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
  10. NYGO's list of performances Archived September 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine on vincentlaselva.com. Retrieved 18 March 2013
  11. Leeks, Stuart (ed.) (2003). Opera North @ 25. Leeds: Opera North. p. 82.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  12. Parma's 2007 "Festival Verdi" Archived 2009-03-07 at the Wayback Machine
  13. George Loomis, "La Scala Performs Verdi's Very First Opera", New York Times, 1 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013
  14. Budden, p. 44: List of singers
  15. In Toye 1931, p. 19
  16. Budden 1984, p. 51
  17. Toye 1931, p. 226
  18. Recordings on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk
  19. "Oberto". Naxos.com. Retrieved 15 June 2014.

Cited sources

Other sources