|Houses|| Dáil Éireann (33rd)|
Seanad Éireann (26th)
|Single transferable vote|
|8 February 2020|
|30–31 March 2020|
|Leinster House, Dublin|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of Ireland
The Oireachtas ( // ERR-ək-təs, Irish: [ˈɛɾʲaxt̪ˠəsˠ] ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland. The Oireachtas consists of:
The houses of the Oireachtas sit in Leinster House in Dublin, an eighteenth-century ducal palace. The directly elected Dáil is by far the more powerful branch of the Oireachtas.
The word oireachtas comes from the Irish word airecht/oireacht (“deliberative assembly of freemen; assembled freemen; assembly, gathering; patrimony, territory”), ultimately from the word airig ("freeman").Its first recorded use as the name of a legislative body was within the Irish Free State.
Dáil Éireann, the lower house, is directly elected under universal suffrage of all Irish and United Kingdom citizens who are residents and at least eighteen years old. An election is held at least once every five years as required by law; however, the house can be dissolved at any time at the request of the Taoiseach (head of government). Dáil elections use a system of proportional representation by way of a single transferable vote. The Dáil has had 166 members since 1981.The Seanad is not directly elected but consists of a mixture of members selected in a number of different ways. 43 senators are elected by councillors and parliamentarians, 11 are appointed by the Taoiseach, and six are elected by two university constituencies, thus having 60 members in total. The President of Ireland is directly elected once every seven years, and may serve a maximum of two terms; however, if, as has occurred on a number of occasions, a consensus among the larger political parties can result in only a single candidate being nominated, no actual ballot takes place.
To become law, a bill must first be approved by both the Dáil and in most circumstances the Seanad (although the Dáil can override a Seanad refusal to pass a Bill), and then signed into law by the President. Bills to amend the Constitution must also be approved by the People in a referendum prior to being presented to the President. In most circumstances, the President is in effect obliged to sign all laws approved by the Houses of the Oireachtas, although he or she has the power to refer most bills to the Supreme Court for a ruling on constitutionality. The powers of the Seanad are in effect limited to delay rather than veto. It is the Dáil, therefore, that is the supreme tier of the Irish legislature. The general enacting formula for Acts of the Oireachtas is: "Be it enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—", for an act with a preamble this enacting formula is, instead, "Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—".
The Oireachtas has exclusive power to:
The Oireachtas has a number of joint committees that include members of both houses. There are currently thirteen of these (the first ten below are based on the ten select committees of the Dáil):
Oireachtas has been the title of two parliaments in Irish history: the current Oireachtas of Ireland, since 1937, and, immediately before that, the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State of 1922–1937.
The earliest parliament in Ireland was the Parliament of Ireland, which was founded in the thirteenth century as the supreme legislative body of the lordship of Ireland and was in existence until 1801. This parliament governed the English-dominated part of Ireland, which at first was limited to Dublin and surrounding cities, but later grew to include the entire island. But the Irish Parliament was, from the passage of Poynings' Law in 1494 until its repeal in 1782, subordinate to the English, and later British, Parliament. This Parliament consisted of the King of Ireland, who was the same person as the King of England, a House of the Lords and a House of Commons. In 1800 the Irish Parliament abolished itself when, after widespread bribery of members, it adopted the Act of Union, which came into effect from 1 January 1801.
The next legislature to exist in Ireland only came into being in 1919. This was a unicameral parliament established by Irish republicans, known simply as Dáil Éireann. This revolutionary Dáil was notionally a legislature for the whole island of Ireland. In 1920, in parallel to the Dáil, the British government created a home rule legislature called the Parliament of Southern Ireland. However this parliament was boycotted by most Irish politicians. It was made up of the King, the House of Commons of Southern Ireland and the Senate of Southern Ireland. The Parliament of Southern Ireland was formally abolished in 1922, with the establishment of the Oireachtas under the Constitution of the Irish Free State.
The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State consisted officially of the King and two houses, named, as their successors would be, Dáil Éireann (described, in this case, as a 'Chamber of Deputies') and Seanad Éireann. However the Free State Senate was abolished in 1935. The modern Oireachtas came into being in 1937, with the adoption by referendum of the Constitution of Ireland.
The first Oireachtas radio and television broadcasts were of ceremonial addresses from dignitaries, beginning with that of John F. Kennedy during his 1963 state visit.Regular radio broadcasting of edited Oireachtas proceedings began in October 1986, although budget statements had already been broadcast live. Television coverage of Dáil, Seanad, and committee proceedings began in 1990, 1991, and 1993 respectively. Since 2005 the proceedings of both houses have been made available over the internet by HEAnet and the eDemocracy Unit of the Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas.
Houses of the Oireachtas Channel (publicly known as Oireachtas TV) is a digital television channel in Ireland.It broadcasts Committee and Houses and other parliament proceedings following its establishment under the Broadcasting Act 2009. On 15 November 2011, it began broadcasting a pilot service on UPC Ireland. On 22 September 2014, the Houses launched the dedicated television channel Oireachtas TV, bringing unfiltered access to the parliamentary process to over one million households nationwide. The service is available free of charge on UPC Channel 207 and Sky Channel 574.
In 2012, the Oireachtas launched its first e-consultation.
On 28 June 2008 the first Houses of the Oireachtas family day was held.This initiative by the then Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann, John O'Donoghue and the Cathaoirleach of Seanad Éireann, Pat Moylan aimed to increase public awareness in the work of the Houses of The Oireachtas. It included tours of both chambers of the Oireachtas, lectures on the history of Oireachtas, historic political speeches recited by actors and a hot air balloon – commemorating the balloon flight which took place in 1785 from Leinster Lawn. The Oireachtas family day took place again in 2009, but it has not been held since then.
Although, as adopted in 1937, Article 3 of the constitution asserted the "right of the parliament and government established by this constitution to exercise jurisdiction" over the whole of Ireland, it also provided that pending the "re-integration of the national territory"Acts of the Oireachtas would not apply to Northern Ireland. Therefore, no serious attempts have been made for the representation of Northern Ireland in the Dáil. As Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera, while a staunch opponent of partition, who had been elected to represent a Northern constituency in the First Dáil, did not pursue the idea of seats in the Dáil for Northern Ireland, on the grounds that this would amount to representation 'without taxation or responsibility'. Beginning with Seamus Mallon in 1982, one or more from Northern Ireland have been included among the eleven Senators nominated by the Taoiseach after most elections.
Sinn Féin has advocated that Northern Ireland MLAs, MPs, and MEPs should have the right to participate in Dáil debates, if not vote. In 2005 the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, proposed that Northern Ireland MPs should be able to address a committee of the whole Dáil. However, Fine Gael, the Labour Party, and Ahern's coalition partners, the Progressive Democrats, all opposed the idea,as did the Green Party, the Socialist Party and some Oireachtas members from Fianna Fáil. Only Sinn Féin, the party that stood to gain most from the proposal, supported it, while the more moderate Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) described it as a step forward. The proposal was also criticised widely in the media, with an editorial in The Irish Times , declaring that: "The overwhelming democratic imperative is that the institutions of this State should represent and serve the people of the State." From 2011, Northern Ireland MEPs had the same automatic right as MEPs from the Republic to participate in meetings of the Seanad's European committee, whereas other MEPs require an invitation. This ended in 2020 when the United Kingdom left the EU, which consequently meant all UK MEPs left office.
While each house is empowered to organise its own business, they have always co-operated in practical matters arising from the fact that they share Leinster House as a common building complex. The Houses of the Oireachtas Commission was established by statute in 2003 to provide a formal structure for this, which was previously done by a joint committee. Non-political support staff, such as ushers and the English–Irish translation staff, are employed by this Commission and treated as part of the Civil Service of the State. The Commission's chairperson and chief executive are the Ceann Comhairle and clerk of the Dáil respectively; other members are the Cathaoirleach of the Seanad, one appointed by the Minister for Finance, four by the Dáil, and three by the Seanad.The Commission, through the translation department, is responsible for periodic updates to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, the official standard form of the Irish language.
Ireland is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic and a member state of the European Union. While the head of state is the popularly elected President of Ireland, it is a largely ceremonial position, with real political power being vested in the Taoiseach, who is nominated by the Dáil and is the head of the government.
A number of legislatures have existed in Ireland since mediaeval times. The first Irish legislature was the Parliament of Ireland. However, after its abolition, in 1801, there was no legislature in Ireland, of any kind until 1919. Since that date a number of legislatures have existed on the island.
The Government of Ireland is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland.
Dáil Éireann served as the directly elected lower house of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1937. The Free State constitution described the role of the house as that of a "Chamber of Deputies". Until 1936 the Free State Oireachtas also included an upper house known as the Seanad. Like its modern successor, the Free State Dáil was, in any case, the dominant component of the legislature; it effectively had authority to enact almost any law it chose, and to appoint and dismiss the President of the Executive Council. The Free State Dáil ceased to be with the creation of the modern 'Dáil Éireann' under the terms of the 1937 Constitution of Ireland. Both the Dáil and Seanad sat in Leinster House.
Jim Higgins is an Irish former Fine Gael politician. He served as a member of Seanad Éireann, Dáil Éireann, and was an EPP Member of the European Parliament for the North-West constituency from 2004 to 2014.
The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State was the legislature of the Irish Free State from 1922 until 1937. It was established by the 1922 Constitution of Ireland which was based from the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was the first independent Irish Parliament officially recognised outside Ireland since the historic Parliament of Ireland which was abolished with the Act of Union in 1800.
This is a list of records relating to the Oireachtas, the national parliament of Ireland, which consists of the President of Ireland, and two Houses, Dáil Éireann, a house of representatives whose members are known as Teachtaí Dála or TDs, and Seanad Éireann, a senate whose members are known as senators.
There were two Governments of the 30th Dáil, which was elected at the 2007 general election on 24 May 2007. The 27th Government of Ireland was led by Bertie Ahern as Taoiseach, and the 28th Government of Ireland was led by Brian Cowen as Taoiseach. Both were formed as coalition governments of Fianna Fáil, the Green Party and the Progressive Democrats. The Progressive Democrats disbanded in November 2009 and Mary Harney continued as an Independent member of the government until 20 January 2011. The Green Party left government on 23 January 2011.
This is a list of members who were elected to the 30th Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. These TDs were elected at the 2007 general election on 24 May 2007 and met on 14 June 2007. The 30th Dáil was dissolved by President Mary McAleese, at the request of the Taoiseach Brian Cowen on 1 February 2011. The 30th Dáil lasted 1328 days, and saw a change of Taoiseach from Bertie Ahern to Brian Cowen.
This is a list of the members of the 23rd Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. These Senators were elected from 24 July 2007 onwards after postal voting closed. The Taoiseach's nominees were announced on 3 August 2007. The Seanad election took place after the 2007 general election for the Dáil. The term of the 23rd Seanad was from 13 September 2007 to 20 April 2011. The 23rd Seanad first met at Leinster House on 13 September 2007. Pat Moylan was elected as the new Cathaoirleach of the Seanad.
The composition of Seanad Éireann, one of the two houses of the Oireachtas (parliament) of Ireland, is set out in Article 18 of the Constitution of Ireland. This provides for 60 Senators, of whom 11 are nominated by the Taoiseach who is appointed next after the election to general election to Dáil Éireann.
Seanad Éireann is the upper house of the Oireachtas, which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann.
Houses of the Oireachtas Channel or publicly called Oireachtas TV is a public service broadcaster for the two houses of the Oireachtas.
This is a list of members who were elected to the 31st Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. These TDs were elected at the 2011 general election on 25 February 2011. On the advice of President Mary McAleese, the newly elected Dáil Éireann convened at midday on 9 March 2011 in Leinster House. It was dissolved by President Michael D. Higgins on the request of Taoiseach Enda Kenny on 3 February 2016.
This is a list of the members of the 24th Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. These Senators were elected on 27 April 2011 after postal voting closed. The Taoiseach's nominees were announced on 20 May 2011. The Seanad election took place 60 days after the 2011 general election for the Dáil. The 24th Seanad first met at Leinster House on 25 May 2011. Paddy Burke was elected as the new Cathaoirleach of the Seanad.
The Convention on the Constitution was established in Ireland in 2012 to discuss proposed amendments to the Constitution of Ireland. More commonly called simply the Constitutional Convention, it met for the first time 1 December 2012 and sat until 31 March 2014. It had 100 members: a chairman; 29 members of the Oireachtas (parliament); four representatives of Northern Ireland political parties; and 66 randomly selected citizens of Ireland.
Dáil Éireann is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas, which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann. It consists of 160 members, known as Teachta Dála. TDs represent 39 constituencies and are directly elected at least once every five years, by the single transferable vote (STV) form of proportional representation. Its powers are similar to those of lower houses under many other bicameral parliamentary systems and it is by far the dominant branch of the Oireachtas. Subject to the limits imposed by the Constitution of Ireland, it has power to pass any law it wishes, and to nominate and remove the Taoiseach. Since 1922, it has met in Leinster House in Dublin.
This is a list of the members elected to the 32nd Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. These TDs were elected at the 2016 general election on 26 February. That general election took place throughout the state to elect 158 members of Dáil Éireann, a reduction of 8 from the prior number of 166. This followed the passing of the Electoral (Amendment) Act 2013.
This is a list of the members of the 25th Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. 49 Senators were elected in April 2016 when postal voting closed. The Taoiseach nominated an additional eleven members to the Seanad in May 2016. The Seanad election took place after the 2016 general election to Dáil Éireann.
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