Offenbach am Main

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Offenbach am Main
Offenbacher-mainbogen-flussabwärts001.jpg
Offenbach on the Main river
Offenbach am Main flag.jpg
Flag
Wappen Offenbach am Main.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Offenbach am Main
Germany adm location map.svg
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Offenbach am Main
Hesse location map.svg
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Offenbach am Main
Coordinates: 50°6′0″N8°48′0″E / 50.10000°N 8.80000°E / 50.10000; 8.80000 Coordinates: 50°6′0″N8°48′0″E / 50.10000°N 8.80000°E / 50.10000; 8.80000
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Darmstadt
District Urban district
Government
   Mayor Felix Schwenke [1] (SPD)
Area
  Total44.90 km2 (17.34 sq mi)
Elevation
98 m (322 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31) [2]
  Total126,658
  Density2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
63001 - 63075
Dialling codes 069
Vehicle registration OF
Website www.offenbach.de

Offenbach am Main (German pronunciation: [ˈɔfn̩bax ʔam ˈmaɪn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in Hesse, Germany, located on the left bank of the river Main and part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. Offenbach has a population of 126,934. [3]

Hesse State in Germany

Hesse or Hessia, officially the State of Hesse, is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt am Main.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Main (river) right tributary of Rhine river in Germany

The Main (German pronunciation: [ˈmaɪn] is a river in Germany. With a length of 525 kilometres, it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany. The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.

Contents

In the 20th century the city's economy was dominated by the machine-building and leather industries, and it was also a major centre of the typography and design industries. Other important industries are the automobile and pharmaceutical industries. During the Second World War the city suffered heavily from bombing by the Allied Forces, but has since built itself back up and revitalized its economy.

Geography

Subdivisions

The inner town of Offenbach is quite large and has only a few suburbs. In the east the three incorporated: Bürgel (incorporated 1908), Bieber (incorporated April 1, 1938), and Rumpenheim (incorporated April 4, 1942). In the south are the newer suburbs Lauterborn and Rosenhöhe, Tempelsee, the office town Kaiserlei and the industrial area Waldheim. The newest suburb is Mathildenviertel in the center near to the Main river. [4]

Offenbach-Bieber Stadtteil of Offenbach am Main in Hesse, Germany

Bieber is a village of Hesse, Germany, with a total population of 14,797 as of 2005. Since 1938 it has been a Stadtteil of Offenbach am Main.

Offenbach-Lauterborn Stadtteil of Offenbach am Main in Hesse, Germany

Lauterborn is a borough of Offenbach am Main, Germany, with approximately 11,700 inhabitants.

Rosenhöhe is one of the nine boroughs of Offenbach am Main, Germany and it is the second smallest after Waldheim. It is located in the southern part of the city, west of the borough Tempelsee and south of Lauterborn.

History

Offenbach in 1655 Offenbach (Merian).jpg
Offenbach in 1655
The main street Frankfurter Straße around 1900 Frankfurterstr-of.jpg
The main street Frankfurter Straße around 1900

The first documented reference to a suburb of Offenbach appears in 770. [5] In a document of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II dating to 977 exists the first mention of the place of Offenbach. [6] During the Middle Ages Offenbach passed through many hands. Only in 1486 could the Count Ludwig of Isenburg finally take control of city for his family, and 1556 Count Reinhard of Isenburg relocated his Residence to Offenbach, building a palace, the Isenburger Schloß (Isenburg Palace), which was completed in 1559. It was destroyed by fire in 1564 and rebuilt in 1578.

Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor and third ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty

Otto II, called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto II was the youngest and sole surviving son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy.

County of Isenburg countship

Isenburg was a region of Germany located in southern present-day Hesse, located in territories north and south of Frankfurt. The states of Isenburg emerged from the Niederlahngau, which partitioned in 1137 into Isenburg-Isenburg and Isenburg-Limburg-Covern. These countships were partitioned between themselves many times over the next 700 years.

In 1635 Offenbach given to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt but it was returned to the Isenburg-Birstein Count (later Prince) in 1642 and remained in that Principality until 1815 when the Congress of Vienna gave the city to the Austrian Emperor, Francis I. A year later it was given to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt countship

The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a younger branch of the House of Hesse. It was formed in 1567 following the division of the Landgraviate of Hesse between the four sons of Landgrave Philip I.

Congress of Vienna conference of ambassadors of European states

The Congress of Vienna, also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe. France lost all its recent conquests while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania and 60% of the Kingdom of Saxony; Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy. Russia gained parts of Poland. The new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor also known as Francis I, Emperor of Austria

Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser in history. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the Grace of God elected Roman Emperor, ever Augustus, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both the Holy Roman Empire and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia as Francis I. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.

Always very close to the city centre of Frankfurt, Offenbach was a popular location for business. The town has its own trade fair, and many companies have opened facilities here because there are fewer restrictions and no closed businesses. French Protestants (Huguenots) came in the 17th century and settled in Offenbach and contributed to making Offenbach a prosperous city, e.g., bringing knowledge of tobacco with them and turning Offenbach into a centre for rolling cigars. The town was more cosmopolitan than Frankfurt; famous people such as Goethe and Mozart visited it several times.

The Rumpenheim Palace and its park were a popular destination for monarchs in the 19th century. The city was thereafter ruled by Grand Dukes of Hesse and by Rhine until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Offenbach became the center of the traditional design with figures such as the architect Hugo Eberhardt, the typographer Rudolf Koch, the bookbinder and designer Ignatz Wiemeler and Ernst Engel and the painter Karl Friedrich Lippmann.

During the Second World War a third of the city was destroyed by Allied bombing, which claimed 467 lives. With the new district Lauterborn the city was expanded to the south in the 1960s. On the border with Frankfurt, the office district Kaiserlei was built. Offenbach is a so-called ´Sozialer Brennpunkt`(= multiple social problems area) because of unemployment, poverty, gang related crime and migration. [7]

Governance

Mayors from 1824 - present

Mayor Felix Schwenke Felix Schwenke 01.jpg
Mayor Felix Schwenke
  • 1824–1826: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1826–1834: Heinrich Philipp Schwaner
  • 1834–1837: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1837–1849: Jonas Budden
  • 1849–1859: Friedrich August Schäfer
  • 1859–1867: Johann Heinrich Dick
  • 1867–1874: Johann Martin Hirschmann
  • 1874–1882: Hermann Stölting
  • 1883–1907: Wilhelm Brink
  • 1907–1919: Andreas Dullo
  • 1919–1933: Max Granzin
  • 1947–1949: Johannes Rebholz
  • 1950–1957: Hans Klüber
  • 1957–1974: Georg Dietrich
  • 1974–1980: Walter Buckpesch
  • 1980–1986: Walter Suermann
  • 1986–1994: Wolfgang Reuter
  • 1994–2006: Gerhard Grandtke
  • 2006–2018: Horst Schneider
  • 2018–: Felix Schwenke

Town twinning

Offenbach am Main is twinned with: [8]

Demographics

Offenbach has a large non-German population. In 2016, foreign nationals made up 37% of the population. [10] The largest communities are, in that order, from Turkey, Greece, Romania, Poland and Italy. [11] According to census data Offenbach and Duisburg had the highest share of Muslim migrants of all German districts in 2011. [12]

Population history

The development of the population in Offenbach between 1540 and 1997. Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Offenbach.png
The development of the population in Offenbach between 1540 and 1997.

Until the end of the 17th century, Offenbach remained a small town with less than a thousand inhabitants. With the coming into power of the count Johann Philipp in 1685, the city began to develop and the population rose steadily. In the 19th century the city became industrialized and the population increased even tenfold. [13] Offenbach is one of the German cities where Germans without migrant background make up a minority of the population. As of 31 December 2012, approx. 44.3% of residents or 55,047 people had no foreign background. In contrast to that, there were 55.7% or 69,214 people of non-German descent. [14] The largest of those groups are: [15]

Turks: 15,000 or 12.2%

People from the former Yugoslavia (e.g. Serbs, Croats): 13,000 or 10.5%

Arabs: 8,000 or 6.5%

Italians: 8,000 or 6.5%

Greeks: 7,500 or 6.0%

Poles: 4,000 or 3.2%

Afghans: 3,600 or 3%

Pakistanis: 2,700 or 2.2%

YearPopulation
1540480
1685600
17181,500
18005,000
18166,210
18257,147
18287,466
18307,498
December 1, 18349,433
December 1, 18409,597
December 3, 18439,883
December 3, 184611,565
December 3, 185211,087
December 3, 185513,724
December 3, 186116,708
December 3, 186419,390
YearPopulation
December 3, 186720,322
December 1, 187122,689
December 1, 187526,012
December 1, 188028,597
December 1, 188531,704
December 1, 189035,064
December 2, 189539,388
December 1, 190050,468
December 1, 190559,765
December 1, 191075,583
December 1, 191667,197
December 5, 191767,483
October 8, 191975,380
June 16, 192579,362
June 16, 193381,329
May 17, 193985,140
YearPopulation
December 31, 194570,600
October 29, 194675,479
September 13, 195089,030
September 25, 1956104,283
June 6, 1961116,195
December 31, 1965117,893
May 27, 1970117,306
December 31, 1975115,251
December 31, 1980110,993
December 31, 1985107,090
May 25, 1987111,386
December 31, 1990114,992
December 31, 1995116,533
December 31, 2000117,535
September 30, 2005119,833
March 31, 2007117,224
YearPopulation
December 31, 2008118,103
December 31, 2009117,718
December 31, 2010119,734
December 31, 2011121,970
December 31, 2012116,945
December 31, 2013126,934
RankNationalityPopulation (31.12.2018)
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 6,052
2Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 5,283
3Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 5,218
4Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 4,521
5Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 4,248
6Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 4,036
7Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 3,829
8Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2,232
9Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,796
10Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 1,260

Economy

The 120-meter high "City-Tower" is mainly used as the German headquarters of Capgemini City Tower Nordseite2.jpg
The 120-meter high "City-Tower" is mainly used as the German headquarters of Capgemini

Until the early 1970s Offenbach was dominated by the machine-building and leather industries. The city hosts the German Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies to this day. The Deutscher Wetterdienst, commonly abbreviated as DWD, (translated from German as German Meteorological Service), residing in the Westend district.

Offenbach was also the European center of typography, with Gebr. Klingspor and Linotype (inventors of Optima or Palatino typeface) moving to nearby Eschborn in the 1970s and MAN Roland printing machines still a major employer today. Typography and design still remain important with a cluster of graphic design and industrial design companies, as well as the university level Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach am Main (HfG) design school and the Klingspor Museum.

In recent years Offenbach has become a popular location for a wide array of services, especially from the transport sectors. Offenbach is the host to the European headquarters of Honda, [16] Hyundai Motors [17] and Kumho Tires. [18]

Arts and culture

Attractions

Klingspor Museum Klingspor-Museum.jpg
Klingspor Museum
The Büsing-Park in winter Park-of.JPG
The Büsing-Park in winter
French Protestant church and City Tower Offenbach 18.04.2014 19-49-55.jpg
French Protestant church and City Tower

In Offenbach there is no specific Old Town, but there are several buildings which survived bombing during the war and have been restored. One of them is the Neo-baroque palace Büsingpalais with the Büsingpark, reconstructed in the 1980s. Today it is used as a congress center close to the Sheraton hotel. Between the shopping area and the Main, is the Lilipark and the Lilitemple, named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's fiancée Lili Schönemann. The most important building is the Isenburger Schloss  [ de ] (Isenburg Palace), a renaissance palace from 1576. It is today used by the Offenbach Design University which is next to it. There is also a neoclassic palace in the borough Rumpenheim, the Rumpenheimer Schloss it now serves exclusively as domestic dwellings but the park is public.

Events

There are several festivals in Offenbach, some of these are:

Museums

Sports

home to the football club Kickers Offenbach stadium "Bieberer Berg" Diba stadion offenbach 06.JPG
home to the football club Kickers Offenbach stadium "Bieberer Berg"

Offenbach hosts the German association football club Kickers Offenbach. The club was founded in 1901.

Infrastructure

Transport

S-Bahn station: Marktplatz S-Bahnhof Offenbach Marktplatz.jpg
S-Bahn station: Marktplatz
S-Bahn network in Offenbach S-Bahn-Netz Offenbach.png
S-Bahn network in Offenbach

Roads

The streets of central Offenbach are usually congested with cars during the rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets, are pedestrian-only streets. There are numerous car parks located throughout the city. The Offenbacher Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange where the Autobahnen A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 661 meet. The A661 crosses the A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 5 (Basel-Hannover).

Public transport

The city is connected by a major line of the S-Bahn railway system to Frankfurt. The station in the city center is Marktplatz. In general, six stations are located in Offenbach: Offenbach-Kaiserlei, Offenbach-Ledermuseum, Offenbach-Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost, Offenbach-Bieber, Offenbach-Waldhof. Trains run every 5–10 minutes between Offenbach and Frankurt. A 24 hours Service between both cities was introduced in 2013. The journey from Offenbach Marktplatz to Frankfurt Main Station takes 15 minutes, Frankfurt Airport can be reached within 26 minutes. The city's public transportation services OVB and NIO connect all city districts to downtown by bus lines. Since the construction of the S-Bahn, the central train station, the Offenbach Hauptbahnhof, is no longer considered important.

Frankfurt Airport

The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt Airport, (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) from Offenbach. The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction "Offenbach Ost or "Hanau"), departing from the regional traffic station, take 25 minutes from the airport to get to Offenbach.

Notable residents

Notable people born in Offenbach include:

Helene Mayer Stamps of Germany (BRD) 1968, MiNr 564.jpg
Helene Mayer
Johann Andre composer JohannAndreKomponistS46.jpg
Johann Andre composer

Others who have resided in Offenbach include:

People from Offenbach

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