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Offenbach am Main
The downtown of Offenbach
|• Lord mayor (2017–23)||Felix Schwenke (SPD)|
|• Total||44.90 km2 (17.34 sq mi)|
|Elevation||98 m (322 ft)|
|• Density||2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
63001 - 63075
Offenbach am Main (German pronunciation: [ˈʔɔfn̩bax ʔam ˈmaɪn] ( listen )) is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the left bank of the river Main. It borders Frankfurt and is part of the Frankfurt urban area and the larger Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. It has a population of 138,335 (December 2018).
In the 20th century, the city's economy was built on machine-building, leather-making, typography and design, and the automobile and pharmaceutical industries.
The inner city area of Offenbach is quite large and consists of the historic center of the city and its expansions of the 1800s. Three formerly independent suburbs were incorporated in the first half of the 20th century: Bürgel being the first in 1908, then Bieber and Rumpenheim in 1938 and 1942.
South of the inner city area are the suburbs Lauterborn, Rosenhöhe and Tempelsee. Kaiserlei is a commercial district in the far west of the city bordering Frankfurt. In the west Waldheim is a residential neighborhood on the city limits with Mühlheim am Main. In 2010 the eastern part of the city center was officially named Mathildenviertel, as the area was already unofficially called by the locals.
Unlike most larger cities in Germany, Offenbach was not completely divided into districts. Only the nine neighborhoods mentioned above were officially districts, leaving the largest parts of the city officially unnamed. Although specific names for neighborhoods and areas were already in use among the locals and residents.
In June 2019 the city council approved a new act that subdivides the city's area entirely into 21 districts. The nine existing districts largely remained the same, most of them were even expanded. The new districts were laid out after the already by locals commonly known neighborhoods, such as the Westend, the Nordend or Buchhügel. A completely new name was only needed to be found for one neighborhood south of the city center, which never had commonly used name before: Lindenfeld. The name derived from an old name of a land lot in this area, when it was still fields in agricultural use prior to the 1800s.
As of July 2019 there are the following 21 districts:
Offenbach experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). There are subtropical summers with warm to hot temperatures ranging from 29.8°C at daytime and 6.9°C at night. Winters are temperate cool and mild with temperatures ranging from 17.9°C at daytime and 2.5°C at night. Due to its location in the Upper Rhine Plain, the whole Rhein-Main Metropolitan Region generally experiences one of the warmest climates in Germany, making it possible to grow plants from the subtropics such as vineyards, palm trees and olive trees.
|Climate data for Offenbach, Germany (2018-2020)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.9|
|Average low °C (°F)||3.3|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||85|
|Average precipitation days||17||18||12||9||11||12||7||8||9||11||12||13||139|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54||142||190||303||282||315||317||276||217||177||87||55||2,415|
|Source: opendata.dwd.de/climate_environment/CDC/observations_global/CLIMAT/monthly/qc/... (Station 10641)|
The first documented reference to a suburb of Offenbach appears in 770.In a document of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II dating to 977 exists the first mention of the place of Offenbach. During the Middle Ages Offenbach passed through many hands. Only in 1486 could the Count Ludwig of Isenburg finally take control of city for his family, and 1556 Count Reinhard of Isenburg relocated his Residence to Offenbach, building a palace, the Isenburger Schloß (Isenburg Palace), which was completed in 1559. It was destroyed by fire in 1564 and rebuilt in 1578.
In 1635 Offenbach given to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt but it was returned to the Isenburg-Birstein Count (later Prince) in 1642 and remained in that Principality until 1815 when the Congress of Vienna gave the city to the Austrian Emperor, Francis I. A year later it was given to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Always very close to the city centre of Frankfurt, Offenbach was a popular location for business. The town has its own trade fair, and many companies have opened facilities here because there are fewer restrictions and no closed businesses. French Protestants (Huguenots) came in the 17th century and settled in Offenbach and contributed to making Offenbach a prosperous city, e.g., bringing knowledge of tobacco with them and turning Offenbach into a centre for rolling cigars. The town was more cosmopolitan than Frankfurt; famous people such as Goethe and Mozart visited it several times.
The Rumpenheim Palace and its park were a popular destination for monarchs in the 19th century. The city was thereafter ruled by Grand Dukes of Hesse and by Rhine until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Offenbach became the center of the traditional design with figures such as the architect Hugo Eberhardt, the typographer Rudolf Koch, the bookbinder and designer Ignatz Wiemeler and Ernst Engel and the painter Karl Friedrich Lippmann.
During the Second World War a third of the city was destroyed by Allied bombing, which claimed 467 lives. With the new district Lauterborn the city was expanded to the south in the 1960s. On the border with Frankfurt, the office district Kaiserlei was built. Offenbach is a so-called ´Sozialer Brennpunkt`(= multiple social problems area) because of unemployment, poverty, gang related crime and migration.
The current mayor of Offenbach is Felix Schwenke of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). He was elected in 2017.
The most recent mayoral election was held on 10 September 2017, with a runoff held on 24 September, and the results were as follows:
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Felix Schwenke||Social Democratic Party||12,076||43.3||26,408||66.9|
|Peter Freier||Christian Democratic Union||7,918||28.4||13,062||33.1|
|Peter Schneider||Alliance 90/The Greens||3,963||14.2|
|Christin Thüne||Alternative for Germany||1,476||5.3|
|Elke Kreiß||The Left||1,032||3.7|
|Muhsin Senol||Forum New Offenbach||916||3.3|
|Helge Herget||Pirate Party Germany||520||1.9|
|Source: City of Offenbach (1st round, 2nd round)|
The following is a list of mayors since 1824:
The Offenbach city council (Stadtverordnetenversammlung) governs the city alongside the mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 14 March 2021, and the results were as follows:
|Social Democratic Party (SPD)||Felix Schwenke||610,508||28.4||3.6||20||2|
|Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)||Sybille Schumann||390,305||18.1||3.6||13||3|
|Christian Democratic Union (CDU)||Roland Walter||389,099||18.1||6.0||13||4|
|The Left (Die Linke)||Sven Malsy||183,773||8.5||0.7||6||±0|
|Alternative for Germany (AfD)||Christin Thüne||157,125||7.3||1.7||5||1|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||Dominik Schwagereit||134,284||6.2||3.3||4||3|
|Free Voters (FW)||Dennis Lehmann||91,446||4.2||1.5||3||1|
|Forum New Offenbach (FNO)||Muhsin Senol||57,626||2.7||0.2||2||±0|
|Pirate Party Germany (Piraten)||Gregory Engels||46,459||2.2||0.5||2||1|
|Die PARTEI (PARTEI)||Daniel Pfeiffer||34,957||1.6||1.1||1||1|
|Young Offenbach (JO)||Dominik Imeraj||28,525||1.3||0.0||1||±0|
|Alliance for Innovation and Justice (BIG)||Fikri Türet||27,574||1.3||New||1||New|
|Source: Statistics Hesse|
Offenbach am Main is twinned with:
Offenbach has a large non-German population. In 2016, foreign nationals made up 37% of the population.The largest communities are, in that order, from Turkey, Greece, Romania, Poland and Italy. According to census data, Offenbach and Duisburg had the highest share of Muslim migrants of all German districts in 2011.
Until the end of the 17th century, Offenbach remained a small town with less than a thousand inhabitants. With the coming into power of the count Johann Philipp in 1685, the city began to develop and the population rose steadily. In the 19th century the city became industrialized and the population increased even tenfold.Offenbach is one of the German cities where Germans without migrant background make up a minority of the population. As of 31 December 2012, approx. 44.3% of residents or 55,047 people had no foreign background. In contrast to that, there were 55.7% or 69,214 people with at least one non-German grandparent. The largest of those groups are:
Turks: 15,000 or 12.2%
People from the former Yugoslavia (e.g. Serbs, Croats): 13,000 or 10.5%
Arabs: 8,000 or 6.5%
Italians: 8,000 or 6.5%
Greeks: 7,500 or 6.0%
Poles: 4,000 or 3.2%
Afghans: 3,600 or 3%
Pakistanis: 2,700 or 2.2%
Until the early 1970s Offenbach was dominated by the machine-building and leather industries. The city hosts the German Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies to this day. The Deutscher Wetterdienst, commonly abbreviated as DWD, (translated from German as German Meteorological Service), residing in the Westend district.
Offenbach was also the European center of typography, with Gebr. Klingspor and Linotype (inventors of Optima or Palatino typeface) moving to nearby Eschborn in the 1970s and MAN Roland printing machines still a major employer today. Typography and design still remain important with a cluster of graphic design and industrial design companies, as well as the university level Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach am Main (HfG) design school and the Klingspor Museum.
In recent years Offenbach has become a popular location for a wide array of services, especially from the transport sectors. Offenbach is the host to the European headquarters of Honda,Hyundai Motors and Kumho Tires.
In Offenbach there is no specific Old Town, but there are several buildings which survived bombing during the war and have been restored. One of them is the Neo-baroque palace Büsingpalais with the Büsingpark, reconstructed in the 1980s. Today it is used as a congress center close to the Sheraton hotel. Between the shopping area and the Main, is the Lilipark and the Lilitemple, named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's fiancée Lili Schönemann. The most important building is the Isenburger Schloss(Isenburg Palace), a renaissance palace from 1576. It is today used by the Offenbach Design University which is next to it. There is also a neoclassic palace in the borough Rumpenheim, the Rumpenheimer Schloss it now serves exclusively as domestic dwellings but the park is public.
There are several festivals in Offenbach, some of these are:
Kickers Offenbach football club was founded in 1901.
The streets of central Offenbach are usually congested with cars during the rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets, are pedestrian-only streets. There are numerous car parks located throughout the city. The Offenbacher Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange where the Autobahnen A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 661 meet. The A661 crosses the A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 5 (Basel-Hannover).
The city is connected by a major line of the S-Bahn railway system to Frankfurt. The station in the city center is Marktplatz. In general, six stations are located in Offenbach: Offenbach-Kaiserlei, Offenbach-Ledermuseum, Offenbach-Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost, Offenbach-Bieber, Offenbach-Waldhof. Trains run every 5–10 minutes between Offenbach and Frankfurt. A 24 hours Service between both cities was introduced in 2013. The journey from Offenbach Marktplatz to Frankfurt Main Station takes 15 minutes, Frankfurt Airport can be reached within 26 minutes. Suburban trains run underground in downtown Offenbach. The city tunnel was opened in 1996. Services split up at Offenbach-Ost Station to Hanau (S8 and S9 trains), Rödermark (S1) and Dietzenbach (S2). An often-addressed problem is that there is no direct interchange between regional and suburban trains in Offenbach, since the lines were separated when the tunnel was built. Therefore, residents and city officials have proposed several times that platforms for regional trains should be added to the Offenbach-Ost Station.
The city's municipal public transportation services are operated by the "Offenbacher Verkehrsbetriebe" (OVB) and its subcontractors. Nine routes (numbered 101-108 and 120) connect all boroughs with the major train stations at Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost and Kaiserlei as well as the Central Station. The bus network has a very good coverage and frequency of service. All routes except for number 102 and number 107 busses stop at Marktplatz station, making it the most important transit hub in the city. Buses usually run with a 15-minute headway on working days and a 30-minute headway on Sundays, public holidays and after 8:00 pm. Exemptions are routes 103, 107 and 120 which run every 30 minutes. Although number 103 and 120 buses share most of their route, creating a 15-minute headway on the shared section in downtown Offenbach. Those two routes also connect the city of Offenbach with its surrounding towns, Frankfurt am Main, Mühlheim am Main and Obertshausen. Out of all municipal bus services the number 101 bus is the most frequented route. It runs every 7 or 8 minutes Mondays through Fridays. Service on the other most frequented routes (104 and 105) is also increased to a 7/8-minute headway during rush hours. In addition to the municipal bus services there are regional buses that serve the city. Two express bus routes connect Offenbach to the city of Langen (route X83) and Bad Vilbel (X97). Other services are the number OF-30 bus to Heusenstamm, the 41 bus to Fechenheim as well as the 551 to Gravenbruch, Enkheim and Bad Vilbel.
Regional trains stop at the Offenbach Central Station in the city's center. The station is on the Frankfurt-Hanau main line which is one of railway with the most traffic in Germany. Mostly hourly service for Wächsersbach, Fulda, Würzburg and Erbach call at the Offenbach Central Station. There is no long-distance train service at central station, although many high-speed trains pass through on their way from Frankfurt to Munich, Berlin or Hamburg. The station lost most of its importance when the suburban trains were re-routed through the newly build tunnel beneath Berliner Straße. Nonetheless a train ride from Offenbach Central Station to Frankfurt Central Station takes only ten minutes which makes it a much-appreciated route for commuters.
The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt Airport, (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) from Offenbach. The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction "Offenbach Ost or "Hanau"), departing from the regional traffic station, take 25 minutes from the airport to get to Offenbach.
Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main, is the most populous city in the German state of Hesse. Its 763,380 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019 make it the fifth-most populous city in Germany. On the river Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighboring city of Offenbach am Main and its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is the heart of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Frankfurt's central business district lies about 90 km (56 mi) northwest of the geographic center of the EU at Gadheim, Lower Franconia. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area.
Heusenstamm is a town of over 18,000 people in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany.
Neu-Isenburg is a town in Germany, located in the Offenbach district of Hesse. It is part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area and has a population of 35,472 (2007). The town is known nowadays mainly for its regionally used shopping centre, the Isenburg-Zentrum (IZ), the Hugenottenhalle, the Hotel Kempinski Frankfurt, the Autokino Gravenbruch, the Sportpark, the Waldschwimmbad and not least of all its central location near Frankfurt Airport.
Dreieich is a town in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hessen, Germany. The town is part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area and is located roughly 10 km (6.2 mi) south of downtown Frankfurt am Main. With a population of more than 40,000 it is the district’s second largest town.
The Rhine-Main S-Bahn system is an integrated rapid transit and commuter train system for the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region, which includes the cities Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Offenbach am Main, Hanau and Darmstadt. The network comprises nine S-Bahn lines, eight of which currently travel through the cornerstone of the system, a tunnel through central Frankfurt. The first section of this tunnel was opened on May 28, 1978. Further tunnel sections were opened in 1983 and 1990, before its completion in 1992. The system belongs to the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund (RMV) and is operated by DB Regio, a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn.
The Frankfurt am Main tramway network is a network of tramways forming a major part of the public transport system in Frankfurt am Main, a city in the federal state of Hesse, Germany.
Hanau Hauptbahnhof is a railway station in Hanau in the German state of Hesse, and is a major railway junction east of Frankfurt am Main. It was opened in 1867, but the current building was built in the late 1960s. It is located about 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) south-east of central Hanau. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn (DB) as a category 2 station and has many train services, including Intercity Express, regional and S-Bahn services.
The S2 service of the S-Bahn Rhein-Main system bearing the KBS number 645.2 is a railway connection between the small Taunus town Niedernhausen and Dietzenbach.
The S8 service of the S-Bahn Rhein-Main system bearing the KBS number 645.8. It is largely concurrent with the S9 service, diverging only to run local through Mainz. It runs 24 hours, 7 days.
The South Main line connects Frankfurt am Main Hauptbahnhof with Hanau Hauptbahnhof. It consists of a two-track main line that runs via Offenbach Hauptbahnhof and a line of the Rhine-Main S-Bahn that is entirely independent of the main line tracks but is mainly built next to them. The S-Bahn line connects the Frankfurt City Tunnel to Offenbach Ost and Hanau. It is used by S-Bahn lines S8 and S9.
The Offenbach City Tunnel is a railway tunnel on the Frankfurt Schlachthof–Hanau line in Offenbach am Main in the German state of Hesse. It is used by all of the eastern branches of the Rhine-Main S-Bahn. It runs largely under Berliner Straße.
The Frankfurt–Hanau railway was opened in 1848 and was one of the oldest railways in Germany. Today it is a double track electrified main line and part of the North Main Railway from Frankfurt am Main to Hanau.
Offenbach am Main Hauptbahnhof is a railway station serving the German city of Offenbach am Main. It is located on the Frankfurt–Bebra railway/South Main line between Frankfurt and Hanau on the south bank of the Main. It is also the starting point of the Rodgau Railway, via Obertshausen, Rodgau and Ober-Roden to Dieburg.
Offenbach (Main) Ost station is the second most important station after Offenbach Hauptbahnhof of Offenbach am Main in the German state of Hesse. Today it is served exclusively by the Rhine-Main S-Bahn. Although Offenbach Hauptbahnhof is served by some Regional-Express services and a few intercity services each day it is rated as a category 4 station, while Offenbach Ost station is now rated as a category 3 station.
Hochheim station is situated on the Frankfurt–Wiesbaden line. It is in the town of Hochheim am Main, southwest of Frankfurt in the German state of Hesse. It is on the Taunus Railway from Wiesbaden to Frankfurt. The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 5 station.
Hattersheim (Main) station is together with Hattersheim-Eddersheim station one of two S-Bahn stops in the town of Hattersheim, southwest of Frankfurt in the German state of Hesse. Both stations lie on the Taunus Railway from Wiesbaden to Frankfurt. The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 4 station.
Maintal Ost (east) is a station in the network of the Rhine-Main Transport Association on the Frankfurt-Hanau Railway, serving the Maintal districts of Hochstadt and Dörnigheim in the German state of Hesse. The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn (DB) as a category 4 station.
Paul Friedrich Posenenske was a German architect of functionalism.
Rödermark-Ober Roden station is the station of the Rödermark suburb of Ober-Roden in the German state of Hesse. It is the southern terminus of line S1 of the Rhine-Main S-Bahn and a stop for Regionalbahn services on the Dreieich Railway. It is classified in station category 4 and is a hub for public transport. The station building is a listed building.
Rumpenheim Castle is a Schloss located in the banks of the Main river in the German town of Offenbach am Main.
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