Odilon Redon

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Odilon Redon
Odilon Redon.jpg
Self-Portrait, 1880, Musée d'Orsay
Born
Bertrand Redon

(1840-04-20)20 April 1840
Bordeaux, France
Died6 July 1916(1916-07-06) (aged 76)
Paris, France
EducationÁtelier of Jean-Léon Gérôme
Known for Painting, printmaking, drawing
Movement Post-impressionism, symbolism
Arbres sur un fond jaune, one of the panels painted in 1901 for the dining room of the Chateau de Domecy-sur-le-Vault Odilon Redon - Trees on a yellow Background - Google Art Project.jpg
Arbres sur un fond jaune, one of the panels painted in 1901 for the dining room of the Château de Domecy-sur-le-Vault

Odilon Redon (born Bertrand Redon [2] ; French:  [ʁədɔ̃] ; April 20, 1840 July 6, 1916) was a French symbolist painter, printmaker, draughtsman and pastellist.

Symbolism (arts) art movement

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.

Drawing visual artwork in two-dimensional medium

Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium. Instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, various kinds of paints, inked brushes, colored pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels, various kinds of erasers, markers, styluses, and various metals. Digital drawing is the act of using a computer to draw. Common methods of digital drawing include a stylus or finger on a touchscreen device, stylus- or finger-to-touchpad, or in some cases, a mouse. There are many digital art programs and devices.

Pastel art medium

A pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.

Contents

Biography

Odilon Redon was born in Bordeaux, Aquitaine, to a prosperous family. The young Bertrand Redon acquired the nickname "Odilon" from his mother, Odile. [3] Redon started drawing as a child; and, at the age of ten, he was awarded a drawing prize at school. He began the formal study of drawing at fifteen; but, at his father's insistence, he changed to architecture. Failure to pass the entrance exams at Paris’ École des Beaux-Arts ended any plans for a career as an architect, although he briefly studied painting there under Jean-Léon Gérôme in 1864. (His younger brother Gaston Redon would become a noted architect.)

Bordeaux Prefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.

Aquitaine Region in France

Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne/Guienne, is a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016. It is now part of the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It is situated in the south-western part of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes and Gironde. In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a kingdom and a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably.

École des Beaux-Arts influential art schools in France

An École des Beaux-Arts is one of a number of influential art schools in France. The most famous is the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, now located on the left bank in Paris, across the Seine from the Louvre, at 14 rue Bonaparte. The school has a history spanning more than 350 years, training many of the great artists in Europe. Beaux Arts style was modeled on classical "antiquities", preserving these idealized forms and passing the style on to future generations.

Back in his native Bordeaux, he took up sculpting, and Rodolphe Bresdin instructed him in etching and lithography. His artistic career was interrupted in 1870 when he was drafted [4] to serve in the army in the Franco-Prussian War until its end in 1871.

Rodolphe Bresdin French artist

Rodolphe Bresdin was a French draughtsman and engraver, born in Le Fresne-sur-Loire on 12 August 1822, who died in Sèvres on 11 January 1885.

Etching intaglio printmaking technique

Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material. As a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of modern variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology, including circuit boards.

Lithography printing process

Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material.

At the end of the war, he moved to Paris and resumed working almost exclusively in charcoal and lithography. He called his visionary works, conceived in shades of black, his noirs. It was not until 1878 that his work gained any recognition with Guardian Spirit of the Waters; he published his first album of lithographs, titled Dans le Rêve, in 1879. Still, Redon remained relatively unknown until the appearance in 1884 of a cult novel by Joris-Karl Huysmans titled À rebours (Against Nature). The story featured a decadent aristocrat who collected Redon's drawings.

Joris-Karl Huysmans French novelist and art critic

Charles-Marie-Georges Huysmans was a French novelist and art critic who published his works as Joris-Karl Huysmans. He is most famous for the novel À rebours. He supported himself by a 30-year career in the French civil service.

<i>À rebours</i> 1884 bookby Joris-Karl Hysmans

À rebours (1884) is a novel by the French writer Joris-Karl Huysmans. Its narrative concentrates almost entirely on its principal character and is mostly a catalogue of the tastes and inner life of Jean des Esseintes, an eccentric, reclusive aesthete and antihero who loathes 19th-century bourgeois society and tries to retreat into an ideal artistic world of his own creation. À rebours contains many themes that became associated with the Symbolist aesthetic. In doing so, it broke from Naturalism and became the ultimate example of "decadent" literature.

In the 1890s pastel and oils became his favored media; he produced no more noirs after 1900. In 1899, he exhibited with the Nabis at Durand-Ruel's.

<i>Les Nabis</i> artist collective

Les Nabis were a group of Post-Impressionist avant-garde artists who set the pace for fine arts and graphic arts in France in the 1890s. Initially a group of friends interested in contemporary art and literature, most of them studied at the private art school of Rodolphe Julian in Paris in the late 1880s.

Redon had a keen interest in Hindu and Buddhist religion and culture. The figure of the Buddha increasingly showed in his work. Influences of Japonism blended into his art, such as the painting The Death of the Buddha around 1899, The Buddha in 1906, Jacob and the Angel in 1905, and Vase with Japanese warrior in 1905, amongst many others. [5] [6]

Japonism European imitation of Japanese art during the 19th and 20th centuries

First described by French art critic and collector Philippe Burty in 1872, Japonism, from the French Japonisme, is the study of Japanese art and artistic talent. Japonism affected fine arts, sculpture, architecture, performing arts and decorative arts throughout Western culture. The term is used particularly to refer to Japanese influence on European art, especially in impressionism.

Baron Robert de Domecy (1867–1946) commissioned the artist in 1899 to create 17 decorative panels for the dining room of the Château de Domecy-sur-le-Vault near Sermizelles in Burgundy. Redon had created large decorative works for private residences in the past, but his compositions for the château de Domecy in 1900–1901 were his most radical compositions to that point and mark the transition from ornamental to abstract painting. The landscape details do not show a specific place or space. Only details of trees, twigs with leaves, and budding flowers in an endless horizon can be seen. The colours used are mostly yellow, grey, brown and light blue. The influence of the Japanese painting style found on folding screens byōbu is discernible in his choice of colours and the rectangular proportions of most of the up to 2.5 metres high panels. Fifteen of them are located today in the Musée d'Orsay, acquisitioned in 1988. [7]

Domecy also commissioned Redon to paint portraits of his wife and their daughter Jeanne, two of which are in the collections of the Musée d'Orsay and the Getty Museum in California. [8] [9] Most of the paintings remained in the Domecy family collection until the 1960s. [10]

In 1903 Redon was awarded the Legion of Honor. [11] His popularity increased when a catalogue of etchings and lithographs was published by André Mellerio in 1913; that same year, he was given the largest single representation at the groundbreaking U.S. International Exhibition of Modern Art (aka Armory Show), in New York City, Chicago and Boston.

Redon died on July 6, 1916. In 1923 Mellerio published Odilon Redon: Peintre Dessinateur et Graveur. An archive of Mellerio's papers is held by the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago.

In 2005 the Museum of Modern Art launched an exhibition entitled "Beyond The Visible", a comprehensive overview of Redon's work showcasing more than 100 paintings, drawings, prints and books from The Ian Woodner Family Collection. The exhibition ran from October 30, 2005 to January 23, 2006. [12]

The Grand Palais in Paris, France featured a vast exhibition of Redon's art from March to June 2011 [13]

The Fondation Beyeler in Basel, Switzerland showed a retrospective from February to May 2014. [14]

The Kröller-Müller Museum in Otterlo, The Netherlands, currently has an exhibition with an emphasis on the role that literature and music play in Redon’s life and work, under the title La littérature et la musique. The exhibition runs from 2 June to 9 September 2018. [15]

Analysis of his work

Butterflies, around 1910 (Museum of Modern Art) Odilon Redon 006.jpg
Butterflies, around 1910 (Museum of Modern Art)

During his early years as an artist, Redon's works were described as "a synthesis of nightmares and dreams", as they contained dark, fantastical figures from the artist's own imagination. [16] His work represents an exploration of his internal feelings and psyche. He himself wanted to place "the logic of the visible at the service of the invisible". [17] A telling source of Redon's inspiration and the forces behind his works can be found in his journal A Soi-même (To Myself). His process was explained best by himself when he said:

"I have often, as an exercise and as a sustenance, painted before an object down to the smallest accidents of its visual appearance; but the day left me sad and with an unsatiated thirst. The next day I let the other source run, that of imagination, through the recollection of the forms and I was then reassured and appeased."

The mystery and evocativeness of Redon's drawings are described by Joris-Karl Huysmans in the following passage from the novel À rebours (1884):

"Those were the pictures bearing the signature: Odilon Redon. They held, between their gold-edged frames of unpolished pearwood, undreamed-of images: a Merovingian-type head, resting upon a cup; a bearded man, reminiscent both of a Buddhist priest and a public orator, touching an enormous cannon-ball with his finger; a spider with a human face lodged in the centre of its body. Then there were charcoal sketches which delved even deeper into the terrors of fever-ridden dreams. Here, on an enormous die, a melancholy eyelid winked; over there stretched dry and arid landscapes, calcinated plains, heaving and quaking ground, where volcanos erupted into rebellious clouds, under foul and murky skies; sometimes the subjects seemed to have been taken from the nightmarish dreams of science, and hark back to prehistoric times; monstrous flora bloomed on the rocks; everywhere, in among the erratic blocks and glacial mud, were figures whose simian appearance—heavy jawbone, protruding brows, receding forehead, and flattened skull top—recalled the ancestral head, the head of the first Quaternary Period, the head of man when he was still fructivorous and without speech, the contemporary of the mammoth, of the rhinoceros with septate nostrils, and of the giant bear. These drawings defied classification; unheeding, for the most part, of the limitations of painting, they ushered in a very special type of the fantastic, one born of sickness and delirium." [18]

The art historian Michael Gibson says that Redon began to want his works, even the ones darker in color and subject matter, to portray "the triumph of light over darkness." [19]

Redon described his work as ambiguous and undefinable:

"My drawings inspire, and are not to be defined. They place us, as does music, in the ambiguous realm of the undetermined." [20]

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References

  1. "Musée d'Orsay: non_traduit". Musee-orsay.fr. 1987-10-14. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  2. City of Bordeaux, Extract from the register of birth records for the year 1840, from Odilon Redon's Légion of Honor File, on Base Léonore.
  3. Seiferle, Rebecca. "Odilon Redon's Life and Legacy". The Art Story Contributors. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  4. "The Fitzwilliam Museum - Home | Online Resources | Online Exhibitions | Redon | About Odilon Redon | Childhood and Early Career". www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  5. "Odilon Redon (1840-1916) | Vase au guerrier japonais | IMPRESSIONIST & MODERN ART Auction | 20th Century, Drawings & Watercolors | Christie's". Christies.com. 2010-02-02. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  6. "Odilon Redon | Press Images - Fondation Beyeler". Pressimages.fondationbeyeler.ch. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  7. "Musee d'Orsay : Homepage". Musee-orsay.fr. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  8. "Musée d'Orsay: Odilon Redon Baroness Robert de Domecy". 4 February 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  9. "Baronne de Domecy (Getty Museum)". Getty.edu. Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  10. "Sotheby's Impressionist & Modern Art Evening Sale" (PDF). Sothebys.com. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  11. Redon and Werner (1969), p. ix.
  12. Danielle O'Steen (November 2005). "Dark Dreamer". ART + AUCTION. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
  13. "Odilon Redon". www.grandpalais.fr. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  14. "Introduction | Fondation Beyeler". Fondationbeyeler.ch. Archived from the original on 2014-11-05. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  15. "Odilon Redon: La littérature et la musique;" . Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  16. Redon, Odilon, and Raphaël Bouvier (2014). Odilon Redon. p. 2.
  17. Redon, Odilon (1988). Odilon Redon: the Woodner Collection. Washington, D.C.: Phillips Collection. unpaginated. OCLC   20763694.
  18. Joris-Karl Huysmans (1998). Against Nature . Translated by Margaret Mauldon. Oxford University Press. pp. 52–53. ISBN   0-14-044086-0.
  19. Gibson, Michael, and Odilon Redon (2011). Odilon Redon, 1840-1916: The Prince of Dreams. Los Angeles, Calif: Taschen America. p. 97. ISBN   9783836530033.
  20. Goldwater, Robert; Treves, Marco (1945). Artists on Art. Pantheon. ISBN   0-394-70900-4.

Bibliography