Offenbach am Main

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Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am main from drone.jpg
The downtown of Offenbach
Flagge Offenbach am Main.svg
Flag
Wappen Offenbach am Main.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main
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Offenbach am Main
Hesse location map.svg
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Offenbach am Main
Coordinates: 50°6′0″N8°48′0″E / 50.10000°N 8.80000°E / 50.10000; 8.80000 Coordinates: 50°6′0″N8°48′0″E / 50.10000°N 8.80000°E / 50.10000; 8.80000
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Darmstadt
District Urban district
Government
   Lord mayor (201723) Felix Schwenke [1] (SPD)
Area
  Total44.90 km2 (17.34 sq mi)
Elevation
98 m (322 ft)
Population
 (2020-12-31) [2]
  Total130,892
  Density2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
63001 - 63075
Dialling codes 069
Vehicle registration OF
Website www.offenbach.de

Offenbach am Main (German pronunciation: [ˈʔɔfn̩bax ʔam ˈmaɪn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the left bank of the river Main. It borders Frankfurt and is part of the Frankfurt urban area and the larger Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. It has a population of 138,335 (December 2018). [3]

Contents

In the 20th century, the city's economy was built on machine-building, leather-making, typography and design, and the automobile and pharmaceutical industries.

Geography

Subdivision

The inner city area of Offenbach is quite large and consists of the historic center of the city and its expansions of the 1800s. Three formerly independent suburbs were incorporated in the first half of the 20th century: Bürgel being the first in 1908, then Bieber and Rumpenheim in 1938 and 1942.

South of the inner city area are the suburbs Lauterborn, Rosenhöhe and Tempelsee. Kaiserlei is a commercial district in the far west of the city bordering Frankfurt. In the west Waldheim is a residential neighborhood on the city limits with Mühlheim am Main. In 2010 the eastern part of the city center was officially named Mathildenviertel, as the area was already unofficially called by the locals. [4]

Unlike most larger cities in Germany, Offenbach was not completely divided into districts. Only the nine neighborhoods mentioned above were officially districts, leaving the largest parts of the city officially unnamed. Although specific names for neighborhoods and areas were already in use among the locals and residents.

In June 2019 the city council approved a new act that subdivides the city's area entirely into 21 districts. The nine existing districts largely remained the same, most of them were even expanded. The new districts were laid out after the already by locals commonly known neighborhoods, such as the Westend, the Nordend or Buchhügel. A completely new name was only needed to be found for one neighborhood south of the city center, which never had commonly used name before: Lindenfeld. The name derived from an old name of a land lot in this area, when it was still fields in agricultural use prior to the 1800s. [5]

As of July 2019 there are the following 21 districts:

  • Bieber
  • Bieberer Berg
  • Buchhügel
  • Buchrain
  • Bürgel
  • Carl-Ulrich-Siedlung
  • Hafen
  • Kaiserlei
  • Lauterborn
  • Lindenfeld
  • Mathildenviertel
  • Musikerviertel
  • Nordend
  • Offenbach-Ost
  • Rosenhöhe
  • Rumpenheim
  • Senefelderquartier
  • Tempelsee
  • Waldheim
  • Westend
  • Zentrum

Climate

Offenbach experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). There are subtropical summers with warm to hot temperatures ranging from 29.8°C at daytime and 6.9°C at night. Winters are temperate cool and mild with temperatures ranging from 17.9°C at daytime and 2.5°C at night. Due to its location in the Upper Rhine Plain, the whole Rhein-Main Metropolitan Region generally experiences one of the warmest climates in Germany, making it possible to grow plants from the subtropics such as vineyards, palm trees and olive trees.

Climate data for Offenbach, Germany (2018-2020)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
10.9
(51.6)
13.1
(55.6)
20.6
(69.1)
23.9
(75.0)
27.6
(81.7)
29.8
(85.6)
28.9
(84.0)
23.8
(74.8)
17.9
(64.2)
10.1
(50.2)
7.4
(45.3)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.9
(42.6)
6.5
(43.7)
8.0
(46.4)
14.0
(57.2)
17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
22.4
(72.3)
21.7
(71.1)
16.1
(61.0)
11.8
(53.2)
6.6
(43.9)
4.8
(40.6)
13.0
(55.4)
Average low °C (°F)3.3
(37.9)
2.7
(36.9)
2.8
(37.0)
6.9
(44.4)
11.0
(51.8)
14.5
(58.1)
15.0
(59.0)
14.7
(58.5)
9.4
(48.9)
7.9
(46.2)
3.2
(37.8)
2.5
(36.5)
7.8
(46.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches)85
(3.3)
101
(4.0)
67
(2.6)
51
(2.0)
81
(3.2)
79
(3.1)
35
(1.4)
86
(3.4)
47
(1.9)
74
(2.9)
66
(2.6)
81
(3.2)
853
(33.6)
Average precipitation days17181291112789111213139
Mean monthly sunshine hours 5414219030328231531727621717787552,415
Source: opendata.dwd.de/climate_environment/CDC/observations_global/CLIMAT/monthly/qc/... (Station 10641)

History

Offenbach in 1655 Offenbach (Merian).jpg
Offenbach in 1655
The main street Frankfurter Strasse around 1900 Frankfurterstr-of.jpg
The main street Frankfurter Straße around 1900

The first documented reference to a suburb of Offenbach appears in 770. [6] In a document of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II dating to 977 exists the first mention of the place of Offenbach. [7] During the Middle Ages Offenbach passed through many hands. Only in 1486 could the Count Ludwig of Isenburg finally take control of city for his family, and 1556 Count Reinhard of Isenburg relocated his Residence to Offenbach, building a palace, the Isenburger Schloß (Isenburg Palace), which was completed in 1559. It was destroyed by fire in 1564 and rebuilt in 1578.

In 1635 Offenbach given to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt but it was returned to the Isenburg-Birstein Count (later Prince) in 1642 and remained in that Principality until 1815 when the Congress of Vienna gave the city to the Austrian Emperor, Francis I. A year later it was given to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Always very close to the city centre of Frankfurt, Offenbach was a popular location for business. The town has its own trade fair, and many companies have opened facilities here because there are fewer restrictions and no closed businesses. French Protestants (Huguenots) came in the 17th century and settled in Offenbach and contributed to making Offenbach a prosperous city, e.g., bringing knowledge of tobacco with them and turning Offenbach into a centre for rolling cigars. The town was more cosmopolitan than Frankfurt; famous people such as Goethe and Mozart visited it several times.

The Rumpenheim Palace and its park were a popular destination for monarchs in the 19th century. The city was thereafter ruled by Grand Dukes of Hesse and by Rhine until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Offenbach became the center of the traditional design with figures such as the architect Hugo Eberhardt, the typographer Rudolf Koch, the bookbinder and designer Ignatz Wiemeler and Ernst Engel and the painter Karl Friedrich Lippmann.

During the Second World War a third of the city was destroyed by Allied bombing, which claimed 467 lives. With the new district Lauterborn the city was expanded to the south in the 1960s. On the border with Frankfurt, the office district Kaiserlei was built. Offenbach is a so-called ´Sozialer Brennpunkt`(= multiple social problems area) because of unemployment, poverty, gang related crime and migration. [8]

Governance

Mayor

Mayor Felix Schwenke Felix Schwenke 01.jpg
Mayor Felix Schwenke

The current mayor of Offenbach is Felix Schwenke of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). He was elected in 2017.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 10 September 2017, with a runoff held on 24 September, and the results were as follows:

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes %Votes %
Felix Schwenke Social Democratic Party 12,07643.326,40866.9
Peter Freier Christian Democratic Union 7,91828.413,06233.1
Peter Schneider Alliance 90/The Greens 3,96314.2
Christin Thüne Alternative for Germany 1,4765.3
Elke Kreiß The Left 1,0323.7
Muhsin SenolForum New Offenbach9163.3
Helge Herget Pirate Party Germany 5201.9
Valid votes27,90199.339,47097.4
Invalid votes2090.71,0612.6
Total28,110100.040,531100.0
Electorate/voter turnout91,92430.692,11544.0
Source: City of Offenbach (1st round, 2nd round)

The following is a list of mayors since 1824:

  • 1824–1826: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1826–1834: Heinrich Philipp Schwaner
  • 1834–1837: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1837–1849: Jonas Budden
  • 1849–1859: Friedrich August Schäfer
  • 1859–1867: Johann Heinrich Dick
  • 1867–1874: Johann Martin Hirschmann
  • 1874–1882: Hermann Stölting
  • 1883–1907: Wilhelm Brink
  • 1907–1919: Andreas Dullo
  • 1919–1933: Max Granzin
  • 1947–1949: Johannes Rebholz
  • 1950–1957: Hans Klüber
  • 1957–1974: Georg Dietrich
  • 1974–1980: Walter Buckpesch
  • 1980–1986: Walter Suermann
  • 1986–1994: Wolfgang Reuter
  • 1994–2006: Gerhard Grandtke
  • 2006–2018: Horst Schneider
  • 2018–: Felix Schwenke

City council

The Offenbach city council (Stadtverordnetenversammlung) governs the city alongside the mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 14 March 2021, and the results were as follows:

PartyLead candidateVotes %+/-Seats+/-
Social Democratic Party (SPD)Felix Schwenke610,50828.4Increase2.svg 3.620Increase2.svg 2
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)Sybille Schumann390,30518.1Increase2.svg 3.613Increase2.svg 3
Christian Democratic Union (CDU)Roland Walter389,09918.1Decrease2.svg 6.013Decrease2.svg 4
The Left (Die Linke)Sven Malsy183,7738.5Increase2.svg 0.76±0
Alternative for Germany (AfD)Christin Thüne157,1257.3Decrease2.svg 1.75Decrease2.svg 1
Free Democratic Party (FDP)Dominik Schwagereit134,2846.2Decrease2.svg 3.34Decrease2.svg 3
Free Voters (FW)Dennis Lehmann91,4464.2Increase2.svg 1.53Increase2.svg 1
Forum New Offenbach (FNO)Muhsin Senol57,6262.7Decrease2.svg 0.22±0
Pirate Party Germany (Piraten)Gregory Engels46,4592.2Increase2.svg 0.52Increase2.svg 1
Die PARTEI (PARTEI)Daniel Pfeiffer34,9571.6Increase2.svg 1.11Increase2.svg 1
Young Offenbach (JO)Dominik Imeraj28,5251.3Steady2.svg 0.01±0
Alliance for Innovation and Justice (BIG)Fikri Türet27,5741.3New1New
Valid votes32,42496.1
Invalid votes1,3083.9
Total33,732100.071±0
Electorate/voter turnout94,82735.6Increase2.svg 2.7
Source: Statistics Hesse

Twin towns – sister cities

Offenbach am Main is twinned with: [9]

Demographics

Offenbach has a large non-German population. In 2016, foreign nationals made up 37% of the population. [10] The largest communities are, in that order, from Turkey, Greece, Romania, Poland and Italy. [11] According to census data, Offenbach and Duisburg had the highest share of Muslim migrants of all German districts in 2011. [12]

Population history

The development of the population in Offenbach between 1540 and 1997. Bevolkerungsentwicklung in Offenbach.png
The development of the population in Offenbach between 1540 and 1997.

Until the end of the 17th century, Offenbach remained a small town with less than a thousand inhabitants. With the coming into power of the count Johann Philipp in 1685, the city began to develop and the population rose steadily. In the 19th century the city became industrialized and the population increased even tenfold. [13] Offenbach is one of the German cities where Germans without migrant background make up a minority of the population. As of 31 December 2012, approx. 44.3% of residents or 55,047 people had no foreign background. In contrast to that, there were 55.7% or 69,214 people with at least one non-German grandparent. [14] The largest of those groups are: [15]

Turks: 15,000 or 12.2%

People from the former Yugoslavia (e.g. Serbs, Croats): 13,000 or 10.5%

Arabs: 8,000 or 6.5%

Italians: 8,000 or 6.5%

Greeks: 7,500 or 6.0%

Poles: 4,000 or 3.2%

Afghans: 3,600 or 3%

Pakistanis: 2,700 or 2.2%

YearPopulation
1540480
1685600
17181,500
18005,000
18166,210
18257,147
18287,466
18307,498
December 1, 18349,433
December 1, 18409,597
December 3, 18439,883
December 3, 184611,565
December 3, 185211,087
December 3, 185513,724
December 3, 186116,708
December 3, 186419,390
YearPopulation
December 3, 186720,322
December 1, 187122,689
December 1, 187526,012
December 1, 188028,597
December 1, 188531,704
December 1, 189035,064
December 2, 189539,388
December 1, 190050,468
December 1, 190559,765
December 1, 191075,583
December 1, 191667,197
December 5, 191767,483
October 8, 191975,380
June 16, 192579,362
June 16, 193381,329
May 17, 193985,140
YearPopulation
December 31, 194570,600
October 29, 194675,479
September 13, 195089,030
September 25, 1956104,283
June 6, 1961116,195
December 31, 1965117,893
May 27, 1970117,306
December 31, 1975115,251
December 31, 1980110,993
December 31, 1985107,090
May 25, 1987111,386
December 31, 1990114,992
December 31, 1995116,533
December 31, 2000117,535
September 30, 2005119,833
March 31, 2007117,224
YearPopulation
December 31, 2008118,103
December 31, 2009117,718
December 31, 2010119,734
December 31, 2011121,970
December 31, 2012116,945
December 31, 2013126,934

Economy

The 120-meter high "City-Tower" is mainly used as the German headquarters of Capgemini City Tower Nordseite2.jpg
The 120-meter high "City-Tower" is mainly used as the German headquarters of Capgemini

Until the early 1970s Offenbach was dominated by the machine-building and leather industries. The city hosts the German Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies to this day. The Deutscher Wetterdienst, commonly abbreviated as DWD, (translated from German as German Meteorological Service), residing in the Westend district.

Offenbach was also the European center of typography, with Gebr. Klingspor and Linotype (inventors of Optima or Palatino typeface) moving to nearby Eschborn in the 1970s and MAN Roland printing machines still a major employer today. Typography and design still remain important with a cluster of graphic design and industrial design companies, as well as the university level Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach am Main (HfG) design school and the Klingspor Museum.

In recent years Offenbach has become a popular location for a wide array of services, especially from the transport sectors. Offenbach is the host to the European headquarters of Honda, [16] Hyundai Motors [17] and Kumho Tires. [18]

Arts and culture

Attractions

Klingspor Museum Klingspor-Museum.jpg
Klingspor Museum
The Busing-Park in winter Park-of.JPG
The Büsing-Park in winter
French Protestant church and City Tower Offenbach 18.04.2014 19-49-55.jpg
French Protestant church and City Tower

In Offenbach there is no specific Old Town, but there are several buildings which survived bombing during the war and have been restored. One of them is the Neo-baroque palace Büsingpalais with the Büsingpark, reconstructed in the 1980s. Today it is used as a congress center close to the Sheraton hotel. Between the shopping area and the Main, is the Lilipark and the Lilitemple, named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's fiancée Lili Schönemann. The most important building is the Isenburger Schloss  [ de ] (Isenburg Palace), a renaissance palace from 1576. It is today used by the Offenbach Design University which is next to it. There is also a neoclassic palace in the borough Rumpenheim, the Rumpenheimer Schloss it now serves exclusively as domestic dwellings but the park is public.

Events

There are several festivals in Offenbach, some of these are:

Museums

Sports

home to the football club Kickers Offenbach stadium "Bieberer Berg" Diba stadion offenbach 06.JPG
home to the football club Kickers Offenbach stadium "Bieberer Berg"

Kickers Offenbach football club was founded in 1901.

Infrastructure

Transport

S-Bahn station: Marktplatz S-Bahnhof Offenbach Marktplatz.jpg
S-Bahn station: Marktplatz
S-Bahn network in Offenbach S-Bahn-Netz Offenbach.png
S-Bahn network in Offenbach

Roads

The streets of central Offenbach are usually congested with cars during the rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets, are pedestrian-only streets. There are numerous car parks located throughout the city. The Offenbacher Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange where the Autobahnen A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 661 meet. The A661 crosses the A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 5 (Basel-Hannover).

Public transport

The city is connected by a major line of the S-Bahn railway system to Frankfurt. The station in the city center is Marktplatz. In general, six stations are located in Offenbach: Offenbach-Kaiserlei, Offenbach-Ledermuseum, Offenbach-Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost, Offenbach-Bieber, Offenbach-Waldhof. Trains run every 5–10 minutes between Offenbach and Frankfurt. A 24 hours Service between both cities was introduced in 2013. The journey from Offenbach Marktplatz to Frankfurt Main Station takes 15 minutes, Frankfurt Airport can be reached within 26 minutes. Suburban trains run underground in downtown Offenbach. The city tunnel was opened in 1996. Services split up at Offenbach-Ost Station to Hanau (S8 and S9 trains), Rödermark (S1) and Dietzenbach (S2). An often-addressed problem is that there is no direct interchange between regional and suburban trains in Offenbach, since the lines were separated when the tunnel was built. Therefore, residents and city officials have proposed several times that platforms for regional trains should be added to the Offenbach-Ost Station.

The city's municipal public transportation services are operated by the "Offenbacher Verkehrsbetriebe" (OVB) and its subcontractors. Nine routes (numbered 101-108 and 120) connect all boroughs with the major train stations at Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost and Kaiserlei as well as the Central Station. The bus network has a very good coverage and frequency of service. All routes except for number 102 and number 107 busses stop at Marktplatz station, making it the most important transit hub in the city. Buses usually run with a 15-minute headway on working days and a 30-minute headway on Sundays, public holidays and after 8:00 pm. Exemptions are routes 103, 107 and 120 which run every 30 minutes. Although number 103 and 120 buses share most of their route, creating a 15-minute headway on the shared section in downtown Offenbach. Those two routes also connect the city of Offenbach with its surrounding towns, Frankfurt am Main, Mühlheim am Main and Obertshausen. Out of all municipal bus services the number 101 bus is the most frequented route. It runs every 7 or 8 minutes Mondays through Fridays. Service on the other most frequented routes (104 and 105) is also increased to a 7/8-minute headway during rush hours. In addition to the municipal bus services there are regional buses that serve the city. Two express bus routes connect Offenbach to the city of Langen (route X83) and Bad Vilbel (X97). Other services are the number OF-30 bus to Heusenstamm, the 41 bus to Fechenheim as well as the 551 to Gravenbruch, Enkheim and Bad Vilbel.

Regional trains stop at the Offenbach Central Station in the city's center. The station is on the Frankfurt-Hanau main line which is one of railway with the most traffic in Germany. Mostly hourly service for Wächsersbach, Fulda, Würzburg and Erbach call at the Offenbach Central Station. There is no long-distance train service at central station, although many high-speed trains pass through on their way from Frankfurt to Munich, Berlin or Hamburg. The station lost most of its importance when the suburban trains were re-routed through the newly build tunnel beneath Berliner Straße. Nonetheless a train ride from Offenbach Central Station to Frankfurt Central Station takes only ten minutes which makes it a much-appreciated route for commuters.

Frankfurt Airport

The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt Airport, (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) from Offenbach. The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction "Offenbach Ost or "Hanau"), departing from the regional traffic station, take 25 minutes from the airport to get to Offenbach.

Notable people

Johann Andre JohannAndreKomponistS46.jpg
Johann André
Salomon Formstecher Salomon Formstecher Rabbiner aus Offenbach am Main.JPG
Salomon Formstecher
Gottfried Bohm Bohm-2.jpg
Gottfried Böhm

Notable residents

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Paul Friedrich Posenenske was a German architect of functionalism.

Rödermark-Ober Roden station

Rödermark-Ober Roden station is the station of the Rödermark suburb of Ober-Roden in the German state of Hesse. It is the southern terminus of line S1 of the Rhine-Main S-Bahn and a stop for Regionalbahn services on the Dreieich Railway. It is classified in station category 4 and is a hub for public transport. The station building is a listed building.

Rumpenheim Castle National heritage site

Rumpenheim Castle is a Schloss located in the banks of the Main river in the German town of Offenbach am Main.

References

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